Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Yulistiani D, Jelan ZA, Liang JB, Yaakub H, Abdullah N
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2015 Apr;28(4):494-501.
    PMID: 25656207 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.14.0406
    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.
  2. Choi KH, Min JY, Ganesan P, Bae IH, Kwak HS
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2015 Jan;28(1):120-6.
    PMID: 25557683 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.14.0056
    This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH)- or red ginseng extract (RGE)-added Asiago cheeses (AC) during ripening at 14°C for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE- added AC (p<0.05). While RGHAC and RGEAC were more yellow and darker with increasing concentrations than that of control (p<0.05), the color was not influenced from the hydrolysis. In texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of RGHAC and RGEAC significantly decreased compared to the control during the ripening (p<0.05). In sensory analysis, bitterness and ginseng flavor and taste scores increased significantly with increasing the concentrations of RGH and RGE during ripening (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of RGH and RGE into cheese slightly influenced the properties of Asiago cheese, and similarities were observed between RGHAC and RGEAC. Thus, the lower concentrations (0.1% to 0.3%) of RGH and RGE added to AC were preferred for color, texture, and sensory during the ripening, therefore, these cheeses would be worth developing commercially.
  3. Rahman MR, Rahman MM, Wan Khadijah WE, Abdullah RB
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2014 Sep;27(9):1270-4.
    PMID: 25178370 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13786
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH) dosage based on body weight (BW) on ovarian responses of crossbred does. Thirty donor does were divided into 3 groups getting pFSH dosages of 3, 5, and 8 mg pFSH per kg BW, respectively, and were named as pFSH-3, pFSH-5 and pFSH-8, respectively. Estrus was synchronized by inserting a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device and a single injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). The pFSH treatments were administered twice a day through 6 decreasing dosages (25, 25, 15, 15, 10, and 10% of total pFSH amount; decreasing daily). Ovarian responses were evaluated on Day 7 after CIDR removal. After CIDR removal, estrus was observed 3 times in a day and pFSH treatments were initiated at 2 days before the CIDR removal. All does in pFSH-5 and pFSH-8 showed estrus signs while half of the does in pFSH-3 showed estrus signs. No differences (p>0.05) were observed on the corpus luteum and total ovarian stimulation among the treatment groups, while total and transferable embryos were higher (p<0.05) in pFSH-5 (7.00 and 6.71) than pFSH-3 (3.00 and 2.80) and pFSH-8 (2.00 and 1.50), respectively. In conclusion, 5 mg pFSH per kg BW dosage gave a higher number of embryos than 3 and 8 mg pFSH per kg BW dosages. The results indicated that the dosage of pFSH based on BW is an important consideration for superovulation in goats.
  4. Aghwan ZA, Alimon AR, Goh YM, Nakyinsige K, Sazili AQ
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2014 Apr;27(4):543-50.
    PMID: 25049986 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13545
    Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22.00±1.17 kg were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal) diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control) - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs) detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1n9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6), while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the goats of the control group (T1). The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2) than those of control ones (T1). It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats.
  5. Yusuf AL, Goh YM, Samsudin AA, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2014 Apr;27(4):503-10.
    PMID: 25049980 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13533
    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).
  6. Ramiah SK, Zulkifli I, Rahim NA, Ebrahimi M, Meng GY
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2014 Mar;27(3):375-82.
    PMID: 25049964 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13030
    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, "day-old" chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at -20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens' breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens.
  7. Nakyinsige K, Sazili AQ, Aghwan ZA, Zulkifli I, Goh YM, Fatimah AB
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 Jun;26(6):874-8.
    PMID: 25049862 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12652
    Unlike Europe (particularly, Italy and Spain), where a number of studies have been conducted on the stressful effects of transport on rabbit welfare, few studies have been conducted on transportation of rabbits under hot, humid tropical conditions experienced in countries like Malaysia. We studied the effects of transportation in hot humid tropical conditions of Malaysia on physiometabolic changes in New Zealand white rabbits. Eighty experimental animals were divided into two groups of 40 bucks each and transported for either 3 or 1 h. Transportation caused a significant upsurge of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities (p<0.001) though did not significantly affect lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (p = 0.0706). Both transportation periods caused elevation in plasma glucose levels, lactic acidosis and dehydration as evidenced through elevated packed cell volume and plasma protein concentration. It was concluded that regardless of the duration, transport of rabbits under hot humid tropical conditions, resulted in heat distress since the rabbits showed hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia, lactacidemia, lymphocytopenia, dehydration and increase in blood enzyme activities.
  8. Aghwan ZA, Sazili AQ, Alimon AR, Goh YM, Hilmi M
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 Nov;26(11):1577-82.
    PMID: 25049744 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13180
    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats.
  9. Nakyinsige K, Fatimah AB, Aghwan ZA, Zulkifli I, Goh YM, Sazili AQ
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2014 Mar;27(3):406-13.
    PMID: 25049968 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13437
    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.
  10. Adeyemi KD, Sazili AQ
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2014 Mar;27(3):447-56.
    PMID: 25049973 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13463
    The use of electrical stimulation (ES) as a management tool to improve meat quality and efficiency of meat processing is reviewed. The basis of the efficacy of ES is its ability to fast track postmortem glycolysis, which in turn stimulates myriad histological, physical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological changes in the postmortem muscle. Electrical stimulation hastens the onset and resolution of rigor mortis thereby reducing processing time and labor and plays a vital role in improving meat tenderness and other meat quality traits. However, ES may have negative impacts on some meat quality traits such as color stability and water holding capacity in some animals. Electrical stimulation is not an end in itself. In order to achieve the desired benefits from its application, the technique must be properly used in conjunction with various intricate antemortem, perimortem and postmortem management practices. Despite extensive research on ES, the fundamental mechanisms and the appropriate commercial applications remained obscured. In addition, muscles differ in their response to ES. Thus, elementary knowledge of the various alterations with respect to muscle type is needed in order to optimize the effectiveness of ES in the improvement of meat quality.
  11. Sazili AQ, Norbaiyah B, Zulkifli I, Goh YM, Lotfi M, Small AH
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 May;26(5):723-31.
    PMID: 25049845 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12563
    This study provides a comparative analysis of the effects of pre-slaughter penetrative and non-penetrative stunning and post-slaughter stunning on meat quality attributes in longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in heifers. Ten animals were assigned to each of four treatment groups: i) animals were subjected to conventional Halal slaughter (a clean incision through the structures at the front of the upper neck - the trachea, oesophagus, carotid arteries and jugular veins) and post-cut penetrating mechanical stun within 10 to 20 s of the neck cut (Unstunned; US); ii) high power non-penetrating mechanical stunning followed by the neck cut (HPNP); iii) low power non-penetrating mechanical stunning followed by the neck cut (LPNP); and iv) penetrative stunning using a captive bolt pistol followed by the neck cut (P). For each carcass, muscle samples were removed within 45 min of slaughter, portioned and analysed for pH, cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), tenderness (WBS), lipid oxidation (TBARS) and color, over a two week storage period. Stunning did not affect pH and cooking loss. Significant differences in water holding capacity, tenderness, lipid oxidation and color were present at different storage time points. HPNP stunning resulted in lower WHC and color values, particularly lightness (L*), higher TBARS values and peak force values compared with those stunned using LPNP, P and US. These adverse effects on quality were mostly encountered in the ST muscle. In conclusion, the meat quality achieved using P, LPNP and US treatments was comparable, and no treatment stood out as considerably better than another.
  12. Chwen LT, Foo HL, Thanh NT, Choe DW
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 May;26(5):700-4.
    PMID: 25049841 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12561
    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
  13. Saenphoom P, Liang JB, Ho YW, Loh TC, Rosfarizan M
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 Apr;26(4):537-44.
    PMID: 25049820 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12463
    This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE) with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME), growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p<0.05) hemicellulose and cellulose contents of PKE by 26.26 and 32.62%, respectively; and improved true ME (TME) and its nitrogen corrected value (TMEn) by 38% and 33%, respectively, compared to the raw sample. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens fed on different dietary treatments in the grower period were not significantly different. Although there was no difference in feed intake (p>0.05) among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet) was higher (p<0.05) than in all treatment groups fed either 20 or 30% PKE, irrespective of with or without enzyme treatment. However, ADG of birds fed with 20% PKE was higher than those fed with 30% PKE. The FCR of chickens in the control was the lowest (2.20) but not significantly different from those fed 20% PKE diets while birds in the 30% PKE diets recorded higher (p>0.05) FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p<0.05) than those in the raw PKE groups. Viscosity of the intestinal digesta was not different (p>0.05) among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose) component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.
  14. Devendra C
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2012 Jan;25(1):122-42.
    PMID: 25049487 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2011.r.09
    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future.
  15. Devendra C
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 Jan;26(1):1-18.
    PMID: 25049700 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.r.01
    The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs), including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D) are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of ruminants in which goats, with a capacity to cope with heat tolerance, can be the entry point for development. Networks and networking are very important for the diffusion of information and can add value to R and D. Well formulated projects with clear priority setting and participatory R and D ensure success and the realisation of food security, improved livelihoods and self-reliance in the future.
  16. Paengkoum P, Phonmun T, Liang JB, Huang XD, Tan HY, Jahromi MF
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2015 Oct;28(10):1442-8.
    PMID: 26323400 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.13.0834
    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations.
  17. Nazli MH, Halim RA, Abdullah AM, Hussin G, Samsudin AA
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2019 Feb;32(2):224-232.
    PMID: 29879832 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.18.0175
    OBJECTIVE: Apart from various climatic differences, corn harvest stage and varieties are two major factors that can influence the yield and quality of corn silage in the tropics. A study was conducted to determine the optimum harvest stage of four corn varieties for silage production in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Corn was harvested at four growth stages; silking, milk, dough, and dent stages from four varieties; Sweet Corn hybrid 926, Suwan, breeding test line (BTL) 1 and BTL 2. Using a split plot design, the treatments were then analysed based on the plant growth performance, yield, nutritive and feeding values followed by a financial feasibility study for potential commercialization.

    RESULTS: Significant differences and interactions were detected across the parameters suggesting varying responses among the varieties towards the harvest stages. Sweet Corn was best harvested early in the dough stage due to high dry matter (DM) yield, digestible nutrient, and energy content with low fibre portion. Suwan was recommended to be harvested at the dent stage when it gave the highest DM yield with optimum digestible nutrient and energy content with low acid detergent fibre. BTL 1 and BTL 2 varieties can either be harvested at dough or dent stages as the crude protein, crude fibre, DM yield, DM content, digestible nutrient and energy were not significantly different at either stage. Further financial analysis showed that only Sweet Corn production was not financially feasible while Suwan had the best financial appraisal values among the grain varieties.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, only the grain varieties tested had the potential for silage making according to their optimum harvest stage but Suwan is highly recommended for commercialization as it was the most profitable.

  18. Bunmee T, Chaiwang N, Kaewkot C, Jaturasitha S
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2018 Jul;31(7):968-975.
    PMID: 29879818 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.18.0201
    Thailand is a country of native beef cattle resource farming. It has undergone rapid social and economic change in the past decade. Agricultural growth has been maintained by increasing the production of rice and cassava. Changing economic status also provides opportunities for beef cattle producers to meet increasing consumer demand for beef. Finishing beef cattle numbers in Thailand were about 1.0 M head in 2015. Beef produced in Thailand has exclusively been for domestic consumption. Only 1% of Thailand's beef cattle are for the premium market which is based on marbling score, 40% are sold into modern markets that consider muscling of cattle, and the remainder enter traditional markets. Cross-bred cattle for the premium market are raised within intensive systems. Most producers of premium beef are members of beef cooperatives, or have invested in their enterprises at high levels. Culled cow (native or cross-bred cattle) are mainly for small holder farm production. Malaysia, Indonesia, and other members of the Asian Economic Community (AEC) are set to become the largest beef market, which has been confirmed by 2015 through 2020 forecasts for consumption of beef that must increasingly be halal. These circumstances are likely to be challenging for beef producers in Thailand to gain a share of this market. Integration across all sectors involved in beef production in Thailand will be required.
  19. Candyrine SCL, Jahromi MF, Ebrahimi M, Chen WL, Rezaei S, Goh YM, et al.
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2019 Apr;32(4):533-540.
    PMID: 30056661 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.18.0059
    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the growth, digestibility and rumen fermentation between goats and sheep fed a fattening diet fortified with linseed oil.

    METHODS: Twelve 3 to 4 months old male goats and sheep were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups in a 2 (species)×2 (oil levels) factorial experiment. The treatments were: i) goats fed basal diet, ii) goats fed oil-supplemented diet, iii) sheep fed basal diet, and iv) sheep fed oil-supplemented diet. Each treatment group consisted of six animals. Animals in the basal diet group were fed with 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrates at a rate equivalent to 4% of their body weight. For the oil treatment group, linseed oil was added at 4% level (w:w) to the concentrate portion of the basal diet. Growth performance of the animals was determined fortnightly. Digestibility study was conducted during the final week of the feeding trial before the animals were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid for rumen fermentation characteristics study.

    RESULTS: Sheep had higher (p<0.01) average daily weight gain (ADG) and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than goats. Oil supplementation did not affect rumen fermentation in both species and improved ADG by about 29% and FCR by about 18% in both goats and sheep. The above enhancement is consistent with the higher dry matter and energy digestibility (p<0.05), as well as organic matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p<0.01) in animals fed oil- supplemented diet. Sheep had higher total volatile fatty acid production and acetic acid proportion compared to goat.

    CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggested that sheep performed better than goats when fed a fattening diet and oil supplementation at the inclusion rate of 4% provides a viable option to significantly enhance growth performance and FCR in fattening sheep and goats.

  20. Ismail I, Hwang YH, Bakhsh A, Joo ST
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2019 Feb;32(2):282-289.
    PMID: 30208691 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.18.0347
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate whether innovative sous vide treatment has a significant influence on the beef semitendinosus muscle as compared to common sous vide treatment and traditional cooking.

    METHODS: The innovative sous vide treatments were cooked at 45°C and 65°C for 6 h (SV45-65), common sous vide treatment at 45°C and 65°C for 3 h (SV45 and SV65) and traditional cooking at 75°C for 30 min (CON75). Water loss and cooking loss, as well as the physical properties (color and shear force) and chemical properties (protein and collagen solubility) of the treated meat, were investigated.

    RESULTS: The results obtained indicated that the innovative sous vide with double thermal treatment (SV45-65) and cooked with air presence (CON75) resulted to lower a* and higher b* values, respectively. The water loss and cooking loss increased when temperature increased from 45°C to 65°C, and lower water loss was recorded in SV45 and CON75. These samples presented higher water content and revealed strong correlation to protein solubility. Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) analysis showed the marked interaction between cooking temperature and time. Sample cooked at a high temperature (CON75) and a long period (SV45-65) showed a significantly lower value of SF than sample SV65 (p<0.05). Interestingly, there was no difference in SF values between SV45-65 and CON75.

    CONCLUSION: The innovative sous vide treatment with double thermal effect appears an attractive cooking method as compared to common sous vide and traditional cooking method, as it has a potential for improving tenderness values of cooked beef semitendinosus muscle.

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