Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Akhtari-Zavare M, Lattif LA, Juni MH, Md Said S, Ismail IZ
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2015 Dec;41(12):1982-7.
    PMID: 26554636 DOI: 10.1111/jog.12819
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, including Malaysia. In developing countries, predictors affecting breast self-examination (BSE) practice are different. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of BSE practice and the predictors affecting BSE practice among undergraduate female students in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 820 female undergraduate students to assess the BSE performance and related determinants of BSE practice in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Data were collected via a self-administered structured questionnaire that was developed for this study.

    The mean age of the respondents was 21.7 ± 1.2 years old. Most of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%) and 19.6% of the participants performed BSE regularly. Multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed that BSE performance was more likely among women who have checked their breast with a doctor (odds ratio = 2.04, P = 0.00), and women who have personal history of breast disease (odds ratio = 4.43, P = 0.03).

    The findings showed a low BSE practice rate among young Malaysian women. Hence, the community's breast health awareness is needed to improve breast cancer prevention among young Malaysian women.

    Malaysia; breast self-examination; predictors
  2. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Koo SJ, Binti Sa'ari NS
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2016 Sep;42(9):1094-101.
    PMID: 27226139 DOI: 10.1111/jog.13039
    AIM: Both inadequate and excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have immediate and long-term health risks for women and infants. This study investigated rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its associated factors in Malaysian pregnant women.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at maternal and child health clinics in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan between November 2010 and April 2012. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic, obstetric, dietary intake and physical activity information. Current weight and height were measured using standard procedures. GWG rate was calculated as the average weekly weight gain in that particular trimester of pregnancy and further categorized according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.
    RESULTS: Mean GWG rate for all pre-pregnancy BMI categories in the second and third trimesters was higher than the IOM recommendations. Overweight women (adjusted OR, 4.26; 95%CI: 1.92-9.44) and women <153 cm tall (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95%CI: 1.21-3.18) tend to have inadequate GWG rate. Women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ; overweight: adjusted OR, 3.88; 95%CI: 2.12-7.09; obese: adjusted OR, 2.34; 95%CI: 1.28-4.29) and low physical activity (adjusted OR, 1.74; 95%CI: 0.77-3.97) were two-threefold more likely to have excessive GWG.
    CONCLUSION: Both inadequate and excessive GWG can have detrimental effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pre-pregnancy BMI, height and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal care to ensure that women have adequate GWG rate.
    Study site: maternal and child health clinics (Klinik Kesihatan), Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  3. Wong LP, Arumugam K
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2012 Aug;38(8):1095-105.
    PMID: 22540215 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01836.x
    The postoperative effects on Asian women after hysterectomy have not been fully explored. This study was undertaken to investigate the physical, psychological and sexual functioning effects in multi-ethnic Malaysian women who have undergone hysterectomy.
  4. Wahid FS, Nasaruddin MZ, Idris MR, Tusimin M, Tumian NR, Mahdy ZA
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2012 Mar;38(3):490-7.
    PMID: 22381102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01740.x
    To compare the numbers of cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) between preeclampsia (PE) and control (non-PE) subjects and to determine the factors that may influence this observation.
  5. Tan PC, King AS, Omar SZ
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2012 Jan;38(1):145-53.
    PMID: 21955280 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01652.x
    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate urine microscopy, dipstick analysis and urinary symptoms in screening for urinary tract infection (UTI) in hyperemesis gravidarum (HG).
    MATERIALS AND METHODS:   A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on women at first hospitalization for HG. A clean-catch mid-stream urine sample from each recruit was sent for microscopy (for bacteria, leucocytes and erythrocytes), dipstick analysis (for leukocyte esterase, nitrites, protein and hemoglobin) and microbiological culture. The presence of current urinary symptoms was elicited by questionnaire. UTI is defined as at least 10(5) colony-forming units/mL of a single uropathogen on culture. Screening test parameters were analyzed against UTI.
    RESULTS: UTI was diagnosed in 15/292 subjects (5.1%). Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis of microscopic urine leucocytes revealed area under the curve=0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-0.79, P=0.063 and erythrocytes area under the curve=0.53, 95%CI 0.39-0.67, P=0.67 for UTI indicating the limited screening utility of these parameters. Microscopic bacteriuria (likelihood ratio [LR] 1.1, 95%CI 0.7-1.5) and urine dipstick leukocyte esterase (LR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8), nitrites (LR 2.3, 95%CI 0.3-17.2), protein (LR 1.0, 95%CI 0.7-1.6) and hemoglobin (LR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4-1.5) were not useful screening tests for UTI in HG. Elicited symptoms were also not predictive of UTI.
    CONCLUSION: Urine microscopy, dipstick analysis and urinary symptoms were not useful in screening for UTI in HG. UTI should be established by urine culture in HG before starting antibiotic treatment.
  6. Tan GC, Isa MR, Ng SP, Jamil YM
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2004 Oct;30(5):363-7.
    PMID: 15327449
    Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a recognized entity and is defined as carcinoma with invasion of less than 5 mm penetration of the stroma and seldom metastasized. Our patient was a 70-year-old, multiparous woman who had a microinvasive, cervical, squamous cell carcinoma. The tumor had spread superficially into the entire endometrial cavity up to the fundus, totally replacing the columnar epithelium. This is an extremely rare phenomenon, with fewer than 20 cases reported so far in the literature.
  7. Lim YH, Ng SP, Jamil MA
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2003 Dec;29(6):399-401.
    PMID: 14641689 DOI: 10.1111/j.1341-8076.2003.00136.x
    Imperforate hymen is an uncommon obstructive anomaly of the female reproductive tract, which usually presents with intermittent and cyclical abdominal pain. Although it is usually sporadic, four cases of familial occurrence of imperforate hymen have been reported so far. Imperforate hymen is seldom associated with complications if it is detected early. In view of the possible familial occurrence, it is important to have a high index of suspicion in women who present with imperforate hymen. A detailed menstrual history of other female family members is necessary to enable early detection.
  8. Chow TW, Lim BK, Vallipuram S
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2002 Aug;28(4):203-10.
    PMID: 12452262
    In this review, tuberculosis of the genital tract was diagnosed retrospectively in 11 females over 15 years. The presentations of nine cases are described. Seven of the nine cases presented with ascites, vague abdominal distension, weight loss and were misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma. Eight women had no relevant past history. A review on clinical presentations and diagnosis of pelvic tuberculosis is presented. We conclude that although the incidence of tuberculosis is uncommon in developed countries, its prevalence appears to be increasing worldwide. Therefore, clinicians should consider tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis when encountering clinical presentations of pelvic mass and ascites.
  9. Jegasothy R
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2002 Aug;28(4):186-93.
    PMID: 12452259
    We report on a retrospective study of maternal deaths in Malaysia that occurred within 24 hours of delivery, abortion or operative termination of the pregnancy (defined as sudden deaths) in the years 1995-1996. There were 131 sudden maternal deaths (20.6% of all maternal deaths); postpartum hemorrhage, obstetric embolisms, trauma and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the main causes. There was a disproportionately increased risk of sudden maternal deaths in the Chinese and the 'other bumiputra' racial groups. The proportion of mothers who had no obstetric risk factors in the pregnancy that led to death was 16.8%. Fourteen mothers died in transit Twenty mothers died after a cesarean section. The findings of this review emphasize the fact that caregivers in obstetrics need to be forever vigilant. All maternity staff need to be well trained in emergency care and there needs to be quick referral to centers that can provide expertise in handling these emergencies.
  10. Nor Azlin MI, Adam R, Sufian SS, Wahab NA, Mustafa N, Kamaruddin NA, et al.
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2011 Feb;37(2):132-7.
    PMID: 21159037 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01330.x
    AIM: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of once or twice daily neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulin in fasting pregnant diabetics during Ramadan.
    METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted during Ramadan 2006 and 2007. Twenty four pregnant diabetic women were given NPH insulin once at 5 pm or twice daily at 5 pm and 5 am. Demographic data, blood glucose control, insulin requirement, days of fasting and hypoglycemic episodes were analyzed.
    RESULTS: Most women were parity 1 (37.5%) in their second trimester (54.2%) and worked during the daytime (87.5%). Fourteen women (58.3%) had gestational diabetes mellitus, nine women (37.5%) had type 2 and one (4.2%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus. There were significant reductions in mean fasting blood glucose (6.16 mmol/L versus 5.34 mmol/L, P = 0.001), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (6.70% ± 0.91 versus 6.64% ± 0.96, P = 0.001) and serum fructosamine (232.4 mmol/L ± 24.0 versus 217.0 mmol/L ± 24.3, P = 0.001) after Ramadan compared to before Ramadan. Throughout the four weeks of Ramadan, home blood glucose monitoring showed a reducing trend and was within the acceptable limits. Insulin requirement was increased from the first to the fourth week with a reduction in insulin dose noted after (38.5 U/day) compared to before the start of Ramadan (40 U/day). Most women (79.2%) were able to fast for more than 15 days without any hypoglycemia or fetal demise.
    CONCLUSION: Once or twice daily NPH insulin is a safe and tolerable option for pregnant diabetics who wish to fast during Ramadan.
  11. Naidu A, Nusee Z, Tayib S
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2011 Jun;37(6):633-5.
    PMID: 21349130 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01401.x
    A non-puerperal uterine inversion in advanced uterovaginal prolapse is a rare occurrence. Even more unusual is the presence of bladder calculi in these two conditions, which has not been documented before. We report a case of acute urinary retention secondary to severe uterovaginal prolapse associated with uterine inversion and multiple bladder calculi.
  12. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Sivanesaratnam V
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2011 Jun;37(6):489-95.
    PMID: 21349124 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01386.x
    With cervical carcinoma remaining the second leading cancer among Malaysian women, it is imperative to clarify the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in this respect, considering the dearth of local information.
  13. Tan NH, Palmer R, Wang R
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2010 Feb;36(1):19-26.
    PMID: 20178523 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2009.01110.x
    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is a new molecular technique that has the potential to revolutionize cytogenetics. However, use of high resolution array CGH in the clinical setting is plagued by the problem of widespread copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome. Constitutional microarray, containing only clones that interrogate regions of known constitutional syndromes, may circumvent the dilemma of detecting CNV of unknown clinical significance.
  14. Nadarajah VD, Min RG, Judson JP, Jegasothy R, Ling EH
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2009 Oct;35(5):855-63.
    PMID: 20149032 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2009.01037.x
    To establish baseline levels of maternal plasma soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) among normotensive Malaysian mothers and to compare the marker levels between normotensives and mothers with gestational hypertension (GH).
  15. Ayadurai T, Muniandy S, Omar SZ
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2009 Dec;35(6):1061-8.
    PMID: 20144172 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2009.01067.x
    The status of thrombophilia in Asian women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is obscure and poorly understood. Numerous studies suggest the non-existence or extreme rarity of the two important thrombophilia markers, factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin G20210A (PTG) mutations, in patients of Asian ancestries. Thus, the consensus that thrombophilia is rare among Asians and laboratory investigations is irrelevant. We therefore investigated Malaysian women with RPL for thrombophilia abnormalities.
  16. Chan YK, Ng KP
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2000 Apr;26(2):137-40.
    PMID: 10870307
    OBJECTIVE: A survey covering 30% of the deliveries in Malaysia was done to determine the practice of obstetric anaesthesia and analgesia for 1996.

    RESULTS: From the survey, it was found that the regional anaesthesia rate for caesarean section was 46% in the government hospitals compared to 29.2% in the private hospitals, with spinal anaesthesia being the most common regional anaesthetic technique used in both types of hospitals. The epidural rate for labour analgesia was only 1.5% overall for the country. Epidural analgesia services were available in all private hospitals whereas 17.6% of government hospitals surveyed did not offer this service at all.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of epidural analgesia for labour was low in Malaysia, the overall rate of regional anaesthesia for caesarean section (41.9%) is very much in keeping with the standards of safe practice recommended by the United Kingdom.

  17. Chia P, Raman S, Tham SW
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 1998 Aug;24(4):267-73.
    PMID: 9798356
    To study the pregnancy outcome of women with acyanotic heart disease.
  18. Leong EW, Sivanesaratnam V, Oh LL, Chan YK
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2000 Aug;26(4):271-5.
    PMID: 11049237
    OBJECTIVES: To prospectively study the intervention rate, duration of labour, malpositions, fetal outcome, maternal satisfaction, voiding complications and adverse events in healthy primigravidae in spontaneous labour at term following epidural analgesia.

    METHODS: A prospective randomized study involving 55 patients in the epidural group and 68 in the control pethidine--inhalational entonox group.

    RESULTS: There were significantly more obstetric interventions (instrumental deliveries) in the epidural group (p < 0.01). The total duration of labour and the duration of the second stage was prolonged in the epidural group (p < 0.01). There were more malpositions at the second stage of labour in the epidural group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in fetal outcome (Apgar scores and Special Care Nursery admissions). Patients in the epidural group were consistently happier with their method of pain relief (p < 0.01). Two patients required blood patches while another 2 patients had persistent backache post epidural analgesia.

    CONCLUSION: Epidural analgesia in primigravidae in spontaneous labour at term led to an increased instrumental delivery rate, prolonged duration of labour, greater rate of malpositions in the second stage, increased oxytocin requirements but with no difference in fetal outcomes but with happier mothers as compared to the control group.

  19. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Sivanesaratnam V
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 1999 Dec;25(6):401-6.
    PMID: 10680337
    To study the trend of different histological types of cervical carcinoma among the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia.
  20. Sivanesaratnam V
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2001 Feb;27(1):1-15.
    PMID: 11330724
    Fertility and gynaecological malignancies have an important relationship. A clear inverse relationship exists between family size and the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancer. Current methods of fertility control have an influence on subsequent development of various gynaecological malignancies. A slightly increased risk of breast cancer has been reported in current users and those who had used hormonal contraceptives (OCs) within 10 years; this risk declined with time and disappeared after 10 years. Women who started OC before age 20 had a higher relative risk; the disease did not spread beyond the breast in the majority. Most studies found OC to reduce the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The relative risks of squamous cell carcinoma and adenomatous carcinoma of the cervix have been reported to be 1.3 and 1.5, respectively in ever-users of OCs; however, the aetiology of cervical cancer is multifactoral. Several reports suggest the beneficial effect of tubal ligation and breast feeding in reducing the risk of ovarian cancer. Therapy of gynaecological malignancies may have an influence on subsequent fertility. Amenorrhoea developing after treatment of hydatidiform mole may be due to choriocarcinoma, recurrent mole or a normal pregnancy. Choriocarcinoma can also develop after a partial mole. The risk of fetal teratogenicity from chemotherapy is present only if conception occurs during or immediately following the treatment cycles. Fertility is not impaired following chemotherapy. Successful pregnancies have occurred in women who have had widespread GTD including cerebral metastases. In the young patient with gynaecological malignancy preservation of fertility is possible. Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian epithelial cancers and even in advanced germ cell tumours. Recently, the fertility-sparing surgery of radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy has been carried out for early invasive cervical cancer in young women. Gynaecological cancer occurring in pregnancy is uncommon; it presents the clinician with a difficult situation to manage. In most instances the cancer is treated as though the patient is not pregnant; the timing and mode of delivery needs individualization. The overall prognosis for breast cancer complicating pregnancy is poor. Survival in cervical cancers diagnosed antepartum is similar to the non-pregnant patient. Ovarian cancer in pregnancy has a good prognosis because of the early stage at diagnosis.
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