Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is a new molecular technique that has the potential to revolutionize cytogenetics. However, use of high resolution array CGH in the clinical setting is plagued by the problem of widespread copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome. Constitutional microarray, containing only clones that interrogate regions of known constitutional syndromes, may circumvent the dilemma of detecting CNV of unknown clinical significance.
Smoking has been associated with increased risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the periodontal disease severity of adult heavy smokers and never-smokers referred for assessment and treatment of chronic periodontitis.
We describe three mutations of the red-cell anion exchangerband 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) gene associated with distalrenal tubular acidosis (dRTA) in families from Malaysia and Papua NewGuinea: Gly(701)-->Asp (G701D), Ala(858)-->Asp(A858D) and deletion of Val(850) (DeltaV850). The mutationsA858D and DeltaV850 are novel; all three mutations seem to berestricted to South-East Asian populations. South-East Asianovalocytosis (SAO), resulting from the band 3 deletion of residues400-408, occurred in many of the families but did not itselfresult in dRTA. Compound heterozygotes of each of the dRTA mutationswith SAO all had dRTA, evidence of haemolytic anaemia and abnormal red-cell properties. The A858D mutation showed dominant inheritance and therecessive DeltaV850 and G701D mutations showed a pseudo-dominantphenotype when the transport-inactive SAO allele was also present. Red-cell and Xenopus oocyte expression studies showed that theDeltaV850 and A858D mutant proteins have greatly decreased aniontransport when present as compound heterozygotes (DeltaV850/A858D,DeltaV850/SAO or A858D/SAO). Red cells with A858D/SAO had only 3% ofthe SO(4)(2-) efflux of normal cells, thelowest anion transport activity so far reported for human red cells. The results suggest dRTA might arise by a different mechanism for eachmutation. We confirm that the G701D mutant protein has an absoluterequirement for glycophorin A for movement to the cell surface. Wesuggest that the dominant A858D mutant protein is possibly mis-targetedto an inappropriate plasma membrane domain in the renal tubular cell,and that the recessive DeltaV850 mutation might give dRTA because ofits decreased anion transport activity.