Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Lam CS, Anand I, Zhang S, Shimizu W, Narasimhan C, Park SW, et al.
    Eur J Heart Fail, 2013 Aug;15(8):928-36.
    PMID: 23568645 DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hft045
    Our aim is to determine mortality and morbidity in Asian patients under clinical management for heart failure (HF). Specifically, we will define the incidence of, and risk factors for, sudden cardiac death, as well as the socio-cultural factors influencing therapeutic choices in these patients. Methods This is a prospective observational multinational Asian registry of 5000 patients with symptomatic HF (stage C) and LV systolic dysfunction (EF ≤ 40%) involving 44 centres across 11 Asian regions (China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand). Data collection includes demographic variables, clinical symptoms, functional status, date of HF diagnosis and prior cardiovascular investigations, clinical risk factors, lifestyle factors, socio-economic status, and survey of cultural beliefs, health practices, and attitudes towards device therapy. Centre-level characteristics (case load, referral pattern, specialization, and infrastructure) are also obtained. Patients uniformly undergo standard 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiography at baseline, and are followed over 3 years for outcomes of death or hospitalization. The mode of death and cause of hospitalization are adjudicated by a central event adjudication committee using pre-specified criteria. Perspective By providing prospective data regarding the demographics, risk factors, and outcomes of Asian patients under treatment for HF, the ASIAN-HF registry is expected to advance fundamental understanding of the burden and predictors of death and hospitalization among these patients. The knowledge gained will be important for guiding resource allocation and planning preventive strategies to address the unmet and growing clinical needs of patients with cardiovascular disease in Asia. Trial registration NCT01633398.
  2. de Carvalho LP, Gao F, Chen Q, Hartman M, Sim LL, Koh TH, et al.
    Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, 2014 Dec;3(4):354-62.
    PMID: 24598820 DOI: 10.1177/2048872614527007
    the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients from three major ethnicities of Asia.
  3. MacDonald MR, Tay WT, Teng TK, Anand I, Ling LH, Yap J, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2020 01 07;9(1):e012199.
    PMID: 31852421 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.012199
    Background Data comparing outcomes in heart failure (HF) across Asia are limited. We examined regional variation in mortality among patients with HF enrolled in the ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry with separate analyses for those with reduced ejection fraction (EF; <40%) versus preserved EF (≥50%). Methods and Results The ASIAN-HF registry is a prospective longitudinal study. Participants with symptomatic HF were recruited from 46 secondary care centers in 3 Asian regions: South Asia (India), Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore), and Northeast Asia (South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China). Overall, 6480 patients aged >18 years with symptomatic HF were recruited (mean age: 61.6±13.3 years; 27% women; 81% with HF and reduced rEF). The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality. Striking regional variations in baseline characteristics and outcomes were observed. Regardless of HF type, Southeast Asians had the highest burden of comorbidities, particularly diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, despite being younger than Northeast Asian participants. One-year, crude, all-cause mortality for the whole population was 9.6%, higher in patients with HF and reduced EF (10.6%) than in those with HF and preserved EF (5.4%). One-year, all-cause mortality was significantly higher in Southeast Asian patients (13.0%), compared with South Asian (7.5%) and Northeast Asian patients (7.4%; P<0.001). Well-known predictors of death accounted for only 44.2% of the variation in risk of mortality. Conclusions This first multinational prospective study shows that the outcomes in Asian patients with both HF and reduced or preserved EF are poor overall and worst in Southeast Asian patients. Region-specific risk factors and gaps in guideline-directed therapy should be addressed to potentially improve outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.
  4. Chandramouli C, Tay WT, Bamadhaj NS, Tromp J, Teng TK, Yap JJL, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2019 09;16(9):e1002916.
    PMID: 31550265 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002916
    BACKGROUND: Asians are predisposed to a lean heart failure (HF) phenotype. Data on the 'obesity paradox', reported in Western populations, are scarce in Asia and have only utilised the traditional classification of body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate the association between obesity (defined by BMI and abdominal measures) and HF outcomes in Asia.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Utilising the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry (11 Asian regions including Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea; 46 centres with enrolment between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016), we prospectively examined 5,964 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age 61.3 ± 13.3 years, 26% women, mean BMI 25.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, 16% with HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; ejection fraction ≥ 50%]), among whom 2,051 also had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measurements (mean age 60.8 ± 12.9 years, 24% women, mean BMI 25.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 7% HFpEF). Patients were categorised by BMI quartiles or WHtR quartiles or 4 combined groups of BMI (low, <24.5 kg/m2 [lean], or high, ≥24.5 kg/m2 [obese]) and WHtR (low, <0.55 [thin], or high, ≥0.55 [fat]). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine a 1-year composite outcome (HF hospitalisation or mortality). Across BMI quartiles, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome (ptrend < 0.001). Contrastingly, higher WHtR was associated with higher risk of the composite outcome. Individuals in the lean-fat group, with low BMI and high WHtR (13.9%), were more likely to be women (35.4%) and to be from low-income countries (47.7%) (predominantly in South/Southeast Asia), and had higher prevalence of diabetes (46%), worse quality of life scores (63.3 ± 24.2), and a higher rate of the composite outcome (51/232; 22%), compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 for all). Following multivariable adjustment, the lean-fat group had higher adjusted risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.18, p = 0.01), compared to the obese-thin group, with high BMI and low WHtR. Results were consistent across both HF subtypes (HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]; pinteraction = 0.355). Selection bias and residual confounding are potential limitations of such multinational observational registries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Asian patients with HF, the 'obesity paradox' is observed only when defined using BMI, with WHtR showing the opposite association with the composite outcome. Lean-fat patients, with high WHtR and low BMI, have the worst outcomes. A direct correlation between high WHtR and the composite outcome is apparent in both HFpEF and HFrEF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in HF (ASIAN-HF) Registry ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633398.

  5. Chyou JY, Tay WT, Anand IS, Teng TK, Yap JJL, MacDonald MR, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 03 16;10(6):e017932.
    PMID: 33719492 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017932
    Background QRS duration (QRSd) is a marker of electrical remodeling in heart failure. Anthropometrics and left ventricular size may influence QRSd and, in turn, may influence the association between QRSd and heart failure outcomes. Methods and Results Using the prospective, multicenter, multinational ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry, this study evaluated whether electroanatomic ratios (QRSd indexed for height or left ventricular end-diastole volume) are associated with 1-year mortality in individuals with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The study included 4899 individuals (aged 60±19 years, 78% male, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 27.3±7.1%). In the overall cohort, QRSd was not associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.003; 95% CI, 0.999-1.006, P=0.142) or sudden cardiac death (HR, 1.006; 95% CI, 1.000-1.013, P=0.059). QRS/height was associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.165; 95% CI, 1.046-1.296, P=0.005 with interaction by sex pinteraction=0.020) and sudden cardiac death (HR, 1.270; 95% CI, 1.021-1.580, P=0.032). QRS/left ventricular end-diastole volume was associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43, P=0.011) and sudden cardiac death (HR, 1.461; 95% CI, 1.090-1.957, P=0.011) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy but not in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (all-cause mortality: HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79-1.11, P=0.467; sudden cardiac death: HR, 0.734; 95% CI, 0.477-1.132, P=0.162). Conclusions Electroanatomic ratios of QRSd indexed for body size or left ventricular size are associated with mortality in individuals with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In particular, increased QRS/height may be a marker of high risk in individuals with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and QRS/left ventricular end-diastole volume may further risk stratify individuals with nonischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Registration URL: https://Clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.
  6. Lam CS, Teng TK, Tay WT, Anand I, Zhang S, Shimizu W, et al.
    Eur Heart J, 2016 11 01;37(41):3141-3153.
    PMID: 27502121 DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw331
    AIMS: To characterize regional and ethnic differences in heart failure (HF) across Asia.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 5276 patients with stable HF and reduced ejection fraction (≤40%) from 11 Asian regions (China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand). Mean age was 59.6 ± 13.1 years, 78.2% were men, and mean body mass index was 24.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2. Majority (64%) of patients had two or more comorbid conditions such as hypertension (51.9%), coronary artery disease (CAD, 50.2%), or diabetes (40.4%). The prevalence of CAD was highest in Southeast Asians (58.8 vs. 38.2% in Northeast Asians). Compared with Chinese ethnicity, Malays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.63-2.38) and Indians (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.24-1.68) had higher odds of CAD, whereas Koreans (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.29-0.50) and Japanese (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.55) had lower odds. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was highest in Southeast Asians (64.2 and 49.3%, respectively) and high-income regions (59.7 and 46.2%, respectively). There was significant interaction between ethnicity and region, where the adjusted odds were 3.95 (95% CI 2.51-6.21) for hypertension and 4.91 (95% CI 3.07-7.87) for diabetes among Indians from high- vs. low-income regions; and 2.60 (95% CI 1.66-4.06) for hypertension and 2.62 (95% CI 1.73-3.97) for diabetes among Malays from high- vs. low-income regions.

    CONCLUSIONS: These first prospective multi-national data from Asia highlight the significant heterogeneity among Asian patients with stable HF, and the important influence of both ethnicity and regional income level on patient characteristics.

  7. de Carvalho LP, Tan SH, Ow GS, Tang Z, Ching J, Kovalik JP, et al.
    JACC Basic Transl Sci, 2018 Apr;3(2):163-175.
    PMID: 30062203 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2017.12.005
    We identified a plasma signature of 11 C14 to C26 ceramides and 1 C16 dihydroceramide predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, those with recent AMI, compared with those without recent AMI, showed a significant increase in 5 of the signature's 12 ceramides in plasma but not simultaneously-biopsied aortic tissue. In contrast, a rat AMI model, compared with sham control, showed a significant increase in myocardial concentrations of all 12 ceramides and up-regulation of 3 ceramide-producing enzymes, suggesting ischemic myocardium as a possible source of this ceramide signature.
  8. de Carvalho LP, Fong A, Troughton R, Yan BP, Chin CT, Poh SC, et al.
    Thromb. Haemost., 2018 02;118(2):415-426.
    PMID: 29443374 DOI: 10.1160/TH17-08-0564
    Studies on platelet reactivity (PR) testing commonly test PR only after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been performed. There are few data on pre- and post-PCI testing. Data on simultaneous testing of aspirin and adenosine diphosphate antagonist response are conflicting. We investigated the prognostic value of combined serial assessments of high on-aspirin PR (HASPR) and high on-adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist PR (HADPR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). HASPR and HADPR were assessed in 928 ACS patients before (initial test) and 24 hours after (final test) coronary angiography, with or without revascularization. Patients with HASPR on the initial test, compared with those without, had significantly higher intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) (8.6 vs. 1.2%, p ≤ 0.001) and higher 30-day major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; 5.2 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.05), but not 12-month MACCE (13.0 vs. 15.1%, p = 0.50). Patients with initial HADPR, compared with those without, had significantly higher IPTE (4.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.004), but not 30-day (3.5 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.32) or 12-month MACCE (14.0 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.54). The c-statistic of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score alone, GRACE score + ASPR test and GRACE score + ADPR test for discriminating 30-day MACCE was 0.649, 0.803 and 0.757, respectively. Final ADPR was associated with 30-day MACCE among patients with intermediate-to-high GRACE score (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-17.66), but not low GRACE score (adjusted OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.13-10.79). In conclusion, both HASPR and HADPR predict ischaemic events in ACS. This predictive utility is time-dependent and risk-dependent.
  9. Luo N, Teng TK, Tay WT, Anand IS, Kraus WE, Liew HB, et al.
    Am Heart J, 2017 Sep;191:75-81.
    PMID: 28888273 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2017.06.016
    BACKGROUND: Assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with heart failure (HF) is an important goal of clinical care and HF research. We sought to investigate ethnic differences in perceived HRQoL and its association with mortality among patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, controlling for demographic characteristics and HF severity.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared 5697 chronic HF patients of Indian (26%), white (23%), Chinese (17%), Japanese/Koreans (12%), black (12%), and Malay (10%) ethnicities from the HF-ACTION and ASIAN-HF multinational studies using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ; range 0-100; higher scores reflect better health status). KCCQ scores were lowest in Malay (58±22) and Chinese (60±23), intermediate in black (64±21) and Indian (65±23), and highest in white (67±20) and Japanese or Korean patients (67±22) after adjusting for age, sex, educational status, HF severity, and risk factors. Self-efficacy, which measures confidence in the ability to manage symptoms, was lower in all Asian ethnicities (especially Japanese/Koreans [60±26], Malay [66±23], and Chinese [64±28]) compared to black (80±21) and white (82±19) patients, even after multivariable adjustment (P

  10. Chan MY, Efthymios M, Tan SH, Pickering JW, Troughton R, Pemberton C, et al.
    Circulation, 2020 10 13;142(15):1408-1421.
    PMID: 32885678 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.045158
    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is the most common long-term complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Understanding plasma proteins associated with post-MI HF and their gene expression may identify new candidates for biomarker and drug target discovery.

    METHODS: We used aptamer-based affinity-capture plasma proteomics to measure 1305 plasma proteins at 1 month post-MI in a New Zealand cohort (CDCS [Coronary Disease Cohort Study]) including 181 patients post-MI who were subsequently hospitalized for HF in comparison with 250 patients post-MI who remained event free over a median follow-up of 4.9 years. We then correlated plasma proteins with left ventricular ejection fraction measured at 4 months post-MI and identified proteins potentially coregulated in post-MI HF using weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A Singapore cohort (IMMACULATE [Improving Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction through Reversal of Cardiac Remodelling]) of 223 patients post-MI, of which 33 patients were hospitalized for HF (median follow-up, 2.0 years), was used for further candidate enrichment of plasma proteins by using Fisher meta-analysis, resampling-based statistical testing, and machine learning. We then cross-referenced differentially expressed proteins with their differentially expressed genes from single-cell transcriptomes of nonmyocyte cardiac cells isolated from a murine MI model, and single-cell and single-nucleus transcriptomes of cardiac myocytes from murine HF models and human patients with HF.

    RESULTS: In the CDCS cohort, 212 differentially expressed plasma proteins were significantly associated with subsequent HF events. Of these, 96 correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction measured at 4 months post-MI. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis prioritized 63 of the 212 proteins that demonstrated significantly higher correlations among patients who developed post-MI HF in comparison with event-free controls (data set 1). Cross-cohort meta-analysis of the IMMACULATE cohort identified 36 plasma proteins associated with post-MI HF (data set 2), whereas single-cell transcriptomes identified 15 gene-protein candidates (data set 3). The majority of prioritized proteins were of matricellular origin. The 6 most highly enriched proteins that were common to all 3 data sets included well-established biomarkers of post-MI HF: N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin T, and newly emergent biomarkers, angiopoietin-2, thrombospondin-2, latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-4, and follistatin-related protein-3, as well.

    CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale human plasma proteomics, cross-referenced to unbiased cardiac transcriptomics at single-cell resolution, prioritized protein candidates associated with post-MI HF for further mechanistic and clinical validation.

  11. Chia YMF, Teng TK, Tan ESJ, Tay WT, Richards AM, Chin CWL, et al.
    PMID: 29150533 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.116.003651
    BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are lifesaving devices for patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. However, utilization and determinants of ICD insertion in Asia are poorly defined. We determined the utilization, associations of ICD uptake, patient-perceived barriers to device therapy and, impact of ICDs on mortality in Asian patients with HF.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the prospective ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry, 5276 patients with symptomatic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from 11 Asian regions and across 3 income regions (high: Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; middle: China, Malaysia, and Thailand; and low: India, Indonesia, and Philippines) were studied. ICD utilization, clinical characteristics, as well as device perception and knowledge, were assessed at baseline among ICD-eligible patients (EF ≤35% and New York Heart Association Class II-III). Patients were followed for the primary outcome of all-cause mortality. Among 3240 ICD-eligible patients (mean age 58.9±12.9 years, 79.1% men), 389 (12%) were ICD recipients. Utilization varied across Asia (from 1.5% in Indonesia to 52.5% in Japan) with a trend toward greater uptake in regions with government reimbursement for ICDs and lower out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. ICD (versus non-ICD) recipients were more likely to be older (63±11 versus 58±13 year; P<0.001), have tertiary (versus ≤primary) education (34.9% versus 18.1%; P<0.001) and be residing in a high (versus low) income region (64.5% versus 36.5%; P<0.001). Among 2000 ICD nonrecipients surveyed, 55% were either unaware of the benefits of, or needed more information on, device therapy. ICD implantation reduced risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.97) and sudden cardiac deaths (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.79) over a median follow-up of 417 days.

    CONCLUSIONS: ICDs reduce mortality risk, yet utilization in Asia is low; with disparity across geographic regions and socioeconomic status. Better patient education and targeted healthcare reforms in extending ICD reimbursement may improve access.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01633398. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.

  12. Tan ESJ, Jin X, Oon YY, Chan SP, Gong L, Lunaria JB, et al.
    J Am Soc Echocardiogr, 2023 Jan;36(1):29-37.e5.
    PMID: 36441088 DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2022.10.011
    BACKGROUND: The role of left atrial (LA) strain as an imaging biomarker in aortic stenosis is not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of phasic LA strain in relation to clinical and echocardiographic variables and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and left ventricular ejection fraction > 50%.

    METHODS: LA reservoir strain (LASr), LA conduit strain (LAScd), and LA contractile strain (LASct) were measured using speckle-tracking echocardiography. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, progression to New York Heart Association functional class III or IV, acute coronary syndrome, or syncope. Secondary outcomes 1 and 2 comprised the same end points but excluded acute coronary syndrome and additionally syncope, respectively. The prognostic performance of phasic LA strain cutoffs was evaluated in competing risk analyses, aortic valve replacement being the competing risk.

    RESULTS: Among 173 patients (mean age, 69 ± 11 years; mean peak transaortic velocity, 4.0 ± 0.8 m/sec), median LASr, LAScd, and LASct were 27% (interquartile range [IQR], 22%-32%), 12% (IQR, 8%-15%), and 16% (IQR, 13%-18%), respectively. Over a median of 2.7 years (IQR, 1.4-4.6 years), the primary outcome and secondary outcomes 1 and 2 occurred in 66 (38%), 62 (36%), and 59 (34%) patients, respectively. LASr < 20%, LAScd < 6%, and LASct < 12% were identified as optimal cutoffs of the primary outcome. In competing risk analyses, progressing from echocardiographic to echocardiographic-clinical and combined models incorporating N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, LA strain parameters outperformed other key echocardiographic variables and significantly predicted clinical outcomes. LASr < 20% was associated with the primary outcome and secondary outcome 1, LAScd < 6% with all clinical outcomes, and LASct < 12% with secondary outcome 2. LAScd < 6% had the highest specificity (95%) and positive predictive value (82%) for the primary outcome, and competing risk models incorporating LAScd < 6% had the best discriminative value.

    CONCLUSIONS: In well-compensated patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fractions, LA strain was superior to other echocardiographic indices and incremental to N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide for risk stratification. LAScd < 6%, LASr < 20%, and LASct < 12% identified patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes.

  13. Tromp J, Teng TH, Tay WT, Hung CL, Narasimhan C, Shimizu W, et al.
    Eur J Heart Fail, 2019 01;21(1):23-36.
    PMID: 30113120 DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.1227
    BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem. Unfortunately, little is known about HFpEF across Asia.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters and outcomes in 1204 patients with HFpEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%) from 11 Asian regions, grouped as Northeast Asia (Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, n = 543), South Asia (India, n = 252), and Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, n = 409). Mean age was 68 ±12 years (37% were 
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