Coagulation predominant-type coagulopathy such as microthrombosis and macrothrombosis is a well-known recognised complication found in COVID-19 infected critically ill patients. In the context of high incidence of thrombotic events in patients with COVID-19, supplementation with anticoagulant therapy has been routinely recommended and shown to reduce mortality. However, the recommended type, dose, duration and timing of anticoagulant has not been determined yet. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma secondary to anticoagulant therapy is one of the well-known but self-limiting conditions. We report a 51-year-old COVID-19 positive woman, who was taking intermediate-intensity heparin therapy for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and died from complication of retroperitoneal bleeding. Further studies are needed to verify the risk-benefit ratio of anticoagulant therapy in patients with COVID-19. Although anticoagulant deems appropriate to use in patients with COVID-19, clinicians should be cautious about major bleeding complication such as retroperitoneal haemorrhage even when full therapeutic dosage is not used.
Morgagni hernia is the rarest type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, which can present late in adulthood. Here, we report a case of Morgagni hernia in an elderly woman who presented as an acute coronary syndrome with raised troponin level. X-ray of the chest (CXR) showed air-fluid level in the right lower hemithorax with loss of right diaphragmatic outline and subsequently confirmed strangulated Morgagni hernia with CT. She was treated with emergency laparotomy to reduce the hernia content and surgical repair with mesh done. In conclusion, Troponin can be falsely positive in Morgagni hernia patients, possibly due to strain on the heart by herniated bowel contents. Basic imaging such as a (CXR) is useful in the case of chest pain to rule out the non-cardiac causes. Although 'time is the myocardium' in the setting of all cases of chest pain with raised troponin, CXR should be done before treatment that poses bleeding risk and unnecessary delay in laparotomy.
Spontaneous mesenteric bleeding is an exceptionally rare clinical condition and potentially lethal especially among elderly patients who are taking oral anticoagulant. We present a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with atypical chest pain which was radiating to the back. She developed profound hypotension with a sudden drop of haemoglobin. Contrast-enhanced CT of the aorta showed active mesenteric bleeding with mesenteric haematoma. The early diagnosis relies solely on a high index of suspicion of occult bleeding in patients with unexplained hypotension with a sudden drop of haemoglobin. Troponin can be falsely positive in mesenteric bleeding. Close monitoring to detect any sign of deterioration and early imaging in diagnosing intra-abdominal bleeding can help to avoid delay in treatment which is essential to prevent mortality and morbidity.
COVID-19 stress and fear of COVID-19 is an increasingly researched construct in the general population. However, its prevalence and association with sociodemographic factors and psychological process variables has not been explored in frontline workers under surveillance in a Bornean population. This study was a cross-sectional study using a sociodemographic questionnaire incorporating two specific epidemiological risk variables, namely specific questions about COVID-19 surveillance status (persons under investigation (PUI), persons under surveillance (PUS), and positive cases) and the nature of frontline worker status. Furthermore, five other instruments were used, with three measuring psychopathology (namely depression, anxiety and stress, fear of COVID-19, and stress due to COVID-19) and two psychological process variables (namely psychological flexibility and mindfulness). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to assess if there were significant differences in psychopathology and psychological process variables between sociodemographic and epidemiological risk variables. Hierarchical multiple regression was further performed, with depression, anxiety, and stress as dependent variables. There were significant differences in the fear of COVID-19 between positive cases, PUI, and PUS. The fear of COVID-19 scores were higher in positive cases compared to in PUS and PUI groups. Upon hierarchical multiple regression, mindfulness and psychological flexibility were significant predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress after controlling for sociodemographic and epidemiological risk factors. This study demonstrates that exposure to COVID-19 as persons under investigation or surveillance significantly increases the fear of COVID-19, and brief psychological interventions that can positively influence mindfulness and psychological flexibility should be prioritized for these at-risk groups to prevent undue psychological morbidity in the long run.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had considerable psychological health impacts across the globe. This study aimed to establish the psychological process variables underlying psychopathology in Malaysian public university students during the national Movement Control Order (MCO). The aim was to craft structured and sustainable psychological support programs with these students. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving Malaysian university students subjected to the Malaysian MCO. Structured questionnaires measuring sociodemographic factors, measures of depression, anxiety, stress, psychological mindedness, psychological flexibility and state mindfulness were employed. A total of 515 students participated in this study with 12 students (2.3%) being quarantined at the time. Many of them scored 'moderate' or above on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) with 20.2%, 25.0% and 14.2%, respectively. Quarantined students had higher depressive symptoms, with female students scoring significantly higher for depression, anxiety, and stress. Multiple regressions suggested gender and quarantine status predicted depression scores. However, only gender significantly predicted anxiety and stress. Psychological flexibility and psychological mindedness (Insight subscale) are significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress, with psychological mindedness predicting all three psychopathologies. This study demonstrates that gender, psychological flexibility, and psychological mindedness are key demographic and psychological factors impacting students. Targeting psychological flexibility and psychological mindedness may enable timely prevention and intervention programs for our students to support their mental and physical health as we move through, and out of, the pandemic.