Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Tan MP, Chadwick TJ, Kerr SR, Parry SW
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2014 Jun;3(3):e000514.
    PMID: 24947997 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.113.000514
    Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is associated with syncope, unexplained falls, and drop attacks in older people but occurs asymptomatically in 35% of community-dwelling elders. We hypothesized that impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with the conversion of asymptomatic CSH to symptomatic CSH. We therefore conducted a case-control study evaluating individuals with CSH with and without the symptoms of syncope or unexplained falls, as well as non-CSH controls, to determine whether the blood pressure and heart rate changes associated with CSH are associated with symptoms only when cerebral autoregulation is altered.
  2. MacDonald MR, Tay WT, Teng TK, Anand I, Ling LH, Yap J, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2020 01 07;9(1):e012199.
    PMID: 31852421 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.012199
    Background Data comparing outcomes in heart failure (HF) across Asia are limited. We examined regional variation in mortality among patients with HF enrolled in the ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry with separate analyses for those with reduced ejection fraction (EF; <40%) versus preserved EF (≥50%). Methods and Results The ASIAN-HF registry is a prospective longitudinal study. Participants with symptomatic HF were recruited from 46 secondary care centers in 3 Asian regions: South Asia (India), Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore), and Northeast Asia (South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China). Overall, 6480 patients aged >18 years with symptomatic HF were recruited (mean age: 61.6±13.3 years; 27% women; 81% with HF and reduced rEF). The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality. Striking regional variations in baseline characteristics and outcomes were observed. Regardless of HF type, Southeast Asians had the highest burden of comorbidities, particularly diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, despite being younger than Northeast Asian participants. One-year, crude, all-cause mortality for the whole population was 9.6%, higher in patients with HF and reduced EF (10.6%) than in those with HF and preserved EF (5.4%). One-year, all-cause mortality was significantly higher in Southeast Asian patients (13.0%), compared with South Asian (7.5%) and Northeast Asian patients (7.4%; P<0.001). Well-known predictors of death accounted for only 44.2% of the variation in risk of mortality. Conclusions This first multinational prospective study shows that the outcomes in Asian patients with both HF and reduced or preserved EF are poor overall and worst in Southeast Asian patients. Region-specific risk factors and gaps in guideline-directed therapy should be addressed to potentially improve outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.
  3. Chyou JY, Tay WT, Anand IS, Teng TK, Yap JJL, MacDonald MR, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 03 16;10(6):e017932.
    PMID: 33719492 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017932
    Background QRS duration (QRSd) is a marker of electrical remodeling in heart failure. Anthropometrics and left ventricular size may influence QRSd and, in turn, may influence the association between QRSd and heart failure outcomes. Methods and Results Using the prospective, multicenter, multinational ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry, this study evaluated whether electroanatomic ratios (QRSd indexed for height or left ventricular end-diastole volume) are associated with 1-year mortality in individuals with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The study included 4899 individuals (aged 60±19 years, 78% male, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 27.3±7.1%). In the overall cohort, QRSd was not associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.003; 95% CI, 0.999-1.006, P=0.142) or sudden cardiac death (HR, 1.006; 95% CI, 1.000-1.013, P=0.059). QRS/height was associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.165; 95% CI, 1.046-1.296, P=0.005 with interaction by sex pinteraction=0.020) and sudden cardiac death (HR, 1.270; 95% CI, 1.021-1.580, P=0.032). QRS/left ventricular end-diastole volume was associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43, P=0.011) and sudden cardiac death (HR, 1.461; 95% CI, 1.090-1.957, P=0.011) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy but not in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (all-cause mortality: HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79-1.11, P=0.467; sudden cardiac death: HR, 0.734; 95% CI, 0.477-1.132, P=0.162). Conclusions Electroanatomic ratios of QRSd indexed for body size or left ventricular size are associated with mortality in individuals with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In particular, increased QRS/height may be a marker of high risk in individuals with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and QRS/left ventricular end-diastole volume may further risk stratify individuals with nonischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Registration URL: https://Clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.
  4. Bonsu KO, Owusu IK, Buabeng KO, Reidpath DD, Kadirvelu A
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2017 Apr 01;6(4).
    PMID: 28365564 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.116.004706
    BACKGROUND: Randomized control trials of statins have not demonstrated significant benefits in outcomes of heart failure (HF). However, randomized control trials may not always be generalizable. The aim was to determine whether statin and statin type-lipophilic or -hydrophilic improve long-term outcomes in Africans with HF.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study of HF patients aged ≥18 years hospitalized at a tertiary healthcare center between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 in Ghana. Patients were eligible if they were discharged from first admission for HF (index admission) and followed up to time of all-cause, cardiovascular, and HF mortality or end of study. Multivariable time-dependent Cox model and inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting of marginal structural model were used to estimate associations between statin treatment and outcomes. Adjusted hazard ratios were also estimated for lipophilic and hydrophilic statin compared with no statin use. The study included 1488 patients (mean age 60.3±14.2 years) with 9306 person-years of observation. Using the time-dependent Cox model, the 5-year adjusted hazard ratios with 95% CI for statin treatment on all-cause, cardiovascular, and HF mortality were 0.68 (0.55-0.83), 0.67 (0.54-0.82), and 0.63 (0.51-0.79), respectively. Use of inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting resulted in estimates of 0.79 (0.65-0.96), 0.77 (0.63-0.96), and 0.77 (0.61-0.95) for statin treatment on all-cause, cardiovascular, and HF mortality, respectively, compared with no statin use.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among Africans with HF, statin treatment was associated with significant reduction in mortality.

  5. Poorthuis MHF, Sherliker P, de Borst GJ, Carter JL, Lam KBH, Jones NR, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 04 20;10(8):e019025.
    PMID: 33853362 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019025
    Background Associations between adiposity and atrial fibrillation (AF) might differ between sexes. We aimed to determine precise estimates of the risk of AF by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in men and women. Methods and Results Between 2008 and 2013, over 3.2 million adults attended commercial screening clinics. Participants completed health questionnaires and underwent physical examination along with cardiovascular investigations, including an ECG. We excluded those with cardiovascular and cardiac disease. We used multivariable logistic regression and determined joint associations of BMI and WC and the risk of AF in men and women by comparing likelihood ratio χ2 statistics. Among 2.1 million included participants 12 067 (0.6%) had AF. A positive association between BMI per 5 kg/m2 increment and AF was observed, with an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.57-1.73) for men and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.42) for women among those with a BMI above 20 kg/m2. We found a positive association between AF and WC per 10 cm increment, with an odds ratio of 1.47 (95% CI, 1.36-1.60) for men and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.26-1.49) for women. Improvement of likelihood ratio χ2 was equal after adding BMI and WC to models with all participants. In men, WC showed stronger improvement of likelihood ratio χ2 than BMI (30% versus 23%). In women, BMI showed stronger improvement of likelihood ratio χ2 than WC (23% versus 12%). Conclusions We found a positive association between BMI (above 20 kg/m2) and AF and between WC and AF in both men and women. BMI seems a more informative measure about risk of AF in women and WC seems more informative in men.
  6. Chia YC, Kieneker LM, van Hassel G, Binnenmars SH, Nolte IM, van Zanden JJ, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 06;10(11):e018549.
    PMID: 33998283 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.018549
    Background The cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is poorly understood, and specific therapies are lacking. Previous studies suggested that inflammation plays a role in the development of HFpEF. Herein, we aimed to investigate in community-dwelling individuals whether a higher plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) level is associated with an increased risk of developing new-onset heart failure (HF) over time, and specifically HFpEF. Methods and Results We performed a case-cohort study based on the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) study, a prospective general population-based cohort study. We included 961 participants, comprising 200 participants who developed HF and a random group of 761 controls. HF with reduced ejection fraction or HFpEF was defined on the basis of the left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤40% or >40%, respectively. In Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, IL-6 levels were statistically significantly associated with the development of HF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; P=0.03) after adjustment for key risk factors. Specifically, IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the development of HFpEF (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16-2.19; P=0.004), whereas the association with HF with reduced ejection fraction was nonsignificant (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.75-1.47; P=0.77). In sensitivity analyses, defining HFpEF as left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%, IL-6 levels were also significantly associated with the development of HFpEF (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.04-2.06; P=0.03) after adjustment for key risk factors. Conclusions IL-6 is associated with new-onset HFpEF in community-dwelling individuals, independent of potential confounders. Our findings warrant further research to investigate whether IL-6 might be a novel treatment target to prevent HFpEF.
  7. Law ZK, Desborough M, Roberts I, Al-Shahi Salman R, England TJ, Werring DJ, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 02;10(5):e019130.
    PMID: 33586453 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019130
    Background Antiplatelet therapy increases the risk of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) while the effect on functional outcome is uncertain. Methods and Results This is an exploratory analysis of the TICH-2 (Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-2) double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which studied the efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with spontaneous ICH within 8 hours of onset. Multivariable logistic regression and ordinal regression were performed to explore the relationship between pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy, and 24-hour hematoma expansion and day 90 modified Rankin Scale score, as well as the effect of tranexamic acid. Of 2325 patients, 611 (26.3%) had pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy. They were older (mean age, 75.7 versus 66.5 years), more likely to have ischemic heart disease (25.4% versus 2.7%), ischemic stroke (36.2% versus 6.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (40.2% versus 27.5%), and larger baseline hematoma volume (mean, 28.1 versus 22.6 mL) than the no-antiplatelet group. Pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy was associated with a significantly increased risk of hematoma expansion (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63), a shift toward unfavorable outcome in modified Rankin Scale (adjusted common OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.32-1.91) and a higher risk of death at day 90 (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25-2.11). Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of hematoma expansion in the overall patients with ICH (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) and antiplatelet subgroup (adjusted OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.91) with no significant interaction between pre-ICH antiplatelet therapy and tranexamic acid (P interaction=0.248). Conclusions Antiplatelet therapy is independently associated with hematoma expansion and unfavorable functional outcome. Tranexamic acid reduced hematoma expansion regardless of prior antiplatelet therapy use. Registration URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
  8. Singh S, de Ronde MWJ, Creemers EE, Van der Made I, Meijering R, Chan MY, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 01 19;10(2):e017120.
    PMID: 33441016 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017120
    Background Because of a nonresponse to aspirin (aspirin resistance), patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at increased risk of developing recurrent event. The in vitro platelet function tests have potential limitations, making them unsuitable for the detection of aspirin resistance. We investigated whether miR-19b-1-5p could be utilized as a biomarker for aspirin resistance and future major adverse cardio-cerebrovascular (MACCE) events in patients with ACS. Methods and Results In this cohort study, patients with ACS were enrolled from multiple tertiary hospitals in Christchurch, Hong Kong, Sarawak, and Singapore between 2011 and 2015. MiR-19b-1-5p expression was measured from buffy coat of patients with ACS (n=945) by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Platelet function was determined by Multiplate aggregometry testing. MACCE was collected over a mean follow-up time of 1.01±0.43 years. Low miR-19b-1-5p expression was found to be related to aspirin resistance as could be observed from sustained platelet aggregation in the presence of aspirin (-Log-miR-19b-1-5p, [unstandardized beta, 44.50; 95% CI, 2.20-86.80; P<0.05]), even after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and prior history of stroke. Lower miR-19b-1-5p expression was independently associated with a higher risk of MACCE (-Log-miR-19b-1-5p, [hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.23-2.80; P<0.05]). Furthermore, a significant interaction was noted between the inverse miR-19b-1-5p expression and family history of premature coronary artery disease (P=0.01) on the risk of MACCE. Conclusions Lower miR-19b-1-5p expression was found to be associated with sustained platelet aggregation on aspirin, and a higher risk of MACCE in patients with ACS. Therefore, miR-19b-1-5p could be a suitable marker for aspirin resistance and might predict recurrence of MACCE in patients with ACS.
  9. Wang MC, Freaney PM, Perak AM, Greenland P, Lloyd-Jones DM, Grobman WA, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 09 07;10(17):e020717.
    PMID: 34431359 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.020717
    Background The prevalence of obesity in the population has increased in parallel with increasing rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). Quantifying contemporary trends in prepregnancy obesity and associations with interrelated APOs (preterm birth, low birth weight, and pregnancy-associated hypertension) together and individually can inform prevention strategies to optimize cardiometabolic health in women and offspring. Methods and Results We performed a serial, cross-sectional study using National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data including women aged 15 to 44 years with live singleton births between 2013 and 2018, stratified by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian). We quantified the annual prevalence of prepregnancy obesity (body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2; body mass index ≥27.5 kg/m2 if non-Hispanic Asian). We then estimated adjusted associations using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratios and population attributable fractions) for obesity-related APOs compared with normal body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m2; 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 if non-Hispanic Asian). Among 20 139 891 women, the prevalence of prepregnancy obesity increased between 2013 and 2018: non-Hispanic White (21.6%-24.8%), non-Hispanic Black (32.5%-36.2%), Hispanic (26.0%-30.5%), and non-Hispanic Asian (15.3%-18.6%) women (P-trend 
  10. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2016 11 07;5(11).
    PMID: 27821404
    BACKGROUND: Visit-to-visit variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, little is known about its long-term effect on renal function. We aim to examine the relationship between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) and decline in renal function in patients with hypertension and to determine the level of systolic BPV that is associated with significant renal function decline.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a 15-year retrospective cohort study of 825 hypertensive patients. Blood pressure readings every 3 months were retrieved from the 15 years of clinic visits. We used SD and coefficient of variation as a measure of systolic BPV. Serum creatinine was captured and estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated at baseline, 5, 10, and 15 years. The mean SD of SBP was 14.2±3.1 mm Hg and coefficient of variation of SBP was 10.2±2%. Mean for estimated glomerular filtration rate slope was -1.0±1.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per year. There was a significant relationship between BPV and slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (SD: r=-0.16, P<0.001; coefficient of variation: r=-0.14, P<0.001, Pearson's correlation). BPV of SBP for each individual was significantly associated with slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate after adjustment for mean SBP and other confounders. The cutoff values estimated by the receiver operating characteristic curve for the onset of chronic kidney disease for SD of SBP was 13.5 mm Hg and coefficient of variation of SBP was 9.74%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP is an independent determinant of renal deterioration in patients with hypertension. Hence, every effort should be made to reduce BPV in order to slow down the decline of renal function.

  11. Gao F, Lam CS, Yeo KK, Machin D, de Carvalho LP, Sim LL, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2016 10 06;5(10).
    PMID: 27792637
    BACKGROUND: We examined the influence of sex, ethnicity, and time on competing cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes of death following acute myocardial infarction in a multiethnic Asian cohort.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: For 12 years, we followed a prospective nationwide cohort of 15 151 patients (aged 22-101 years, median age 63 years; 72.3% male; 66.7% Chinese, 19.8% Malay, 13.5% Indian) who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2005. There were 6463 deaths (4534 cardiovascular, 1929 noncardiovascular). Compared with men, women had a higher risk of cardiovascular death (age-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4) but a similar risk of noncardiovascular death (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-1.0). Sex differences in cardiovascular death varied by ethnicity, age, and time. Compared with Chinese women, Malay women had the greatest increased hazard of cardiovascular death (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and a marked imbalance in death due to heart failure or cardiomyopathy (HR 3.4 [95% CI 1.9-6.0] versus HR 1.5 [95% CI 0.6-3.6] for Indian women). Compared with same-age Malay men, Malay women aged 22 to 49 years had a 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.6-3.8) increased hazard of cardiovascular death. Sex disparities in cardiovascular death tapered over time, least among Chinese patients and most among Indian patients; the HR comparing cardiovascular death of Indian women and men decreased from 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.4) at 30 days to 0.9 (95% CI 0.5-1.6) at 10 years.

    CONCLUSION: Age, ethnicity, and time strongly influence the association between sex and specific cardiovascular causes of mortality, suggesting that health care policy to reduce sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction outcomes must consider the complex interplay of these 3 major modifying factors.

  12. Connolly SD, Lloyd-Jones DM, Ning H, Marino BS, Pool LR, Perak AM
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2022 Nov 15;11(22):e026797.
    PMID: 36370007 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.122.026797
    Background Cardiovascular health (CVH) is suboptimal in US adolescents. Social determinants of health (SDOH) may affect CVH. We examined SDOH by race and ethnicity and assessed for associations between SDOH and CVH among US adolescents. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 3590 participants aged 12 to 19 years from 1999 to 2014. SDOH variables were chosen and an SDOH score assigned (range, 0-7 points; higher=more favorable). CVH was classified according to American Heart Association criteria. We estimated population prevalence and used multivariable linear and polytomous logistic regression for associations between SDOH and CVH. SDOH varied by group, with the non-Hispanic White group (n=1155) having a higher/better mean SDOH score compared with non-Hispanic Black (n=1223) and Mexican American groups (n=1212). Associations between SDOH and CVH differed between racial and ethnic groups (interaction P<0.0001). For the non-Hispanic White group, each additional favorable SDOH variable was associated with a CVH score higher/better by 0.3 points (β, 0.3, P<0.0001), 20% higher odds for moderate (versus low) CVH (odds ratio [OR], 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.4]), and 80% higher odds for high/favorable (versus low) CVH (1.8 [1.5-2.1]). Associations between SDOH and CVH were more modest among the Mexican American group (β, 0.12, P=0.001; OR 1.1 [1.0-1.2] for moderate CVH; OR, 1.3 [1.1-1.6] for high CVH) and were not significant among the non-Hispanic Black group (β, 0.07; P=0.464). Conclusions SDOH and CVH were more favorable for non-Hispanic White adolescents compared with non-Hispanic Black and Mexican American adolescents. SDOH were strongly associated with CVH among the non-Hispanic White group. Racially and culturally sensitive public policy approaches may improve CVH in US adolescents.
  13. Rordorf R, Scazzuso F, Chun KRJ, Khelae SK, Kueffer FJ, Braegelmann KM, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 Dec 21;10(24):e021323.
    PMID: 34889108 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.121.021323
    Background Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist; yet, outcomes of ablation in patients with AF and concomitant HF are limited. This analysis assessed outcomes of cryoablation in patients with AF and HF. Methods and Results The Cryo AF Global Registry is a prospective, multicenter registry of patients with AF who were treated with cryoballoon ablation according to routine practice at 56 sites in 26 countries. Patients with baseline New York Heart Association class I to III (HF cohort) were compared with patients without HF. Freedom from atrial arrhythmia recurrence ≥30 seconds, safety, and health care utilization over 12-month follow-up were analyzed. A total of 1303 patients (318 HF) were included. Patients with HF commonly had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (81.6%), were more often women (45.6% versus 33.6%) with persistent AF (25.8% versus 14.3%), and had a larger left atrial diameter (4.4±0.9 versus 4.0±0.7 cm). Serious procedure-related complications occurred in 4.1% of patients with HF and 2.6% of patients without HF (P=0.188). Freedom from atrial arrhythmia recurrence was not different between cohorts with either paroxysmal AF (84.2% [95% CI, 78.6-88.4] versus 86.8% [95% CI, 84.2-89.0]) or persistent AF (69.6% [95% CI, 58.1-78.5] versus 71.8% [95% CI, 63.2-78.7]) (P=0.319). After ablation, a reduction in AF-related symptoms and antiarrhythmic drug use was observed in both cohorts (HF and no-HF), and freedom from repeat ablation was not different between cohorts. Persistent AF and HF predicted a post-ablation cardiovascular rehospitalization (P=0.032 and P=0.001, respectively). Conclusions Cryoablation to treat patients with AF is similarly effective at 12 months in patients with and without HF. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02752737.
  14. Perak AM, Ning H, Khan SS, Van Horn LV, Grobman WA, Lloyd-Jones DM
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2020 Feb 18;9(4):e015123.
    PMID: 32063122 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.015123
    Background Pregnancy is a cardiometabolic stressor and thus a critical period to address women's lifetime cardiovascular health (CVH). However, CVH among US pregnant women has not been characterized. Methods and Results We analyzed cross-sectional data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999 to 2014 for 1117 pregnant and 8200 nonpregnant women, aged 20 to 44 years. We assessed 7 CVH metrics using American Heart Association definitions modified for pregnancy; categorized metrics as ideal, intermediate, or poor; assigned these categories 2, 1, or 0 points, respectively; and summed across the 7 metrics for a total score of 0 to 14 points. Total scores 12 to 14 indicated high CVH; 8 to 11, moderate CVH; and 0 to 7, low CVH. We applied survey weights to generate US population-level estimates of CVH levels and compared pregnant and nonpregnant women using demographic-adjusted polytomous logistic and linear regression. Among pregnant women, the prevalences (95% CIs) of ideal levels of CVH metrics were 0.1% (0%-0.3%) for diet, 27.3% (22.2%-32.3%) for physical activity, 38.9% (33.7%-44.0%) for total cholesterol, 51.1% (46.0%-56.2%) for body mass index, 77.7% (73.3%-82.2%) for smoking, 90.4% (87.5%-93.3%) for blood pressure, and 91.6% (88.3%-94.9%) for fasting glucose. The mean total CVH score was 8.3 (95% CI, 8.0-8.7) of 14, with high CVH in 4.6% (95% CI, 0.5%-8.8%), moderate CVH in 60.6% (95% CI, 52.3%-68.9%), and low CVH in 34.8% (95% CI, 26.4%-43.2%). CVH levels were significantly lower among pregnant versus nonpregnant women; for example, 13.0% (95% CI, 11.0%-15.0%) of nonpregnant women had high CVH (adjusted, comparison P=0.01). Conclusions From 1999 to 2014, <1 in 10 US pregnant women, aged 20 to 44 years, had high CVH.
  15. Oguntade AS, Islam N, Malouf R, Taylor H, Jin D, Lewington S, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2023 Jul 04;12(13):e029062.
    PMID: 37345755 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.122.029062
    Background The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the associations between body composition measures and risk of incident heart failure (HF) and its subtypes in the general population. Methods and Results We searched Medline, Embase, and Global Health databases from each database inception to January 19, 2023 for prospective studies reporting on body composition and HF risk. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias of included studies. Fixed-effects models were used for meta-analysis. Thirty-five studies were included (ntotal=1 137 044; ncases=34 422). Summary relative risk (RR) per 5-kg/m2 higher body mass index was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40-1.42; 𝜁2=0.02, I2=94.4%), 1.28 (95% CI, 1.26-1.31; 𝜁2=0.01, I2=75.8%) per 10-cm higher waist circumference, and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.28-1.37; 𝜁2=0.04, I2=94.9%) per 0.1-unit higher waist-hip ratio. Pooled estimates of the few studies that reported on regional fat suggested significant positive association between HF risk and both visceral fat (RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.12]) and pericardial fat (RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.06-1.10]). Among HF subtypes, associations were stronger for HF with preserved ejection fraction than HF with reduced ejection fraction. No study reported on lean mass. Conclusions Pooled data suggested strong associations between adiposity and HF. The association with adiposity is stronger for HF with preserved ejection fraction than HF with reduced ejection fraction, indicating that different mechanisms may be at play in etiopathogenesis of HF subtypes. Future studies are needed to investigate role of regional fat mass and lean mass in HF risk. Registration Information REGISTRATION: URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Unique identifier: CRD42020224584.
  16. Azahar NM, Yano Y, Kadota A, Shiino A, Syaifullah AH, Miyagawa N, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2023 Jun 06;12(11):e028586.
    PMID: 37232267 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.122.028586
    Background Little is known regarding whether arterial stiffness and atherosclerotic burden are each independently associated with brain structural changes. Simultaneous assessments of both arterial stiffness and atherosclerotic burden in associations with brain could provide insights into the mechanisms of brain structural changes. Methods and Results Using data from the SESSA (Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis), we analyzed data among 686 Japanese men (mean [SD] age, 67.9 [8.4] years; range, 46-83 years) free from history of stroke and myocardial infarction. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and coronary artery calcification on computed tomography scans were measured between March 2010 and August 2014. Brain volumes (total brain volume, gray matter, Alzheimer disease signature and prefrontal) and brain vascular damage (white matter hyperintensities) were quantified using brain magnetic resonance imaging from January 2012 through February 2015. In multivariable adjustment models including mean arterial pressure, when brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and coronary artery calcification were entered into the same models, the β (95% CI) for Alzheimer disease signature volume for each 1-SD increase in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was -0.33 (-0.64 to -0.02), and the unstandardized β (95% CI) for white matter hyperintensities for each 1-unit increase in coronary artery calcification was 0.68 (0.05-1.32). Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and coronary artery calcification were not statistically significantly associated with total brain and gray matter volumes. Conclusions Among Japanese men, higher arterial stiffness was associated with lower Alzheimer disease signature volumes, whereas higher atherosclerotic burden was associated with brain vascular damage. Arterial stiffness and atherosclerotic burden may be independently associated with brain structural changes via different pathways.
  17. Tan CMJ, Lewandowski AJ, Williamson W, Huckstep OJ, Yu GZ, Fischer R, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2021 Aug 03;10(15):e021119.
    PMID: 34275329 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.121.021119
    Background A subpopulation of endothelial progenitor cells called endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) may offer a platform for cellular assessment in clinical studies because of their remarkable angiogenic and expansion potentials in vitro. Despite endothelial cell function being influenced by cardiovascular risk factors, no studies have yet provided a comprehensive proteomic profile to distinguish functional (ie, more angiogenic and expansive cells) versus dysfunctional circulating ECFCs of young adults. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed proteomic comparison between functional and dysfunctional ECFCs. Methods and Results Peripheral blood ECFCs were isolated from 11 subjects (45% men, aged 27±5 years) using Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. ECFCs expressed endothelial and progenitor surface markers and displayed cobblestone-patterned morphology with clonal and angiogenic capacities in vitro. ECFCs were deemed dysfunctional if <1 closed tube formed during the in vitro tube formation assay and proliferation rate was <20%. Hierarchical functional clustering revealed distinct ECFC proteomic signatures between functional and dysfunctional ECFCs with changes in cellular mechanisms involved in exocytosis, vesicle transport, extracellular matrix organization, cell metabolism, and apoptosis. Targeted antiangiogenic proteins in dysfunctional ECFCs included SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), LUM (lumican), and PTX3 (pentraxin-related protein PYX3). Conclusions Circulating ECFCs with impaired angiogenesis and expansion capacities have a distinct proteomic profile and significant phenotype changes compared with highly angiogenic endothelial cells. Impaired angiogenesis in dysfunctional ECFCs may underlie the link between endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risks in young adults.
  18. Schuermans A, den Harink T, Raman B, Smillie RW, Alsharqi M, Mohamed A, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2022 Dec 06;11(23):e027305.
    PMID: 36453643 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.122.027305
    Background Preterm birth affects 10% of live births and is associated with an altered left ventricular and right ventricular phenotype and increased cardiovascular disease risk in young adulthood. Because left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) volume and function are known independent predictors of cardiovascular outcomes, we investigated whether these were altered in preterm-born young adults. Methods and Results Preterm-born (n=200) and term-born (n=266) adults aged 18 to 39 years underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. LA and RA maximal and minimal volumes (absolute, indexed to body surface area, and as a ratio to ventricular volumes) were obtained to study atrial morphology, while LA and RA stroke volume, strain, and strain rate were used to assess atrial function. Secondary analyses consisted of between-group comparisons based on degree of prematurity. Absolute RA volumes and RA volumes indexed to right ventricular volumes were significantly smaller in preterm-born compared with term-born adults. In addition, RA reservoir and booster strain were higher in preterm-born adults, possibly indicating functional compensation for the smaller RA volumes. LA volumes indexed to left ventricular volumes were significantly greater in preterm-born adults as compared with term-born adults, although absolute LA volumes were similar between groups. LA and RA changes were observed across gestational ages in the preterm group but were greatest in those born very-to-extremely preterm. Conclusions Preterm-born adults show changes in LA and RA structure and function, which may indicate subclinical cardiovascular disease. Further research into underlying mechanisms, opportunities for interventions, and their prognostic value is warranted.
  19. Tan MC, Yeo YH, Mirza N, San BJ, Tan JL, Lee JZ, et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc, 2024 Apr 02;13(7):e031484.
    PMID: 38533928 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.123.031484
    BACKGROUND: Despite significant cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis, real-world data on death due to cardiovascular disease among patients with sarcoidosis is not well established.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We queried the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database for data on patients with sarcoidosis aged ≥25 years from 1999 to 2020. Diseases of the circulatory system except ischemic heart disease were listed as the underlying cause of death, and sarcoidosis was stated as a contributing cause of death. We calculated age-adjusted mortality rate (AAMR) per 1 million individuals and determined the trends over time by estimating the annual percentage change using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Subgroup analyses were performed on the basis of demographic and geographic factors. In the 22-year study period, 3301 cardiovascular deaths with comorbid sarcoidosis were identified. The AAMR from cardiovascular deaths with comorbid sarcoidosis increased from 0.53 (95% CI, 0.43-0.65) per 1 million individuals in 1999 to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.98) per 1 million individuals in 2020. Overall, women recorded a higher AAMR compared with men (0.77 [95% CI, 0.74-0.81] versus 0.58 [95% CI, 0.55-0.62]). People with Black ancestry had higher AAMR than people with White ancestry (3.23 [95% CI, 3.07-3.39] versus 0.39 [95% CI, 0.37-0.41]). A higher percentage of death was seen in the age groups of 55 to 64 years in men (23.11%) and women (21.81%), respectively. In terms of US census regions, the South region has the highest AAMR from cardiovascular deaths with comorbid sarcoidosis compared with other regions (0.78 [95% CI, 0.74-0.82]).

    CONCLUSIONS: The increase of AAMR from cardiovascular deaths with comorbid sarcoidosis and higher cardiovascular mortality rates among adults aged 55 to 64 years highlight the importance of early screening for cardiovascular diseases among patients with sarcoidosis.

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