Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is developed and used for detection of butter adulteration with lard. Butter has the similar characteristics to lard makes lard a desirable adulterant in butter. DSC provides unique thermal profiling for lard and butter. In the heating thermogram of the mixture, there was one major endothermic peak (peak A) with a smaller shoulder peak embedded in the major peak that gradually smoothed out to the major peak as the lard percent increased. In the cooling thermogram, there were one minor peak (peak B) and two major exothermic peaks, peak C which increased as lard percent increased and peak D which decreased in size as the lard percent increased. From Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis, two independent variables were found to be able to predict lard percent adulteration in butter with R2 (adjusted) of 95.82. The SMLR equation of lard percent adulteration in butter is 293.1 - 11.36 (Te A) - 2.17 (Tr D); where Te A is the endset of peak A and Tr D is the range of thermal transition for peak D. These parameters can serve as a good measurement parameter in detecting lard adulteration in butter. DSC is a very useful means for halal screening technique to enhance the authenticity of Halal process.
The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
A study was carried out to compare composition, thermal behavior, and polymorphic forms of
palm stearin-pink guava seed oil blends with those of lard (LD). Four blends were prepared by
mixing pink guava seed oil (PGO) with and palm stearin (PS) in different ratios: PGO-1, 40:60;
PGO-2, 45:55; PGO-3, 50:50; PGO-4; 55:45. The blends and lard were compared in terms of
their basic physicochemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions,
melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Results showed that PGO-2 and LD were
found to display similarities in terms of slip melting point value and the peak maximum of the
high-melting thermal transition. In the solid fat content (SFC) profile, PGO-2 and LD were
found to display the least difference. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, PGO-2 displayed both β
and β’ polymorphs that were similar to the polymorphic form of LD.
A study was carried out to compare the cookie dough properties and cookie quality made out
of pink guava oil-palm stearin blends and lard (LD). Since LD is prohibited under religious
restrictions, plant shortenings were prepared by mixing pink guava seed oil with palm stearin
(PGO/PS) in different ratios: PGO-1, 40:60; PGO-2, 45:55; PGO-3, 50:50; PGO-4; 55:45 as
replacement. The effect of these formulated plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were
compared on dough rheological properties and cookie quality. Rheology and hardness of the
cookie dough were evaluated using Texture Analyser (TA). Cookie hardness was evaluated
with TA while cookie surface colors were measured using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system.
Among the samples, cookies made out of PGO-2 with the ratio 45:55 (PGO:PS) performed the
best substitute for LD to be used as shortening in cookies. PGO-2 also displayed the closest
similarity to LD in cookies for hardness, size and thickness, cracking size as well as colour.
As PGO-2 was a shortening formulated with plant-based ingredients, it could comply with the
halal and toyyiban requirements.
It is noted that nowadays, halal products are gaining wider recognition as a new benchmark for safety and quality assurance. As a consequence of these additional pigment needs, the demand in isolated natural colorants has increased as compared with synthetic dyes. The aim of the research is to explore new sources of pigments to be used as halal food colorants. This quest is not only directed in finding natural alternatives for synthetic dyes, but also with the aim to discover new taxons for the pigment production, for instance from microalgae. Therefore, a total of six freshwater algae species were evaluated quantitative and qualitatively using HPLC for carotenoids pigment. Three main carotenoids were identified in Chlorella fusca, Chlorella vulgaris, Selenastrum capricornutum, Pandorina morum, Botryococcus sudeticus and Chlorococcum sp. which are lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. The ratio of these carotenoids varies between species where lutein was detected substantially higher in Chlorella fusca (69.54±11.29µg/g DW); β-cryptoxanthin in Pandorina morum (1.24±0.33 µg/g DW) whereas β-carotene in Chlorella vulgaris (18.42±9.2 ug/g DW). The significant outcome of the research will be new findings of new natural carotenoid pigment sources as potential food colorants and bioactive compounds which can be beneficial to halal health promoting products industry, food products and dye technology which covers not only the Shariah requirement, but also the hygiene, purification and safety aspects.