Introduction: According to the Youth Behaviour Risk Factor Surveillance (YBRFSS, 2011) in Malaysia, the prevalence of smokers nationally among Form 1, 2 and 4 students government secondary school students was 9.1% (ever smokers) and 8.7% (current smokers). However, there is limited information on the prevalence of smoking among religious secondary school students and self-esteem as risk factor. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and factors associated with smoking among the religious secondary school students in Petaling district, Selangor.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 899 students. The schools were selected using cluster sampling and self-administered questionnaire was used. Data was analyzed using chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent factors for smoking.
Results: The response rate was 94%. The prevalence of ever smoking was 10.1%; 3.9% among female and 18.6% among male. The median age (interquartile range) of smoking initiation was 12.00 (4.01) years. The results showed that independent factors for smoking were: males (OR= 5.47); age group 14-15 years (OR=2.82) and 16-17 years (OR=3.63) and having low self -esteem (OR=6.24).
Conclusion: prevalence of ever smokers is higher when compared to YBRFSS, (2011) and it was revealed that most of the smokers started smoking even before secondary school. The results also revealed the importance of promoting self-esteem. Efforts in smoking prevention should therefore be focused on curbing the initiation of the acts and improving students’ self-worth.
Introduction: Both premature ejaculation(PE) and erectile dysfunction(ED) are prevalent sexual health disorders that have been inadequately investigated in Malaysia, a multiethnic and conservative nation.The objective of the study was to study the relationship between PE and ED, and other common mental health issues, i.e. anxiety and depression in Malaysian urban population.
Methods: The diagnosis for PE was established by clinical diagnosis using DSM-5 and ISSM definition criteria for PE, whereas a diagnosis of ED was established by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Anxiety and depression levels were detected from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Results: Based on DSM-V and ISSM clinical diagnosis for PE, the prevalence of PE was found to be 25%. Erectile dysfunction (p = 0.035, OR = 3.315, 95% CI 1.088, 10.103) and severe anxiety (p = 0.020, OR = 7.656, 95% CI 1.383, 42.396) significantly predicted presence of PE.
Conclusion: There was a strong association between PE and ED and between PE and anxiety. Routine examination for PE in male patients should address the issue and the management of both ED and anxiety among PE patients, especially in an urban Malaysian clinical and medical care setting.
Objective: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) is a highly prevalent disease which varies by geography
and culture. It influences the quality of life and has social implication. The objectives of this study are to
estimate the prevalence of LUTS among women attending our gynaecology clinic, the associated risk factors
and their quality of life. Method: This is a cross sectional study on women attending gynaecology clinic in a
tertiary centre. Participants were given 3 sets of validated self-answered questionnaire, UDI-6, IIQ-7 and
OAB V8. Results: the prevalence of luts is 50.6% which is common among Malay women. Forty nine percent
is due to stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The risk of LUTS is significantly associated with obesity (AOR =
12.14 95% CI = 1.21 to 121.99, p – value = 0.034), higher parity (AOR = 1.68 95% CI = 1.26 to 2.24, p – value =
Introduction: The goal of palliative care is the provision of the best quality of life (QOL) for terminally ill
and dying patients. Advances in medical treatment has seen an increase in overall survival of all stages of
malignant diseases. This includes advanced and/or inoperable malignancies where management is mainly
palliative involving different modalities. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional descriptive study of
surgical patients in a palliative care unit in a 1000-bedded teaching hospital in Kuantan, Malaysia.
Objectives of this study are: to study the demographic characteristics and indications for admission of
surgical patients in palliative care unit, to study the options of treatment modalities and their
complications, to identify the barriers in decision making in surgical treatment and finally to objectively
assess the quality of life of these patients by utilizing QUALITY OF LIFE (WHOQOL) –BREF –questionnaire.
Results: One hundred and one eligible patients (53%) male, (47%) female of mean age of 54yrs, majority
Malay and Chinese patients were included in the study. All patients had malignancies and they were Breast
(30%), Lower gastrointestinal (GI) (24%), (18%) upper GI, (15%) hepato-biliary, and (7%) pancreatic cancers.
Thirty two percents of patients had emergency treatment while the rest had supportive treatment. Barriers
to decision making were mainly due to patient factors in 71%, while 12% was due to the disease presenting
at an advanced stage and 15% due to limitation of care. The final results of overall quality of life rating
were shown as poor (1%), neither poor nor good (42%), good (52%) and very good (2%). Conclusions:
Palliative care and end of life decision making from surgical point of view is a delicate issue. Like all other
fields in medicine, palliative care must be evidence-based with specific goal directed therapy. Our study
shows that we are able to positively impact the quality of life in more than two thirds of our patients. Our
aim is to achieve 100% success. As such, it is imperative to inculcate the goal of palliative care to all grades
of health care personnel. ‘To cure sometimes, To relieve often, To comfort always’ should not be mere
Introduction: Lack of knowledge and negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS may be the risk factors for HIV infection among transsexuals. Research on knowledge and attitude towards HIV infection in transsexual communities is very limited at both local and international levels. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude towards HIV infection among the male-to-female transsexual community in Kuantan, Pahang.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to August 2014 among 33 male-to-female transsexuals in Kuantan, Pahang. Convenience sampling was used. Participants who gave consent answered a self-administered questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed with descriptive statistics, χ2-test, and independent sample t test.
Results: The majority of the subjects in this study were 29 years and below (48.5%), Muslims (93.9%), and had completed up to secondary education (60.6%). Most of them were sex workers (60.6%), and had relatively low income (no income to RM 3000, mean of RM1528). A total of 87.9% of the subjects demonstrated good knowledge and also positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Level of education was significantly associated with scores in knowledge (p=0.01).
Conclusions: Despite the positive outcome from this study, misconceptions towards HIV/AIDS still exist among transsexuals. Education and interventions from multiple directions on HIV/AIDS are essential to deliver the correct information to this population, so as to emphasize prevention, early detection, and holistic medical care. Transsexuals also require attention from religious bodies and non-governmental organizations to help them in employment, financial, spiritual, and psycho-social issues.
Introduction: There has been increasing evidence of detrimental effects of cumulative positive fluid
balance in critically ill patients. The postulated mechanism of harm is the development of interstitial
oedema, with resultant increase morbidity and mortality. We aim to assess the impact of positive fluid
balance within the first 48 hours on mortality in our local ICU population. Methods: This was a secondary
analysis of a single centre, prospective observational study. All ICU patients more than 18 years were
screened for inclusion in the study. Admission of less than 48 hours, post-elective surgery and ICU
readmission were excluded. Cumulative fluid balance either as volume or percentage of body weight from
admission was calculated over 6, 24 and 48 hour period from ICU admission. Results: A total of 143 patients
were recruited, of these 33 died. There were higher cumulative fluid balances at 6, 24 and 48 hours in nonsurvivors
compared to survivors. However, after adjusted for severity of illness, APACHE II Score, they were
not predictive of mortality. Sensitivity analysis on sub-cohort of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI)
showed only an actual 48-hour cumulative fluid balance was independently predictive of mortality (1.21
(1.03 to 1.42)). Conclusions: Cumulative fluid balance was not independently predictive of mortality in a
heterogenous group of critically ill patients. However, in subcohort of patients with AKI, a 48-hour
cumulative fluid balance was independently predictive of mortality. An additional tile is thus added to the
mosaic of findings on the impact of fluid balance in a hetergenous group of critically ill patients, and in subcohort
of AKI patients.
Introduction: To review the gestational age at diagnosis, method of diagnosis, pregnancy outcome and
maternal complications of prenatally diagnosed lethal foetal anomalies. Methods: Retrospective review of 25
women who had aborted or delivered foetuses with lethal anomalies in a tertiary hospital in 2011 based on
patient medical records. Results: There were a total of 10,088 deliveries, in which 25 (0.24%) women were
found to have conceived foetuses with lethal anomalies. All of them were diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound
and only 7 (28.0%) had both prenatal ultrasound and genetic study done. The women’s mean age was 29.9
years old. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of lethal foetal anomalies was 25.5 weeks (SD=12.5) and
mean gestational age at termination of pregnancy (TOP) or delivery was 28.5 weeks (SD=12.5). Seven (28%)
women had early counseling and TOP at the gestation of < 22 weeks. Beyond 22 weeks of gestation, eight
(32%) women had TOP and ten (40%) women had spontaneous delivery. Twenty (80%) women delivered or
aborted vaginally, three (12%) women with assisted breech delivery and two (8%) women with abdominal
delivery which were performed due to transverse foetal lie in labour and a failed induction, leading to
emergency hysterotomy complicated by hysterectomy due to intraoperative finding of ruptured uterus.
Overall, the associated post-partum adverse events included post-partum haemorrhage (12%), retained
placenta (12%), blood transfusion (8%), uterine rupture (4%) and endometritis (4%). Mean duration of hospital
stay was 6.6 days (SD 3.7 days). Conclusion: Late diagnosis of lethal foetal anomalies leads to various
maternal morbidities, in this case series , which could have been prevented if they were diagnosed and
terminated at early trimester. A new direction is needed in our local practice.
Introduction: The aim of this study is to determine the most common organisms isolated in diabetic foot
infection and the most utilised antibiotic regimes as the first line of treatment. Methods: This is a
retrospective record review of the National Orthopaedic Registry Malaysia among diabetes mellitus type 2
patients who had foot infections. All identified cases admitted to 18 government hospitals in Malaysia from
the 1st January 2008 until the 31st December, 2009 were included in the study. Results: A total of 416
patients were included in the study. The most common organisms cultured were Proteus species (17.5%),
Klebsiella species (17.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (17.9%), while the most commonly used antibiotic was
ampicillin/sulbactam (67.5%). None of the patients was appropriately treated with metronidazole,
cefoperazone or fucidic acid. All patients were given appropriate antibiotics to treat Serratia infection.
Conclusion: Significant number of patients with diabetic foot infections were not treated using appropriate
antibiotics as the first line treatment.
Introduction: Application of dynamic hip screw (DHS) implant for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures continues to raise concern related to risk of lag screw cut-out with or without subsequent damage to the acetabulum. Measurement of tip-apex distances (TAD) has been recommended to guide the optimal placement of lag screw and to predict subsequent risk of screw cut-out. In this study, the value of TAD was evaluated to verify its usefulness.
Methods: This is a retrospective study of 33 consecutive patients with intertrochanteric fracture treated with DHS. Demographic data of the patients were traced from their case notes. Post-operative radiographs were reviewed by focusing on measurement of TAD on anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Radiographs at one year follow-up were reviewed to depict any fixation-related failure or complication.
Results: Fifty two percent of patients did not achieved the recommended TAD of ≤ 25mm. The mean post-operative TAD was 25.9mm and elderly patients were likely to achieve TAD of ≤ 25mm. The overall complication rate of 6% was attributed to screw cut-out in two cases. The unstable left-sided fracture was identified to be a potential risk for screw cut-out or migration.
Conclusion: TAD is a valuable measurement to guide optimal placement of lag screw during DHS fixation of intertrochanteric fracture.
KEYWORDS: Intertrochanteric fracture, dynamic hip screw, tip-apex distance, screw cut-out
Introduction: Despite general acknowledgement of the importance in assessing family needs in critical care
patients, there is no psychometric instrument to measure the family needs within Malaysian settings. This
study aimed to perform factorial validation and establish psychometric properties of Malay translated
Critical Care Family Need Inventory (CCFNI-M) for Malaysians. Methods: This study consisted of four
protocols: Forward-Backward translation, validity, internal reliability and inter domain correlations phases.
The factorial validation of the CCFNI-M was based on its administration to 109 family members of critical
care patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.
At validity phase, factorial validation was performed using Exploratory Factor Analysis using Principal
Component Analysis with Varimax rotation. The internal consistency and inter domain correlations were
calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient respectively. Results: Preliminary
analyses reported the suitability of data for factorial validation. With reference to the original CCFNI, five
factors were extracted which explained 49.4% of the total variance. After removal of several items for
different reasons, the final items in CCFNI-M were 42. The internal consistency values for five dimensions
ranged from 0.72 to 0.87 with inter domain correlation values (r) among the dimensions ranged between
0.36 and 0.61. Conclusion: The high measures of factorial validity, internal consistency and inter domain
correlations values of the CCFNI-M make it suitable measure for assessing the family needs of critical care
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to derive a modified equation for contact lens method (CLM) in
calculating post myopic laser refractive surgery corneal power. Methods: A total of 93 subjects who
underwent myopic laser refractive surgery at IIUM Eye Specialist Clinic were recruited. The accuracy of
postoperative corneal power using the standard CLM and newly-derived contact lens modified method
(CLMmod) were compared to the standard comparison method ; the historical method (HM). The CLMmod
equation was derived by adjusting postoperative corneal power of CLM according to amount of refractive
change. Results: The mean postoperative corneal power using standard CLM was significantly higher than
HM (mean difference: -0.24 D, p < 0.001). Fifty seven percent (n = 53 eyes) of the standard CLM results were
within ±0.50 D of HM results. The difference between postoperative corneal power using standard CLM and
HM increased significantly with the amount of refractive change (r = 0.835; p < 0.001). The mean
postoperative corneal power of CLMmod showed that there was no statistical significant difference compared
to the HM results (mean difference: 0.00 D, p= 0.964). Eighty eight percent (n = 82 eyes) of the CLMmod
results were within ±0.50 D of HM results with improvement of 31% from the standard CLM results.
Conclusion: The CLMmod equation provides more accurate calculation in determining post myopic laser
refractive surgery corneal power. In near future, this modified equation can be used as an alternative
equation to calculate postoperative corneal power when the preoperative data is unavailable.
Introduction: This study aims to build a standardization method for preparation of effective powder from
FSA and to quantify diosgenin in FSA. Methodology: One kg of FS were used in this study. Setting: BMS, KOM
and KOP, IIUM Kuantan campus. FS were washed with distilled water to exclude any foreign matter, and
were then air dried. FS-powder were put in distilled water in a ratio of 1 g of powder in 20 ml of distilled
water and were shaken at room temperature for 24 hours. Ten mg of hydrolyzed extract sample was diluted
in 10 ml volumetric flask with methanol for 15 minutes. Chromatographic estimation was performed using
an equilibrated reverse phase Eclipse XDB-C18 column (particle size 5 µg, 4.6 mm x 150 mm). Results: One
gram of FSA extract was hydrolyzed to produce sapogenins and 46.6% was recovered. A calibration curve
that was constructed based on five dilutions of diosgenin standard at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and
50 ppm produced a linear graft (r = 0.999). The concentration of diosgenin in FSA extract as calculated using
the regression analysis was found to be 29.66 µg/ml, 13.81 % w/w on dried weight basis. Conclusion:
Preparation and standardization of effective powder from FSA are the corner stone of many scientific
researches in IIUM and Malaysia. Diosgenin is available in the FSA in adequate concentration. The adequate
amount of diosgenin in the FSA will guide us to do further study in the way of preparation of a natural
product that can be used in the field of reversible anti-fertility therapy.
The practice of contemporary medicine has been tremendously influenced by western ideas and it is assumed by many that autonomy is a universal value of human existence. In the World Health Report 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) considered autonomy a “universal” value of human life against which every health system in the world should be judged. Further in Western bioethics, patient autonomy and self -determination prevails in all sectors of social and personal life, a concept unacceptable to some cultures. In principle, there are challenges to the universal validity of autonomy, individualism and secularism, as most non-Western cultures are proud of their communal relations and spiritualistic ethos and, thereby imposing Western beliefs and practices as aforementioned can have deleterious consequences. Religion lies at the heart of most cultures which influences the practice patterns of medical professionals in both visible and unconscious ways. However, religion is mostly viewed by scientists as mystical and without scientific proof. Herein lies the dilemma, whether medical professionals should respect the cultural and religious beliefs of their patients? In this paper we aim to discuss some of the limitations of patient's autonomy by comparing the process of reasoning in western medical ethics and Islamic medical ethics, in order to examine the possibility and desirability of arriving at a single, unitary and universally acceptable notion of medical ethics. We propose a more flexible viewpoint that accommodates different cultural and religious values in interpreting autonomy and applying it in an increasingly multilingual and multicultural, contemporaneous society in order to provide the highest level of care possible.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate inter-session repeatability, inter-examiner
reproducibility and inter-device agreement of corneal power measurements from manual keratometer,
autokeratometer, topographer, Pentacam high resolution and IOLMaster. Methods: Two sets of mean
corneal power measurements (n=40) were compared for inter-session repeatability and inter-examiner
reproducibility in each instrument. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated by within-subject
standard deviation (Sw), coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A oneway
repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare differences in the corneal power
between each instrument pair. The Bland and Altman analysis and Pearson’s correlation were employed to
assess agreement and determine strength of relationship between measurements. Results: There were no
significant differences in mean corneal power measurements between 2 different visits (p > 0.05). The Sw
and COV values between 2 visits were lower than 0.09 D and 0.20 % respectively. The ICCs were stronger
than 0.99 in all instruments. For reproducibility of each instrument, differences of the measurements
between 2 different examiners were also insignificant (p > 0.05). The Sw and COV values between 2
examiners were lower than 0.11 D and 0.23 % respectively. The ICCs were 0.99 and above in all instruments.
The 95% limit of agreement between instruments ranged from -0.29 to 1.13 D and the r-values were stronger
than 0.84. Conclusion: The corneal power measurements using these 5 instruments were repeatable and
reproducible. These instruments can also be used interchangeably, however the topographer should be used
Introduction: This study aimed to explore the associated factors related to causes of stress and coping strategies among university students. Materials and Methods: As a focus group discussion, it was universal sampling, conducted among 39 of Medical Science and Biomedicine students on their second semester from Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia. Three issues were discussed: firstly, how they define the stress; secondly, what the most important causes of stress in their life are; and thirdly, how they cope with stress. Verbal consent was obtained from all participants. Due to the small sample size, the data was analyzed manually. Results: Total of participants were 39 students, their age ranged from 21 to 26 years. Seventeen (43.6%) of the students were 21 years old and the majority were female 31 (79.5%). The
most important causes of stress reported by the students were financial, lack of sleep, and family problems. In terms of coping with stress, the students were able to describe a variety of strategies to cope with their stressful situations. These included counseling services, doing meditation, sharing of problems, getting adequate sleep, and going out with friends. Conclusion: Most of the students defined stress as “a mental condition”. Lack of sleep, financial, and family problems were the most causes of stress among students. The students were able to identify some strategies to cope with stress.
Introduction: Melioidosis, an infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. It can affect many organs in the body such as lung, liver, spleen, bone, prostate, brain and soft tissues. Objective: This study aims to detect the presence of prostatic abscess in patients with a positive blood culture for Burkholderia pseudomallei with computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis and to correlate it with the clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted in all melioidosis patients who had CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The location and size of any focal lesions seen on CT were recorded. Clinical data such as fever and urinary symptoms were also recorded. Results: 15 patients had CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. Five patients were diagnosed to have prostatic abscess. Out of the five patients, only two had urinary symptoms. The other three had prolonged high grade fever without any urinary symptoms. Conclusions: Melioidosis prostatic abscess is not uncommon in patients with positive blood culture of Burkholderia Pseudomallei (33% in this series). Most patients do not present with any urinary symptoms.
Background: The Medical Faculty of the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) runs an undergraduate medical programme which is a combination of the traditional and the newer trends of medical curriculum. The IIUM curriculum in Phase I (Years 1, 2: preclinical) is integrated organ system based, with lectures being the main method of curriculum delivery and also incorporating problem-based learning (PBL) as one of the teaching-learning approaches. Methods: The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of PBL teaching-learning method in IIUM in achieving the aims of the medical school as viewed by the students. A total of 287 students from Phase I and Phase II (Year 3: clinical) participated in this study at the end of academic session 2006/2007. The questionnaires distributed consisted of 33 items with four different aspects of PBL being evaluated namely; i) PBL objectives, ii) assessment of performance of the facilitators, iii) assessment of the PBL packages and iv) preferred teaching-learning approach. Results: An average of 86.4 % of students agreed that PBL sessions achieved its aims of preparing students for professional training in the clinical years. Also approximately 80% of students felt that the facilitators fulfilled their roles as PBL tutors. Students were generally satisfied with the PBL packages prepared. However about 50% of Year 2 students did not look forward to PBL sessions and only about 20% of preclinical students wanted more PBL sessions to be scheduled. This latter finding differed as 60% of the clinical (Year 3) students wanted more PBL sessions to be implemented. A significant proportion of the students also believed that they needed some prior information about the PBL case in question in order to generate lively exchange of ideas in the first sessions. Preclinical students preferred lectured-based approach as compared to PBL in contrast to the clinical (Year 3) students of whom 57% (62) preferred the PBL teaching-learning approach. Nearly 80% of the Year 3 students found the exposure to PBL sessions during their preclinical years beneficial during the clinical year. Discussion: Although our findings supported the effectiveness of PBL as one of the teaching-learning approaches (as perceived by our students) there are a few areas of concern. These include believing that a prior knowledge of the topic in question is needed to generate a lively discussion; the group not being motivated; the group members confining themselves to individual assignments only; PBL not being supportive of on-going self- assessment; the consequence of a facilitator being too dominant; and cases constructed do not reflect real clinical scenarios. Despite agreeing to its effectiveness preclinical students still preferred lecture-based approach to the PBL as they are more confident with the knowledge as obtained through the former learning modality. Conclusion: PBL is an effective learning strategy and it contributes to the teaching-learning process of IIUM undergraduate preclinical medical programme which implements a non-Problem Based Curriculum. We are of the opinion that a combination of lecture sessions and PBL best suit the IIUM medical students.
The road safety campaign among car drivers is an ongoing program of the road safety campaigns which is aimed at decreasing the number of accidents involving car drivers and lowering the risks that they might face on the road. It is also aimed at creating good manners among car drivers and at discarding bad habits during driving to avoid accidents. A pre-test was carried out in the early stage of this campaign to assist in the identification of the most effective messages to be advertised in the media. It was carried out in Selangor on 493 respondents randomly chosen to answer the questionnaire provided. Only car drivers were chosen as respondents. The results show that the majority of respondents understood the messages given in the advertisements and fulfilled the requirements of the targeted group. In addition, the respondents said that these advertisements are sufficiently effective to create awareness on road safety through right driving behaviour.
PURPOSE: This review was performed to determine the association between demographic characteristics and the histopathological findings of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients operated in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Kuantan Pahang Malaysia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the histopathological reports of 119 CRC cases operated in HTAA from January 2001 to December 2005 which met the inclusion criteria of histologically proven adenocarcinoma. The following demographic characteristics which include age, gender, and ethnicity were assessed. The histopathological related variables which include the site of primary tumor, Astler and Coller stage, tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis were analyzed. Chi square test was used for categorical variables. Data with low expected counts were assessed using Fisher’s exact tests. RESULTS: There were 59 males and 60 females with age ranging from 23 to 93 years. 81.5% of the patients were older than 50 years (p=0.038). Malays accounted for 58.8% of the total cases, followed by Chinese (36.1%) and Indian (5%). Rectosigmoid region and rectum were the most common sites for primary tumor (55.6%). Cancer in male predominantly occurred in the rectum (p=0.023). Malays were commonly diagnosed with stage C2 (54.3%) while Chinese were diagnosed with stage B2 (58.1%) (p=0.011). Fifty percent of the patients who are less than 50 years old were diagnosed with stage C2 (p=0.024). There was significant change from well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (p=0.000). Sixty percent of female patients diagnosed to have cancer with lymph node metastasis (p=0.044). Significant lymph node metastasis was also observed among Malay patients (p=0.022). CONCLUSION: The findings from the present review suggest that there are several associations between demographic distribution and histopathological characteristics of CRC. More than fifty per cent of CRC are found in the rectosigmoid region and the rectum. CRC are more common in Malay race and rectal cancer is predominantly affecting the male. About forty five percent of patients harbor metastases in the lymph nodes and fifty percent of the younger age group were presenting with nodal metastases.
Introduction: The Malay Version of EORTC-QLQ C30 was validated among Malaysian women who had undergone breast cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: Test-retest evaluation (i.e. three weeks and ten weeks following surgery) was carried out to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. The Cronbach’s alpha value was used to determine the internal consistency, meanwhile, test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefﬁ cients (ICC) indicates the reliability of the scale. Effect Size Index and Mean Differences interpret the sensitivity of the scale. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing two groups i.e. women who had mastectomy and women who had lumpectomy. Results: Internal consistencies are acceptable for Global Health Status (0.91), Functional domains (ranging from 0.50-0.89) and Symptomatology domains (ranging from 0.75-0.99). Intraclass Correlation Coefﬁ cient (ICC) ranged from 0.05 to 0.99 for Global Health Status and Functional domains, and ranged from 0.13 to 1.00 for Symptomatology domains. Sensitivity of the scale was observed in nearly all of the domains. Conclusion: The Malay Version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ C30) is a suitable tool to measure the quality of life of women with breast cancer.