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  1. Seah TC, Tay YL, Tan HK, Muhammad TS, Wahab HA, Tan ML
    Int. J. Toxicol., 2015 08 12;34(5):454-68.
    PMID: 26268769 DOI: 10.1177/1091581815599335
    A cell-based assay to measure cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) induction was developed to screen for potential CYP3A4 inducers. This 96-well format assay utilizes HepG2 cells transfected with a gene construct of CYP3A4 proximal promoter linked to green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene, and the expression of the GFP is then measured quantitatively. Bergamottin at 5 to 25 µmol/L produced low induction relative to the positive control. Both curcumin and lycopene were not found to affect the expression of GFP, suggesting no induction properties toward CYP3A4. Interestingly, resveratrol produced significant induction from 25 µmol/L onward, which was similar to omeprazole and may warrant further studies. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that this cell-based assay can be used as a tool to evaluate the potential CYP3A4 induction properties of compounds. However, molecular docking data have not provided satisfactory pointers to differentiate between CYP3A4 inducers from noninducers or from inhibitors, more comprehensive molecular screening may be indicated.
  2. Lim EL, Seah TC, Koe XF, Wahab HA, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, et al.
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2013 Mar;27(2):812-24.
    PMID: 23274770 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.014
    CYP450 enzymes are key determinants in drug toxicities, reduced pharmacological effect and adverse drug reactions. Mitragynine, an euphoric compound was evaluated for its effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 and protein expression and resultant enzymatic activity. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP450 isoforms were carried out using an optimized multiplex qRT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated using P450-Glo™ assays. The effects of mitragynine on human CYP3A4 protein expression were determined using an optimized hCYP3A4-HepG2 cell-based assay. An in silico computational method to predict the binding conformation of mitragynine to the active site of the CYP3A4 enzyme was performed and further validated using in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition assays. Mitragynine was found to induce mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A2. For the highest concentration of 25 μM, induction of mRNA was approximately 70% that of the positive control and was consistent with the increased CYP1A2 enzymatic activity. Thus, mitragynine is a significant in vitro CYP1A2 inducer. However, it appeared to be a weak CYP3A4 inducer at the transcriptional level and a weak CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor. It is therefore, unlikely to have any significant clinical effects on CYP3A4 activity.
  3. Koe XF, Lim EL, Seah TC, Amanah A, Wahab HA, Adenan MI, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2013 Oct;60:98-108.
    PMID: 23876819 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.030
    Drug metabolism involving cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is a key determinant of significant drug interactions. Deoxyelephantopin was evaluated for its effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and protein expression and resultant enzymatic activity. The mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome isoforms were carried out using an optimized multiplex qRT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. Human CYP3A4 protein expression was determined using an optimized hCYP3A4-HepG2 cell-based assay and the enzymatic activity was evaluated using P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 assay. The molecular interaction and possible inhibition of deoxyelephantopin of the CYP3A4 enzyme was determined in silico and further validated using substrate-specific CYP3A4 inhibition assays. Deoxyelephantopin produced no significant effect on the CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 mRNA and protein expression. However, it has a weak induction effect on CYP3A4 at the transcriptional level. In silico docking simulation showed that deoxyelephantopin has a weak interaction with CYP3A4 enzyme and it minimally affects the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates. Deoxyelephantopin is not an in vitro CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inducer. It is both a weak in vitro CYP3A4 inducer and inhibitor and is unlikely to elicit a clinically significant effect in human.
  4. Chandrawathani P, Nurulaini R, Zanin CM, Premaalatha B, Adnan M, Jamnah O, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Dec;25(3):257-8.
    PMID: 19287367
    Antibodies to the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 200 goats, 100 pigs, 126 cattle from various states of Malaysia, and 135 dogs and 55 cats around Ipoh region using an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, cut-off titer 1:200); antibodies were found in 35.5% of goats, 14.5% cats, 9.6% dogs, 7.9% local cattle and 4% yellow cattle but not in pigs. Results indicate that infection is most prevalent in goats.
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