α°-thalassemia is a well-known cause of hydrops fetalis in South-East Asia and can be detected in utero. We report a very rare case of thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy associated with hyperplacentosis secondary to α°-thalassemia-associated hydrops fetalis. A 22-year-old primigravida with microcytic anemia presented at 27 weeks' gestation with pre-eclampsia, hyperthyroidism and cardiac failure. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin was markedly elevated and abdominal ultrasound revealed severe hydropic features and enlarged placenta. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin, cardiac function and thyroid function tests normalized after she delivered a macerated stillbirth. Histopathology of the placenta showed hyperplacentosis. Blood DNA analysis revealed that both patient and husband have the α°-thalassemia trait. This case illustrates a very atypical presentation of α°-thalassemia-associated hydrops fetalis and the importance of early prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia in women of relevant ethnic origin with microcytic anemia so that appropriate genetic counseling can be provided to reduce maternal morbidity and the incidence of hydrops fetalis.
During preeclampsia (PE), the excessive circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) hinders the vasodilatory effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This effect has been proven in vitro in the renal artery of rats. The endothelium of the blood vessels is also said to be dysfunctional in PE. Genistein has shown the ability to antagonize the vascular contractions caused by a wide range of contractile agents. We conducted vascular reactivity studies to demonstrate the effect of: (i) sFLT1 on the vasodilatory effect of VEGF; and (ii) genistein on the vasodilatory effect of VEGF and its effects on denuded blood vessels (dysfunctional endothelium).
The prevalence of hemorrhoids among pregnant women is high in late pregnancy. This study was to evaluate the efficacy between drug treatment with Procort (topical hydrocortisone cream 1%) and mechanical treatment with a Hai's Perianal Support (HPS) toilet seat device in managing symptomatic hemorrhoids during the third trimester of pregnancy.
Spontaneous rupture of uterine fibroid is rarely encountered. We present a case of a 31-year-old who presented with acute abdominal pain at 9 weeks postpartum. On examination, the abdomen had diffuse tenderness, with rebound tenderness in the suprapubic area and in both iliac fossae. On ultrasonography, a 12.7 × 8.6 × 8.9-cm sized hyperechoic mass was visible on the posterior wall of the uterus. A large amount of fluid was visible in the paracolic gutters and the Pouch of Douglas (POD). The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A ruptured, cystic degenerated uterine fibroid with active bleeding was found, as well as approximately half a liter of free, bloodstained peritoneal fluid and pus. Myomectomy was performed, followed by evacuation of the fluid and clots. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In conclusion, preoperative diagnosis of a perforated, uterine fibroid with spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is difficult; exploratory laparotomy is both diagnostic and therapeutic in this rare, life-threatening condition.
Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is a well-established procedure for the reconstruction of apical support in pelvic organ prolapse. Its long-term efficacy is well known; however, it is also associated with higher perioperative morbidity when compared with the less invasive transvaginal approach. Long-term risk of bowel-related complication from abdominal sacrocolpopexy is rare, but can be significant as it is often serious and requires major surgical intervention. Here we highlight an unusual case of strangulated small bowel (in this instance complicated with sepsis secondary to peritonitis), 14 years after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure. This example amplifies the need for proper preoperative counseling; also, life-long follow-up is necessary for patients undergoing this procedure.
AIM: Both inadequate and excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have immediate and long-term health risks for women and infants. This study investigated rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its associated factors in Malaysian pregnant women.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at maternal and child health clinics in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan between November 2010 and April 2012. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic, obstetric, dietary intake and physical activity information. Current weight and height were measured using standard procedures. GWG rate was calculated as the average weekly weight gain in that particular trimester of pregnancy and further categorized according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.
RESULTS: Mean GWG rate for all pre-pregnancy BMI categories in the second and third trimesters was higher than the IOM recommendations. Overweight women (adjusted OR, 4.26; 95%CI: 1.92-9.44) and women <153 cm tall (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95%CI: 1.21-3.18) tend to have inadequate GWG rate. Women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ; overweight: adjusted OR, 3.88; 95%CI: 2.12-7.09; obese: adjusted OR, 2.34; 95%CI: 1.28-4.29) and low physical activity (adjusted OR, 1.74; 95%CI: 0.77-3.97) were two-threefold more likely to have excessive GWG.
CONCLUSION: Both inadequate and excessive GWG can have detrimental effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pre-pregnancy BMI, height and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal care to ensure that women have adequate GWG rate.
Study site: maternal and child health clinics (Klinik Kesihatan), Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, including Malaysia. In developing countries, predictors affecting breast self-examination (BSE) practice are different. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of BSE practice and the predictors affecting BSE practice among undergraduate female students in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
The postoperative effects on Asian women after hysterectomy have not been fully explored. This study was undertaken to investigate the physical, psychological and sexual functioning effects in multi-ethnic Malaysian women who have undergone hysterectomy.
A non-puerperal uterine inversion in advanced uterovaginal prolapse is a rare occurrence. Even more unusual is the presence of bladder calculi in these two conditions, which has not been documented before. We report a case of acute urinary retention secondary to severe uterovaginal prolapse associated with uterine inversion and multiple bladder calculi.
With cervical carcinoma remaining the second leading cancer among Malaysian women, it is imperative to clarify the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in this respect, considering the dearth of local information.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate urine microscopy, dipstick analysis and urinary symptoms in screening for urinary tract infection (UTI) in hyperemesis gravidarum (HG).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on women at first hospitalization for HG. A clean-catch mid-stream urine sample from each recruit was sent for microscopy (for bacteria, leucocytes and erythrocytes), dipstick analysis (for leukocyte esterase, nitrites, protein and hemoglobin) and microbiological culture. The presence of current urinary symptoms was elicited by questionnaire. UTI is defined as at least 10(5) colony-forming units/mL of a single uropathogen on culture. Screening test parameters were analyzed against UTI.
RESULTS: UTI was diagnosed in 15/292 subjects (5.1%). Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis of microscopic urine leucocytes revealed area under the curve=0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-0.79, P=0.063 and erythrocytes area under the curve=0.53, 95%CI 0.39-0.67, P=0.67 for UTI indicating the limited screening utility of these parameters. Microscopic bacteriuria (likelihood ratio [LR] 1.1, 95%CI 0.7-1.5) and urine dipstick leukocyte esterase (LR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8), nitrites (LR 2.3, 95%CI 0.3-17.2), protein (LR 1.0, 95%CI 0.7-1.6) and hemoglobin (LR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4-1.5) were not useful screening tests for UTI in HG. Elicited symptoms were also not predictive of UTI.
CONCLUSION: Urine microscopy, dipstick analysis and urinary symptoms were not useful in screening for UTI in HG. UTI should be established by urine culture in HG before starting antibiotic treatment.
AIM: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of once or twice daily neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulin in fasting pregnant diabetics during Ramadan.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted during Ramadan 2006 and 2007. Twenty four pregnant diabetic women were given NPH insulin once at 5 pm or twice daily at 5 pm and 5 am. Demographic data, blood glucose control, insulin requirement, days of fasting and hypoglycemic episodes were analyzed.
RESULTS: Most women were parity 1 (37.5%) in their second trimester (54.2%) and worked during the daytime (87.5%). Fourteen women (58.3%) had gestational diabetes mellitus, nine women (37.5%) had type 2 and one (4.2%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus. There were significant reductions in mean fasting blood glucose (6.16 mmol/L versus 5.34 mmol/L, P = 0.001), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (6.70% ± 0.91 versus 6.64% ± 0.96, P = 0.001) and serum fructosamine (232.4 mmol/L ± 24.0 versus 217.0 mmol/L ± 24.3, P = 0.001) after Ramadan compared to before Ramadan. Throughout the four weeks of Ramadan, home blood glucose monitoring showed a reducing trend and was within the acceptable limits. Insulin requirement was increased from the first to the fourth week with a reduction in insulin dose noted after (38.5 U/day) compared to before the start of Ramadan (40 U/day). Most women (79.2%) were able to fast for more than 15 days without any hypoglycemia or fetal demise.
CONCLUSION: Once or twice daily NPH insulin is a safe and tolerable option for pregnant diabetics who wish to fast during Ramadan.
AIM: To determine the relationships between maternal and fetal outcomes and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), respectively.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used with 149 patients with abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 149 normal patients. Statistical analysis used was the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test or the Student's t-test, as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: The level of hyperglycemia according to the OGTT (World Health Organization criteria) was associated with pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios and macrosomia in GDM patients. There was no increase in the complications of preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes, despite the increased risk of polyhydramnios. Although treated with insulin, macrosomia still occurred in patients with GDM, but there was no shoulder dystocia as there was an increase in the incidence of cesarean section (CS). The IGT group was not associated with adverse fetal or maternal outcomes, but there was an increase in intervention and the incidence of CS. The IFG group was associated with a significantly increased risk of pre-eclampsia and macrosomia. These findings challenge the concept of IFG being a lesser pathology than GDM. Further prospective studies with a larger number of patients are needed to ascertain the significance of these findings.
CONCLUSION: There was an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and macrosomia in both the GDM and IFG patients, but IGT was not associated with adverse fetal or maternal outcomes.
Study site: Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur (MHKL), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Acute puerperal uterine inversion is a life-threatening and unpredictable obstetric emergency. If overlooked, it could lead to a maternal death. Although the precise cause is unknown, it is postulated to be caused by the mismanagement of the third stage of labor with premature traction of the umbilical cord and fundal pressure before placental separation. At the Ipoh General Hospital in Malaysia there were 31 394 deliveries and four acute uterine inversions occurring from 1 January 2002 to 30 June 2005. The four patients were between 25 and 36 years of age and their parities were between two and three. When manual repositioning of the uterus failed, successful correction was accomplished by the O'Sullivan's hydrostatic method. One case had to undergo subtotal hysterectomy after repositioning because of massive hemorrhage secondary to placenta accreta. Early diagnosis, immediate treatment of shock, and replacement are essential.
Ectopic pregnancy is conventionally managed by laparoscopic salpingectomy. Electrocautery has been used widely to secure hemostasis during salpingectomy. However, this method is associated with a risk of thermal injury to the visceral organs. Endoloop, a pre-tied suture used in laparoscopic surgery may be an alternative treatment tool and its potential use in the management of ectopic pregnancy is explored here. Our study aims to compare the effectiveness of the endoloop technique to electrocautery during laparoscopic salpingectomy for tubal pregnancy.