Vector control is still the principal method to control dengue and chemical insecticides, especially the
pyrethroids such as permethrin are the forerunners of mosquito control agent. Intensive and extensive use
of pyrethroids often result in resistance, thereby hampering control efforts. The present study was
conducted to evaluate the susceptible status of Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue against
permethrin. A nationwide mosquito sampling via ovitrapping was conducted in 12 dengue hotspots across 5
states in Peninsular Malaysia. Field collected Aedes eggs were hatched and reared until L3 larval and further
identified it species. Adult F0 Aedes aegypti were reared until F1 progeny and the female were used in
adult assay, performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) protocol as to determine the
resistance level. The laboratory strain maintained for more than 1000 generations that were susceptible to
permethrin served as the control strain. Evaluation of resistance ratio was assessed by comparing the
knockdown rate with laboratory susceptible strain. In this present study, 70% ofAe. aegypti population from
dengue hotspots was highly resistance to permethrin. The study clearly demonstrated that widespread of
permethrin resistant Ae. aegypti in Malaysian mosquito’s population, indicating the need of implementing
an efficient pyrethroid resistance management.
Preservation of larvae retrieved from cadavers is important in ensuring the quality and integrity of entomological specimens used for the estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI). The process of killing and preserving larvae could distort the larvae leading to inaccurate estimation of PMI. In this study, the effects of killing Chrysomya megacephala larvae with hot water at different temperatures and subsequent maintenance in various preservatives were determined. Larvae not killed by hot water but preserved directly were used as control. The types of preservative used were 10% formalin, 70% ethanol and Kahle's solution. The morphological features examined were length, turgidity, curvature and coloration of larvae. Larvae killed in 80ºC hot water have shorter mean length (12.47 ± 2.86 mm) compared to those in 60ºC hot water (12.95 ± 2.69 mm). Increasing the duration of preservation in all types of preservative caused elongations of larvae treated or untreated with hot water. There were no significant changes in larval turgidity preserved in Kahle's solution compared to other two preservatives and were unaffected by the duration of storage. Larvae preserved in Kahle's solution experienced the least changes in coloration and shape compared to other preserved larvae in 70% ethanol or 10% formalin. Larvae directly immersed alive in 70% ethanol experienced the most changes in curvature, coloration and turgidity. This study suggested that killing larvae with hot water at 80ºC and preservation in Kahle's solution is the optimum method resulting in least changes in morphological features of Ch. megacephala larvae.
The mechanism of insecticide resistance is traditionally attributed to detoxification enzymes, target site alteration, decreased penetration of insecticides and behavioural resistance. Other form of mechanisms, such as the role of protein(s) in resistance is unknown. In the present study, the protein profiling of both IMR-PSS strain (permethrin-selected) and IMR-LS strain (laboratory-susceptible) 24 hours post exposure period to permethrin was carried out via 1D-gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS). The bands which appeared in the gel of 1D-electrophoresis revealed an abundance of proteins. The band pattern of both strains looked macroscopically alike and differed only in band intensity. However, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the IMR-PSS strain produced extra 388 peptides that were not found in the IMR-LS strain, indicating that IMR-PSS strain reacted differently from IMR-LS strain as a result of persistent exposure to permethrin. Since the complex banding patterns of 1D-gel electrophoresis were difficult to interpret the significance of the protein difference between IMR-PSS and IMR-LS strain, hence LC-MS/MS analysis is ideally suited for better protein resolution and thus will allow more in-depth comparison of the complex pattern. The findings here provide the first preliminary evidence that insecticide resistance in mosquito induces up regulation of proteins that may be protective to mosquitoes against insecticide and proteins could be another mechanism that contributes to development of resistance.
The continued absence of an effective and safe tetravalent dengue vaccine and the lack of specific anti-viral treatment have made mosquito vector control using chemical insecticides as the mainstream for dengue prevention and control. However, the long-term use of chemical insecticides may induce resistance. Hence detection of insecticide resistance in dengue vectors is crucially important in ensuring the insecticide-based intervention in dengue control program is still effective and reliable. In this study, the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti from five selected dengue hotspots in Klang Valley, Malaysia against pyrethroids was determined by employing the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol of adult bioassay. Four types of pyrethroids were tested against adult female Aedes aegypti to determine the knockdown rate, post 24-h adult mortality and resistance ratio. All field-collected Aedes aegypti strains were resistant to the four pyrethroids tested, except for the Taman Sungai Jelok (TSJ) strain. Permethrin exhibited the lowest knockdown rate against Aedes aegypti, followed by deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. This present study indicated the widespread of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti in Klang Valley, indicating the needs of implementing alternative measures in vector control program. The data in this study can be utilised as an input for insecticide resistance management of Aedes aegypti in Malaysia.
Diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika and chikungunya remain endemic in many countries. Setting and deploying traps to capture the host/vector species are fundamental to understand their density and distributions. Human effort to manage the trap data accurately and timely is an exhaustive endeavour when the study area expands and period prolongs. One stop mobile app to manage and monitor the process of targeted species trapping, from field to laboratory level is still scarce. Toward this end, we developed a new mobile app named "PesTrapp" to acquire the vector density index based on the mobile updates of ovitraps and species information in field and laboratory. This study aimed to highlight the mobile app's development and design, elucidate the practical user experiences of using the app and evaluate the preliminary user assessment of the mobile app. The mobile app was developed using mobile framework and database. User evaluation of the mobile app was based on the adjusted Mobile App Rating Scale and Standardized User Experience Percentile Rank Questionnaire. The process flows of system design and detailed screen layouts were described. The user experiences with and without the app in a project to study Aedes surveillance in six study sites in Selangor, Malaysia were elucidated. The overall mean user evaluation score of the mobile app was 4.0 out of 5 (SD=0.6), reflects its acceptability of the users. The PesTrapp, a one-stop solution, is anticipated to improve the entomological surveillance work processes. This new mobile app can contribute as a tool in the vector control countermeasure strategies.