This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE) with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME), growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p<0.05) hemicellulose and cellulose contents of PKE by 26.26 and 32.62%, respectively; and improved true ME (TME) and its nitrogen corrected value (TMEn) by 38% and 33%, respectively, compared to the raw sample. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens fed on different dietary treatments in the grower period were not significantly different. Although there was no difference in feed intake (p>0.05) among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet) was higher (p<0.05) than in all treatment groups fed either 20 or 30% PKE, irrespective of with or without enzyme treatment. However, ADG of birds fed with 20% PKE was higher than those fed with 30% PKE. The FCR of chickens in the control was the lowest (2.20) but not significantly different from those fed 20% PKE diets while birds in the 30% PKE diets recorded higher (p>0.05) FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p<0.05) than those in the raw PKE groups. Viscosity of the intestinal digesta was not different (p>0.05) among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose) component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.
Research was undertaken to investigate the treatment of fishery washing water using Bacillus sphaericus, and to recover the spores for subsequent use as bioinsecticide to control the population of mosquitoes. This treatment method could reduce pollution due to organic matter by decreasing the value of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) by about 85% and 92%, respectively. The maximum concentration of spores (83.3 x 10(7) spores ml(-1)) using normal concentration of filtered fishery washing water was only about 27% lower than that obtained in fermentation using 0.25% (w/v) yeast extract. The larvicidal activity of the spores produced in fermentation using fishery washing water to Culex quinquefaciatus, as measured by LD50 after 48 h, was almost the same as the larvicidal activity of spores obtained from fermentation using yeast extract.
Direct conversion of gelatinized sago starch into kojic acid by Aspergillus flavus strain having amylolytic enzymes was carried out at two different scales of submerged batch fermentation in a 250-mL shake flask and in a 50-L stirred-tank fermentor. For comparison, fermentations were also carried out using glucose and glucose hydrolyzate from enzymic hydrolysis of sago starch as carbon sources. During kojic acid fermentation of starch, starch was first hydrolyzed to glucose by the action of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase during active growth phase. The glucose remaining during the production phase (non-growing phase) was then converted to kojic acid. Kojic acid production (23.5 g/L) using 100 g/L sago starch in a shake flask was comparable to fermentation of glucose (31.5 g/L) and glucose hydrolyzate (27.9 g/L) but in the 50-L fermentor was greatly reduced due to non-optimal aeration conditions. Kojic acid production using glucose was higher in the 50-L fermentor than in the shake flask.
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya is rich in potassium, fiber, and antioxidants. Its nutritional properties and unique flesh color have made it an attractive raw material of various types of food products and beverages including fermented beverages or enzyme drinks. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to confirm the identity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in fermented red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) beverages. A total of 21 isolates of LAB were isolated and characterized. They belonged to the genus of Enterococcus based on their biochemical characteristics. The isolates can be clustered into two groups by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method. Nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA region suggested that they were either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus durans.
Many plasmid-harbouring strains of Lactococcus lactis have been isolated from milk and other sources. Plasmids of Lactococcus have been shown to harbour antibiotic resistance genes and those that express some important proteins. The generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status of L. lactis also makes it an attractive host for the production of proteins that are beneficial in numerous applications such as the production of biopharmaceutical and nutraceutical. In the present work, strains of L. lactis were isolated from cow's milk, plasmids were isolated and characterised and one of the strains was identified as a potential new lactococcal host for the expression of heterologous proteins.
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) is an extracellular enzyme which catalyzes the formation of cyclodextrin from starch. The production of CGTase using lactic acid bacterium is an attractive alternative and safer strategy to produce CGTase. In this study, we report the construction of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis strains harboring plasmids that secrete the Bacillus sp. G1 β-CGTase, with the aid of the signal peptides (SPs) SPK1, USP45 and native SP (NSP). Three constructed vectors, pNZ:NSP:CGT, pNZ:USP:CGT and pNZ:SPK1:CGT, were developed in this study. Each vector harbored a different SP fused to the CGTase. The formation of halo zones on starch plates indicated the production and secretion of β-CGTase by the recombinants. The expression of this enzyme is shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and zymogram analysis. A band size of ∼75 kDa corresponding to β-CGTase is identified in the intracellular and the extracellular environments of the host after medium modification. The replacement of glucose by starch in the medium was shown to induce β-CGTase production in L. lactis. Although β-CGTase production is comparatively low in NZ:SPK1:CGT, the SP SPK1 was shown to have higher secretion efficiency compared to the other SPs used in this study.