Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes called meninges and fluid adjacent the brain and spinal cord. The inflammatory progression expands all through subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord and occupies the ventricles. The pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites are main sources of infection causing meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening health problem that which needs instantaneous apprehension and treatment. Nesseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus flu are major widespread factors causing bacterial meningitis. The conventional drug delivery approaches encounter difficulty in crossing this blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore are insufficient to elicit the desired pharmacological effect as required for treatment of meningitis. Therefore, application of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has become imperative for successful dealing with this deadly disease. The nanoparticles have ability to across BBB via four important transport mechanisms, i.e., paracellular transport, transcellular (transcytosis), endocytosis (adsorptive transcytosis), and receptor-mediated transcytosis. In this review, we reminisce distinctive symptoms of meningitis, and provide an overview of various types of bacterial meningitis, with a focus on its epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology. This review describes conventional therapeutic approaches for treatment of meningitis and the problems encountered by them while transmitting across tight junctions of BBB. The nanotechnology approaches like functionalized polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carrier, nanoemulsion, liposomes, transferosomes, and carbon nanotubes which have been recently evaluated for treatment or detection of bacterial meningitis have been focused. This review has also briefly summarized the recent patents and clinical status of therapeutic modalities for meningitis.
Oil palm breeding involves crossing dura and pisifera palms to produce tenera progeny with greatly improved oil yield. Oil yield is controlled by variant alleles of a type II MADS-box gene, SHELL, that impact the presence and thickness of the endocarp, or shell, surrounding the fruit kernel. We identified six novel SHELL alleles in noncommercial African germplasm populations from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. These populations provide extensive diversity to harness genetic, mechanistic and phenotypic variation associated with oil yield in a globally critical crop. We investigated phenotypes in heteroallelic combinations, as well as SHELL heterodimerization and subcellular localization by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and gene expression analyses. Four novel SHELL alleles were associated with fruit form phenotype. Candidate heterodimerization partners were identified, and interactions with EgSEP3 and subcellular localization were SHELL allele-specific. Our findings reveal allele-specific mechanisms by which variant SHELL alleles impact yield, as well as speculative insights into the potential role of SHELL in single-gene oil yield heterosis. Future field trials for combinability and introgression may further optimize yield and improve sustainability.