Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 464 in total

  1. Haydar, A.
    Candida organisms are opportunistic fungal pathogens that have become a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. We investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients with candidaemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp at HUSM. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all hospitalized patients with candidaemia from January 2010 till December 2014 based on inpatient hospital records and laboratory data. Results: A total of 134 patients with candidaemia were enrolled. Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp were responsible for 20% (27/134) and 80% (107/134) of candidaemia cases, respectively. Hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus, surgical conditions, or concomitant septicaemia and those who received instrumentations such as CVC or CBD, and those admitted under medical settings were prone to develop candidaemia caused by either C. albicans or non-albicans Candida spp. All isolates were susceptible to Fluconazole except for C. krusei isolates. All-cause mortality within 30 days post diagnosis of candidaemia was 59%. Factors associated with mortality were solid tumor (p =0.014), surgical illness (p=0.128), central venous catheterization (p= 0.096) and leucocytosis (p=0.116). Only solid tumor was an independent contributory factor for mortality among patients with C. albicans candidaemia in the multivariate analyses (OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.38,18.74, p=0.014). Conclusions: The patients’ clinical characteristics were fairly comparable between Candida albicans and non-albicans candidaemia. The changing epidemiology of candidaemia at this centre was in fact alarming. The outcome associated with candidaemia was poor.
  2. Che Nor Zarida Che Seman, Zamzuri Zakaria
    Critical size defects (CSD) in the long bones of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been used for years as an experimental model for investigation of the effectiveness of a new bone substitute material. There are varieties of protocols available in the literature. This technical note attempts to present an alternative surgical technique of a CSD in the New Zealand white rabbit tibia. Methods: Thirty-nine New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. A CSD of approximately 4.5 mm (width) X 9.0 mm (length) was surgically drilled at the proximal tibial metaphysis, approximately 1 cm from the knee joint. The surrounding of soft tissue was repositioned and sutured layer by layer with bioabsorbable surgical suture. Two x-rays of anteroposterior and lateral were taken before assessed under computed tomography scan at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Results: This alternative method created CSD with less bleeding from the muscle observed. No mortality or other surgical complications observed within 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks following surgery. Conclusion: A simple and safe method for performing CSD was demonstrated and recommended as an alternative approach for surgery on New Zealand White rabbits.
  3. Ridzuan, P.M., Nasir Mohamad, Salwani Ismail, Nor Iza A. Rahman, Hairul Aini H., Zunariah, B., et al.
    Hydroxychavicol (HC) is a phenolic compound of betel leaf (Piper betle). It has been reported to have antifungal properties against dermatophytes including T. rubrum. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the HC against T. rubrum. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the HC. Microscopic study of the treated fungus was done by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cytotoxicity study using pre-adipocyte (3T3-L1) cell line was performed by means of MTT cell proliferation assay. The MIC and MFC results of the HC were both 0.49 µg/ml. Microscopic study revealed the destruction of the fungal cell wall and organelles. Cytotoxicity study showed HC to be non-toxic to the tested human cell line. In conclusion, HC may potentially be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against T. rubrum infections.
  4. Arasalingam, Shamini, Chong, Yew Siong, Hatta Sidi, Ng, Chong Guan, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Marhani Midin, et al.
    Introduction: A validated diagnostic questionnaire is needed in the South-East Asia region, particularly in Malaysia to detect Premature Ejaculation (PE). The objective of this study was to determine the linguistic validity of the Malay Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (MAPET). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a teaching hospital. The first phase involved experts’ group discussions to develop the face, content, and factorial validity of the MAPET. The second phase measured the concurrent validity of MAPET. Results: We found that the MAPET has specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 79.3%, 92%, 76.7% and 93.1%, respectively in the assessment of PE. The higher score indicates severity of PE. Conclusions: MAPET is a valid self-report instrument for the assessment of PE.
  5. Abdullah Aszrin, Shah M. Azarisman, Rahman A. Jamaluddin, Razak A. Tariq, Noor M. Noriah
    Introduction: Prehypertension precedes overt hypertension and has been acknowledged by many guidelines.
    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Malaysia. Hypertension prevalence is
    at 42.6% and population-based control is poor at 26.8%. The objective of the study is to ascertain the
    cardiovascular risk profile of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive young adults against age-matched
    controls in rural Malaysia. Methods: 484 (four hundred and eighty four) subjects attending primary care
    clinic were screened. 91 (Ninety one) young adults with pre/mild hypertension and normotensive, agematched controls were enrolled. The blood pressure and biochemical profiles for both groups were assessed
    and compared. Results: Fifty-four subjects and 37 controls were enrolled. Amongst subjects, 46.3% had
    prehypertension and 53.7% had mild hypertension. Mean values compared to age-matched controls for MAP
    were 102.68 ± 7.48 vs 83.25 ± 6.08 mmHg (p< 0.001), LDL 3.75 ± 0.95 vs 3.32 ± 0.93 mmol/L (p=0.03), FBG
    4.65 ± 0.54 vs 4.33 ± 0.42 mmol/L (p=0.03), BMI 28.81 ± 5.16 vs 24.12 ± 4.91 (p< 0.001). The mean BP was
    significantly associated with BMI, FBG, triglycerides, HDL and the TC/HDL ratio. Conclusions: Greater BMI,
    FBG, HDL, triglyceride levels and TC/HDL ratio characterised the young adults with pre/mild hypertension.
    The data suggests that hypertension in young adults is secondary to metabolic syndrome.
  6. Mohd Nor NA, Repen MC, Zakaria Z, Ab-Murat N, Saub R, Abdul Razak I
    This study assesses dental students’ and patients’ perceptions on the role of dental students as smoking cessation counsellors as well as the patient’s quit rate at the University of XX. Materials and methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all senior dental students (n=154) in XX University and telephone call interviews were conducted on their patients (n=169) who received smoking cessation counselling from September 2010 to June 2013. Results: Response rates for dental students and patients were 68.2% and 67.3% respectively. Most of the dental students in this study were females (72.3%) whereas the majority of patients were males (97.6%). An average of six months follow up indicated that 22.5% of patients had quit smoking, 65.3% reduced the number of cigarettes smoked and 6.5% had relapsed. About a third of patients surveyed (33.1%) believed that smoking cessation counselling was extremely helpful compared to what students perceived (5.7%, p
  7. Nur Liyana I., Sharanjeet-Kaur, Saadah M.A., Mahadir A., Abdul Mutalib O.
    This study aimed to develop a questionnaire in Malay language for the identification of risk factors for myopia among primary school children aged 10 to 12 years old in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The study commenced in October 2012 till Julai 2013 in two main phases. The first phase was a pilot study for the construction of questionnaire items by literature review and discussion with the experts. A total of 103 parents of primary school children were randomly selected to test the comprehensibility of the preliminary questionnaire. The second phase was the actual study which involved parents of 353 primary school children , 132 were parents whose children were myopes and 221 parents whose children were nonmyopes. Results: Discussions with experts in human vision science identified 5 main domains and 71 items for the preliminary questionnaire. A total of 55 items were retained for the actual study phase in view of statistically good correlation (r = 0.4 and above). Predictive validity by chi-square test allowed 28 items to be retained because of significant association with myopia (p
  8. Ranjit, S., Carol, P., Kellie, C., Pauline, M., Renuka, S.
    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in prenatal and postnatal period of pregnancy complicated with thick nuchal translucency but normal karyotype. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 119 singleton pregnancies with increased NT (NT > 2.5mm) but a normal karyotype over a 3 year period. The records of ultrasound at 18-20 and 25-26 weeks’, antenatal and postnatal details were reviewed. The developmental and health outcomes of the surviving children were obtained through telephone conversation with the family. Adverse outcome such as miscarriages, termination of pregnancy, intrauterine death, structural anomalies and neurodevelopment delay were analysed. Results: Out of 119 foetuses with increased NT but normal karyotype, 11.8% of pregnancies ended with miscarriages, termination of pregnancy and intrauterine death. 89.9% foetuses were structurally normal. 12.9% presented with structural anomalies in the second-trimester ultrasound scan. 81.8% showed major malformations, out of which 44% consisted of heart defects. 1% of foetuses were syndromic and 1.9% had developmental delay. 96.8% of foetuses with NT equal to or greater than the 95th percentile (3.4mm) and 80% with NT equal to or greater than the 99 percentile (5.5mm) had a normal outcome. 50% of foetuses with thickened nuchal fold had a poor outcome. Postnatal follow-up was established for all infants and toddlers, and abnormalities were observed in 5.6% of them. Chances of having a live and healthy infant decreases with increased NT, corresponding to 80% for NT equal to or greater than 5.5mm. Conclusion: We have provided data that may help in the counselling of parents and increasing their confidence on a favourable pregnancy outcome. In cases with increased nuchal translucency but normal karyotype, the chances of normal pregnancy success rate is 89.9%. Parents can be reassured that thickened nuchal translucency with a normal karyotype and normal targeted ultrasound between 20-22 weeks gestation, the risk of adverse perinatal outcome and postnatal developmental delay is not increased in comparison with that of the general population. This seems to be the case for all degrees of increased nuchal translucency.
  9. Draman, S., Maliya, S., Farhan, A., Syazwan, S., Nur ‘Atikah A., Abd Aziz, K.H.
    Introduction: Mak nyahs (male-to-female transgenders) often consume feminizing hormones to achieve and maintain the female physical appearance. They do it without professional prescription/advise, and often take excessive doses. This renders them at risk of developing complications of hormone consumption. This paper provides some quantitative data on hormone consumption among mak nyahs in Kuantan, Pahang, in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to August in 2015 among 35 mak nyahs. Convenience sampling was used. Participants who gave consent answered an interview-guided questionnaire which documents socio-demographic profile, hormone usage, and morbidities as a result of hormone consumption. Data was analysed using SPSS, Version 16.0. (version 16). Results: Majority of the subjects were Malays (91.4%) and Muslims (97.1%), their median (IQR) age being 31 (±17) years, more than half (57.1%) were between 20 to 40 years old. Most (80.0%) of them are sex workers. Oral hormone was most commonly used (88.6%), while more than half (67.7%) of them added hormone injections. Almost all subjects purchased hormones over the counter from local pharmacies (94.2%). However, many received information on hormone from non-professional sources. Possible adverse effects of hormones reported among subjects were hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and venous thrombo-embolism. Conclusion: Hormone consumption was very common among the subjects in this study, and may be associated with certain medical problems. Medical personnel must pay more attention in educating the mak nyahs on adverse effects of hormones consumption. Mak nyahs should also be screened for complications every time they seek medical attention.
  10. Marwan Saad Azzubaidi, Al-Ani, Imad Matloub, Anil Kumar Saxena, Ghasak Ghazi Faisal
    Introduction: The oil extract of black cumin seeds Nigella sativa (NSO) demonstrated considerable
    preservation of spatial cognitive functions in rats subjected to chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH). The hippocampal CA1 region pyramidal cells are the earliest neurons suffering neurodegeneration following CBH. Objective: The current study was devoted to assess the protective effects of Nigella sativa (NSO) treatment on CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells of rats subjected to chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) that was achieved through permanent two vessel occlusion (2VO) procedure. Methods: Twenty four rats were equally divided into three groups; sham control, untreated 2VO and NSO treated group (2VO with daily oral NSO treatment. After the 10th postoperative week coronal sections of the hippocampus were collected for histopathological and electron microscopical examinations. Results: The number of viable pyramidal cells within CA1 hippocampal region in sham control and NSO treated groups was significantly higher than that of untreated 2VO group, while the difference was not significant when comparing the viable pyramidal cells number of sham control with NSO treated groups. Furthermore, 2VO group showed marked intracellular ultrastructural distortions that were less pronounced in NSO treated group. Conclusion: NSO displayed a robust potential to protect hippocampal pyramidal cells from CBH induced neurodegeneration putting forward its prospective neuroprotective activity against age related cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
  11. Yousuf, R.M., Shahar, M.A., Marzuki, O.A., Azarisman, S.M.S., Rosle, C., Tin, M.H.
    Introduction: Epilepsy remains a stigmatised disease across geographical and temporal boundaries. Very little is known about epileptic stigma (ES) in cross-cultural settings. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of perceived stigma and factors associated with it, among patients with epilepsy (PWE) at a tertiary care referral hospital in East Coast of Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional survey among 132 consenting PWE using pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire in Malay/English language to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs). Results: Among 132 respondents, 51.5% were male and 48.5 % were female. Their age ranged from 14 to 70 years (mean=31.6±13.41). Majority (53.8%) of them were aged 30 years or younger. The median number of years they had epilepsy was 8.0 (IQR 4.0-18.8) years and average duration of seizure prior to seeking medical attention was 1.0 (IQR 0.3 - 4.5) year. Most of them (90.9%) did not know the cause of epilepsy; however nearly all (91.7%) believed that it was a disease of the
    brain. Higher education level respondents possessed significantly higher KAP scores compared to lower education level respondents (p
  12. Wan Khairunnisa Wan Juhari, Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin Noordin, Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul Rahman, Andee Dzulkarnaen Zakaria, Ahmad Shanwani Mohd Sidek, Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan, et al.
    Background: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) also known as Lynch syndrome is commonly caused by genetic alterations in any of the four mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. This is the first study aimed to investigate genetic variants in Malay HNPCC families. Methods: Six Malay HNPCC families who fulfilled any of the Bethesda criteria were recruited into this study. A total of 3 ml of blood was withdrawn from each patient in the families. The samples were further analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the selected exons of MLH1 and MSH2 genes. Results: Two missense mutations and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in six patients. These variants in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes were identified in four families who met the revised Bethesda guidelines. In two families, no mutation and polymorphism was identified in both the exon and intron of the respective genes. Of the mutations and polymorphisms identified, five have never been reported in Malay HNPCC families before. A missense mutation was detected in exon 5 of the MLH1 gene, c.394G>C (p.Asp132His) and four mutations and polymorphisms were detected in the MSH2 gene; heterozygous c.211+98T>C and c.211+9C>G and homozygous c.211+98T>C and c.211+9C>G, c.367-86A>C and c.382C>G. Conclusion: The results represented a new spectrum of mutations and polymorphisms in the Malay HNPCC families. However, a larger study involving additional families and analysis is required to determine the impact and nature of the identified mutations and polymorphisms.
  13. Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan, Muhammad Lokman Md. Isa, Azlina Daud, Ali Aminuddin Mohd Rasani, Muhammad Ibrahim, Samsul Deraman
    Introduction: Abdominal obesity and inflammation are two independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the inter-relationship between these two factors among Malay population is fragmented. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between waist circumference as a measure of abdominal obesity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as an indicator of inflammation status among Malay obese adults in Kuantan, Pahang. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three apparently healthy obese adults (BMI between 27.5 and 39.9 kg/m2 ) aged between 20 to 62 years old were recruited in this study (68% men and 32% women). Circumference tape was used to measure the waist circumference and fasting venous blood was obtained to determine the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Results: On average, the waist circumference of obese men and women was 103 cm (SD = 8.7) and 94 cm (SD = 7.0), respectively. The median (IQR) of the hs-CRP level of the study participant was 3.80 mg/L (1.5, 10.1). The Kendall’s Tau correlation reveals that there is a significant positive linear correlation between waist circumference and hs -CRP level in obese men (r (30) = 0.355, p = 0.006) and women (r (63) = 0.177, p = 0.043). Conclusion: There is a significant inter-relationship between waist circumference and hs-CRP level among apparently healthy obese adults in Kuantan, Pahang. This study suggests that assessment of hs-CRP level is beneficial to predict the risk for future cardiovascular disease event and facilitate the management of obesity in this population. A prospective clinical study is recommended to confirm the findings.
  14. Chee, Huei Phing, Hazizi Abu Saad, Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib
    Introduction: The metabolic syndrome comprises a collection of cardiovascular disease risks, which has been demonstrated to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome is a crucial health concern in Malaysia, with a prevalence of about 42.5% in the general population based on the ‘Harmonized’ definition. The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between socioeconomic status among Malaysian government employees with metabolic syndrome, compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, this study also aimed to ascertain the associated obesity indicators for metabolic syndrome among employees—explicitly body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage, fat mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Methods: This cross-sectional study was
    undertaken at government agencies in Putrajaya, Malaysia, via multi-stage random sampling. A total of 675 government employees were randomly sampled from a list of 3,173 government employees working in five government agencies under five geographical areas. Data on socioeconomic status, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were collected. Results: Employees who were males had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence compared to their counterparts (p=0.019). In addition, employees aged between 20 to younger than 30 years had lowest metabolic syndrome prevalence (p=0.002). The risk of having metabolic syndrome was almost 10 times more likely in men with a waist-to-hip ratio of ≥0.90 compared to men with a waist-to-hip ratio of
  15. Zuria Idura A.M., Noorlaili M.T., Rosdinom R., Azlin B.., Tuti Iryani M.D.
    Introduction: Caring for those with dementia affects the quality of life for both the caregivers and the patients themselves, particularly in the informal care system here in Malaysia. To date, only a few studies have explored from the family caregivers’ perspectives in the communities of different cultural background. The purpose of this study is to describe the Malaysian family caregivers’ perspectives of their experiences in providing care to for their family members suffering from moderate to severe dementia in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: This qualitative study involved in-depth individual interviews with twelve caregivers to patients with moderate to severe dementia. Participants were recruited via purposive sampling from the outpatient psycho-geriatric clinic at UKM Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcribed data was later analysed using a thematic approach. Results: Four themes identified in this study were; i) the feeling that ‘it is like caring for a baby’, ii) the caregivers’ perception of inadequate knowledge and skills, iii) the need for caregivers’ support system and iv) the importance of spirituality in enhancing care giving experiences. Conclusions: The framework of care shared by the caregivers in this study demonstrated strong cultural and spirituality influences in addition to the common issues of the challenges in managing the behavioural and psychological symptoms in people with dementia. Hence, culture and spirituality aspects should be addressed in the development of appropriate intervention to manage the needs of informal caregivers in this community.
  16. Zamzuri Z., Ariff M.S., Mohd Fairuz Ad., Mohd Shukrimi A., Nazri My.
    Introduction: Burst fracture results from compression failure of both the anterior and middle columns under
    substantial axial loads. Conservative treatment was a method of treatment for fractures without
    neurological deficit. This cross sectional study was designed to evaluate the functional and radiological
    outcome of patient with thoracolumbar burst fracture treated conservatively. Methods: 40 cases were
    recruited from January 2013 till December 2015. They were followed-up with minimum period of 1 year and
    evaluated for the functional (Oswetry Disbility Index) and radiological outcomes (kyphotic angle deformity
    and anterior body compression). Results: 20 patients were treated with body cast made form plaster of
    Paris and remaining 20 patients with fiberglass cast. In plaster of Paris group, mean kyphotic angle
    deformity at last follow up was 16.60 ± 2.95 with a mean improvement 4.45 degree and anterior body
    compression at last follow up was 30.35% ± 10.2 with mean improvement of 9.30%. In fiberglass group, mean
    kyphotic angle deformity at last follow up was 15.55 ± 3.38 with a mean improvement 7.25 degree and
    anterior body compression at last follow up was 25.90% ± 7.81 with mean improvement of 3.45%. The
    functional outcome showed Oswetry Disability Index (ODI) score in plaster of Paris group was 23.70 (SD =
    7.82) and in fiberglass group was 18.50 (SD = 5.94). Conclusions: Application of body cast using a fiberglass
    material give better radiological outcome hence less pain, more functional and higher patient’s satisfaction
    as compared to plaster of Paris.
  17. Che Anuar Che Mohamad, Abdurezak Abdullahi Hashi
    The advancement in human stem cell research has promised a viable alternative treatment for a range of ‘incurable diseases’ such as neurological diseases. To date, several studies have documented substantial evidences on the therapeutic properties of stem cells in promoting repair in different diseases including common neurological disorders i.e. ischaemic stroke and spinal cord injury. However, the progress of stem cell research has been surrounded by ethical issues which largely due to the usage of human embryos as one of the sources. These embryonic stem cells which originally derived from human embryo of aborted foetus or already existing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) lines, has sparked an intense moral and religious argument among people of various faith, including Muslim community. From the therapeutic point of view, amongst the currently available stem cells, hESCs show the greatest potential for the broadest range of cell replacement therapies and are regarded as the most commercially viable. This review focuses on the major ethical issues, particularly to Muslim community, related to human embryonic stem cells research with special emphasis on the moral status of the embryo and the beginning of life according to the Islamic ethics and rulings. In this paper, we also discuss some ethical positions towards embryonic stem cell research in the Islamic world, including official regulations existing in some Muslim countries. We examine the justification and the necessity on the usage of hESCs following the newly discovered Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs) in the laboratory. In addition, we supplement the discussions with the general views and positions from the other two Abrahamic religions i.e. Christianity and Judaism.
  18. Nurulhuda M.H., Najwa Haneem M., Khairi C.M., Norwati D., Aniza A.A.
    Introduction: Substance abuse is both a social and public health problem with a substantial burden to society. Opioid dependence results in unemployment, crimes, family disruption, and transmission of diseases. In Malaysia, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has been introduced as a harm reduction method. However, relapse during treatment remains an issue to be resolved that hinders successful outcome in the therapy. Spirituality in the treatment of substance abuse disorders has yet to be fully explored. This study aims to examine how MMT clients who relapsed perceive spiritual deficits as an influence and association of spiritual practice with relapse. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study done from June-July 2016. All MMT clients undergoing therapy at 3 treatment centers in Terengganu, Malaysia who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and consented were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled via face to face interview and spiritual practice was assessed using Hatta Islamic Religiosity Scale. 121 questionnaires were assessed and data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 for quantitative data. Results: All respondents were males of Malay race and Islamic religion. Current relapse, defined as any episode of intake of opioid for the past one month after a period of abstinence was 34%. Only three out of 42 clients who relapsed had some spirituality theme in their perceived cause of their relapse. However, a significant majority of those relapsed had a spiritual practice score of less than the mean practice score. Conclusion: Relapse in opioid addiction remains high in those receiving MMT in Terengganu, Malaysia. Spirituality may have a subconscious influence towards relapse in addiction in MMT clients. Further effort should be taken to inculcate spirituality intervention effective to prevent relapse which may contribute towards achieving a more successful therapy outcomes.
  19. Mohammad Arif Shahar, Mohd Faiz Idris, Che Anuar Che Mohamad, Zul Azlin Razali
    The Kulliyyah of Medicine of IIUM has pioneered the Islamization of Medicine in Malaysia since its establishment in year 1994. Therefore, it is timely to review publications on Islamization by the kulliyyah and also to propose a classification system in the field of researches to promote an organized, comprehensive, inclusive and relevant Islamization process. The aim is to review and classify publications on Islamization performed by the members of Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). All researches and publications deposited in the IIUM Repository (IREP) under the Kulliyyah of Medicine between 1st of January 2000 and 31st of August 2016 were reviewed. Journal articles, posters and proceedings with Islamization themes were identified. These publications were classified based on common themes to either of the following; 1) "Islamic Principles and Related Rulings in Medicine"; 2) "Medical Treatment for Muslim Patients"; 3) "Islamic Input in Medical Practices"; 4) "Ruqyah and Tibb an-Nabawi in Contemporary Medicine". A total of 1616 items (journal articles, abstracts and proceedings) were reviewed. Sixty-one (3.8%) of them were related to Islamization. The major contributors to writings in Islamization are the Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Rehabilitation Department (10%) followed by the Internal Medicine Department (7.9%), from their total deposits in the IREP database. Majority (36.5%) of work were done in "Islamic Principles and Related Rulings in Medicine", which dwells in subjects such as euthanasia, autonomy and doctor-patient relationship followed by "Islamic Input in Medical Practice" (28.6%) which was related to topics in the medical curriculum such as Fiqh Ibadah for the sick. Twenty-three point eight percent (23.8%) of work were in the "Medical Treatment for Muslim Patients" which focuses on Ramadan and diabetes and joint problems and Solat. Minimal work (7.9%) was done in the "Ruqyah and Tibb an-Nabawi in Contemporary Medicine" category. Low number of publications on Islamization was deposited in the IREP database for the past 15 years. Based on the proposed classification system, majority of publications were on "Islamic Principles and Related Rulings in Medicine" and "Islamic Input in Medical Practice". More work is required on the theme of "Medical Treatment for Muslim Patients" and "Ruqyah and Tibb an-Nabawi in Contemporary Medicine".
  20. Ezura Madiana Md Monoto, Nor Kamariah Mohamad Alwi
    The Malaysian Breastfeeding Peer Counsellors (MBFPC) is the pioneer of non-governmental organization (NGO) of trained breastfeeding peer counsellors in Malaysia initiated in 2010. The training was done in a systematic way using a developed syllabus that was adapted from and endorsed by the La Leche League International (LLLI) to suit our local population. Training materials used throughout the program were presentation slides, demonstration tools, mantas and role-plays. Materials and methods: In 2015, MBFPC partnered with Global Health Media Project (GHMP) to incorporate breastfeeding videos as training tool to further enhance the delivery of current breastfeeding peer counsellor trainings to the participants, emphasizing on helping breastfeeding mothers. The new training tool was evaluated in 38 participants, who underwent 21 hours of training. Participants were required to do pre and post-assessments to complete the MBFPC Modules, view 8 videos and do practical sessions within a 2 month period post training. Participants’ field experience survey and focus group discussions were conducted among the participants and the trainers to look at the practicality of the videos in our training. Results: All participants felt that the videos made the training more effective and helped change their understanding and approach. The trainers agreed that the videos had covered all key topics need to be delivered in the training modules and helped them to deliver most important topics in helping breastfeeding mothers in a more practical way. Conclusion: GHMP Breastfeeding Videos are suitable as educational and training tools in helping breastfeeding mothers in our training.
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