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  1. Jusoh, M.Z.M., Nur Ain, A.R, Muhammad Wafi Md Nor
    ESTEEM Academic Journal, 2020;16(2):65-74.
    MyJurnal
    A computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) is presented in the study of low Reynolds number fluid flow moving past bluff bodies. The study is focusing on the understanding of the effects of the apex-angles orientation on the flow structure and related occurring force. The apex-angle both facing upstream and downstream were computationally investigated. The simulation results of the cylinder solid are compared with available experimental data to justify the results and the model used. Results obtained in the present work were Strouhal number, drag coefficient, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The study had found that the value of the drag force is increasing directly proportional to the apex angle. In contrast, the value of Strouhal number inversely proportional to the increasing of the apex angle. This was due to the flow over a cylinder creating a vortex shedding in the wake region which influenced the flow separation of fluid. Through the changing on orientation of the apex angle, it was also found that the characteristic linear dimension of the geometry will also be changed, thus affecting the flow pattern.
  2. Nur Ain, A.R., Mohd Sabri, M.G., Wan Rafizah, W.A., Nurul Azimah, M.A., Wan Nik, W.B.
    ASM Science Journal, 2018;11(101):56-67.
    MyJurnal
    Corrosion is a natural deterioration process that destructs metal surface. Metal of highly
    protected by passivation layer such as Stainless Steel 316L also undergoes pitting corrosion
    when continuously exposed to aggressive environment. To overcome this phenomenon, application
    of epoxy based coating with addition of zinc oxide- poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
    doped with poly (styrene sulphonate) hybrid nanocomposite additive was introduced as
    paint/metal surface coating. The compatibility between these two materials as additive
    was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD),
    Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM/EDX)
    and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. The effect of nanocomposite
    wt.% in epoxy based coating with immersion duration in real environment on corrosion
    protection performance was analyzed through potentiodynamic polarization analysis. The
    main finding showed that addition of hybrid nanocomposite had increased corrosion protection
    yet enhanced corrosion process when excess additives was loaded into epoxy coating.
    Addition of 2 wt.% ZnO-PEDOT:PSS was found significantly provided optimum corrosion
    protection to stainless steel 316L as the corrosion rate for 0 day, 15 days and 30 days of
    immersion duration is 0.0022 mm/yr, 0.0004 mm/yr and 0.0015 mm/yr; respectively.
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