Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

  1. Ali Khan MS, Misbah, Ahmed N, Arifuddin M, Rehman A, Ling MP
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jun 05.
    PMID: 29883785 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.06.007
    Flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br., (Apocynaceae) are used in traditional medicine for analgesic property. The present study was performed to isolate the active principles and investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-nociception caused by T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME). The extract in the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o was subjected to various assays in acetic acid induced abdominal writhing and formalin induced paw licking test models. Naloxone, L-Arginine, Glibenclamide and Glutamate were used as inducers while Morphine, L-NAME, Methylene blue and Aspirin served as standard drugs. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of three indole alkaloids namely Voacangine, Catharanthine and O-acetyl Vallesamine. The anti-nociception produced by TDFME was attenuated significantly (p< 0.001) by the intra-peritoneal pretreatment of naloxone, L-Arginine and glibenclamide. The nociception produced by glutamate was inhibited by TDFME. TDFME also enhanced the antinociceptive activity of L-NAME when given in combination. However TDFME co-administration did not produce significant results with methylene blue indicating lack of cGMP involvement. These results indicate that TDFME produces anti-nociception action mediated by opioid, nitric oxide, K+-ATP and glutamate mechanisms and the effect is largely related to the indole alkaloids.
  2. Ngo YL, Lau CH, Chua LS
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2018 Nov;121:687-700.
    PMID: 30273632 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.064
    Rosmarinic acid is a bioactive phytochemical that can be found in many herbs as ethnomedicines. It possesses remarkable pharmacological activities, and thus leading to its exploration as a therapeutic drug in diabetes treatment recently. This article reviews the extraction and fractionation techniques for plant-based natural rosmarinic acid and its anti-diabetic potential based on literature data published in journals, books, and patents from 1958 to 2017. Factors affecting the performance of rosmarinic acid extraction and fractionation such as operating temperature, time, solvent to sample ratio and eluent system are compiled and discussed in detail. The inhibitory action of rosmarinic acid against sugar digestive enzymes, and protective action towards pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and glucolipotoxicity mediated oxidative stress are also critically reviewed. The optimal parameters are largely dependent on the applied extraction and fractionation techniques, as well as the nature of plant samples. Previous studies have proven the potent role of rosmarinic acid to control plasma glucose level and increase insulin sensitivity in hyperglycemia. Although rosmarinic acid is readily absorbed by human body, its mechanism after consumption is remained unclear. Intensive studies should be well planned to determine the dosage and toxicity level of rosmarinic acid for efficacy and safe consumption.
  3. Cheurfa M, Abdallah HH, Allem R, Noui A, Picot-Allain CMN, Mahomoodally F
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Jan;123:98-105.
    PMID: 30292622 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.002
    Aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect. The result of administration of O. europaea leaf extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in hypercholesterolaemic mice was evaluated. In addition, rutin and luteolin, reported to occur naturally in O. europaea leaves, were docked against HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol metabolism. Mice treated with both extracts showed reduced total cholesterol (246.6 and 163.4 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) and LDL (150.16 and 81.28 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) levels as compared to the hypercholesterolaemic group (total cholesterol 253.00 mg/dl and LDL 160.00 mg/dl). Mice treated with aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) showed significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL levels as compared to the group treated with atorvastatine. HDL level of mice administered with O. europaea aqueous extract was comparable to the atorvastatine-treated group. The ethanol extract of O. europeae leaves was a potent antioxidant (IC50 69.15 mg/ml, % inhibition 54.98, 82.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract, 7.53 mol of Fe2+/g extract, and % inhibition 49.71, for the DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, total antioxidant capacity, FRAP, and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively). Docking studies revealed that rutin showed higher binding affinity with HMG-CoA reductase as compared to luteolin. Data gathered from this study support the development of a prophylactic biomedicine from O. europaea leaves for the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
  4. Saleem H, Htar TT, Naidu R, Nawawi NS, Ahmad I, Ashraf M, et al.
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Jan;123:363-373.
    PMID: 30419323 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.11.016
    We investigated into the effects of methanol and dichloromethane extracts from aerial and roots of Filago germanica (L.) Huds (Astearaceae) on key enzymes (cholinesterases, α-glucosidase and urease), antioxidant capabilities, cytotoxic potential and secondary metabolomics profile. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by spectrophotometric technique and secondary metabolites composition by UHPLC-MS. Antioxidant activities were assessed employing free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and phosphomolybdenum assays. The cell-toxicity was evaluated by MTT assay against breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), cervix (CaSki) and prostate (DU-145) cancers. Overall, methanol extracts were found to have higher total bioactive contents and antioxidant potential. UHPLC-MS analysis revealed significant variation in the secondary metabolites in the methanol extracts. The most common derivatives belong to seven groups i.e. alkaloids, benzoic acids, flavones, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, terpenoids and saponins. The major polyphenolic compounds were found to be kampferol, robinin, luteolin, ferulic acid, benzoic acid and salicylic acid. All the extracts showed moderate cholinesterases inhibition, whereas methanol extracts exhibited highest urease inhibition and all extracts presented a relatively high inhibition against α-glucosidase. Similarly, all extracts showed strong to moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 53.02 to 382.7 μg/mL. Overall, results have suggested F. germanica to be a lead source for novel natural products.
  5. Saleem H, Zengin G, Locatelli M, Ahmad I, Khaliq S, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Sep;131:110535.
    PMID: 31154083 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.043
    This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.
  6. Hannon JC, Kerry JP, Cruz-Romero M, Azlin-Hasim S, Morris M, Cummins E
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2016 Sep;95:128-36.
    PMID: 27402098 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.07.004
    To examine the human exposure to a novel silver and copper nanoparticle (AgNP and CuNP)/polystyrene-polyethylene oxide block copolymer (PS-b-PEO) food packaging coating, the migration of Ag and Cu into 3% acetic acid (3% HAc) food simulant was assessed at 60 °C for 10 days. Significantly lower migration was observed for Ag (0.46 mg/kg food) compared to Cu (0.82 mg/kg food) measured by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In addition, no distinct population of AgNPs or CuNPs were observed in 3% HAc by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The predicted human exposure to Ag and Cu was used to calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) for ionic species of Ag and Cu, which indicated the safe use of the food packaging in a hypothetical scenario (e.g. as fruit juice packaging). While migration exceeded regulatory limits, the calculated MOE suggests current migration limits may be conservative for specific nano-packaging applications.
  7. Abd Hamid H, Mutazah R, Yusoff MM, Abd Karim NA, Abdull Razis AF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):451-457.
    PMID: 27725206 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.10.004
    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner. According to the IC50 obtained, the ethyl acetate extracts showed significant antiproliferative activity on HepG2 (IC50 11.47 ± 0.280 μg/mL), MCF-7 (IC50 2.68 ± 0.529 μg/mL) and HT 29 (IC50 16.18 ± 0.538 μg/mL) after 72 h of treatment. Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of lupeol. Methanol extracts show significant antioxidant activities in DPPH (EC50 110.25 ± 0.005 μg/ml), CUPRAC (EC50 53.84 ± 0.004) and β-carotene bleaching (EC50 58.62 ± 0.001) due to the presence of high total flavonoid and total phenolic content which were 110.822 ± 0.017 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)/g and 190.467 ± 0.009 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g respectively. Taken together, the results extracts show the R. tomentosa as a potential source of antioxidant and antiproliferative efficacy.
  8. Nna VU, Usman UZ, Ofutet EO, Owu DU
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Apr;102:143-155.
    PMID: 28229914 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.02.010
    This study examined the possible protective effect of quercetin(QE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2) - induced reproductive toxicity in female rats. Cadmium (Cd) accumulated in the uterus and ovaries of rats, decreased antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH)], and raised the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the uterus and ovaries of rats. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone decreased significantly after CdCl2 administration. Caspase-3 activity significantly increased in the ovaries, with an increase in Bax and a decrease in Bcl-2 protein expressions after CdCl2 treatment. Histopathology of the ovaries revealed significant decrease in follicle number, while the uterus showed cyst-like endometrial glands. All three models of QE treatment [pre-treatment (QE + CdCl2), post-treatment (CdCl2+QE), simultaneous treatment (CdCl2/QE)] decreased Cd accumulation, MDA, H2O2, and increased SOD, CAT and GPx activities in the uterus and ovaries, decreased apoptosis of follicular cells, and increased serum reproductive hormones. However, the QE pre-treated model offered better protection against CdCl2 relative to the other two models. These results suggest that, QE exerts multi-mechanistic protective effects against cadmium toxicity attributable to its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions.
  9. Raja SB, Rajendiran V, Kasinathan NK, P A, Venkatabalasubramanian S, Murali MR, et al.
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Aug;106(Pt A):92-106.
    PMID: 28479391 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.05.006
    Quercetin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study exemplifies the differential cytotoxic activity of Quercetin on two human colonic cancer cell lines, HT29 and HCT15. IC50 of Quercetin for HT29 and HCT15 cells were 42.5 μM and 77.4 μM, respectively. Activation of caspase-3, increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, decreased levels of pAkt, pGSK-3β and cyclin D1 in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells alone. Though, nuclear translocation of NFkB was increased in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 and HCT15 cells, over expression of COX-2 was observed in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells, whereas, Quercetin treated HCT15 cells did not expressed COX-2. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed only in Quercetin treated HT29 cells, which is due to over expression of COX-2, as COX-2 silencing inhibited Quercetin induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Insilico analysis provided evidence that Quercetin could partially inhibit COX-2 enzyme by binding to subunit A which has peroxidase activity and serves as source of ROS. However, Quercetin showed minimal effect on normal intestinal epithelial cells i,e IEC-6. To conclude, differential sensitivity of two cancer cells, HT29 and HCT15, to Quercetin depends on COX-2 dependent ROS generation that induces apoptosis and inhibits cell survival.
  10. Teah YF, Abduraman MA, Amanah A, Adenan MI, Sulaiman SF, Tan ML
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Sep;107(Pt A):293-301.
    PMID: 28689918 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.07.011
    Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation. This study investigated the effects of deoxyelephantopin on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were insignificantly affected by deoxyelephantopin in the transfected cell line. Current reduction was less than 40% as compared with baseline at the highest concentration of 50 μM. The results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation and hERG surface protein expression. Interestingly, it does not affect the hERG expression at both transcriptional and translational level at most concentrations, although higher concentration at 10 μM caused protein accumulation. In conclusion, deoxyelephantopin is unlikely a clinically significant hERG channel and Ikr blocker.
  11. Zengin G, Abdallah HH, Dogan A, Mollica A, Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z, Mahomoodally MF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;111:423-431.
    PMID: 29198858 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.11.055
    The potentiality of bioactive phenolic compounds may result in plant extracts having multiple biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate into the biological activities of the methanolic, ethyl acetate, and water extracts of Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss, an endemic medicinal plant of Turkey. The phenolic compositions of the extracts were confirmed using RP-HPLC. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant through a panoply of assays; their anti-diabetic potential, and plausible inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase. Molecular modelling methods were also used to assess the docking properties of phenolic compounds on tyrosinase. The major and most abundant compounds were rosmarinic acid (570 ± 14 μg/g extract in the methanolic extract), ferrulic acid (336 ± 6 μg/g extract in the methanolic extract), (+)-catechin (340 ± 4 μg/g extract in the water extract), apigenin (182 ± 4 μg/g extract in the methanolic extract), and epicatechin (188 ± 12 μg/g extract in the water extract). Radical scavenging, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activities were detected in the extracts, with preponderance activity observed in the methanolic extract. In conclusion, the potential clinical applications observed during this study may provide new insights into the molecular aspect particularly for neuroprotective and anti-diabetic mechanisms involving oxidative stress.
  12. Muhammad H, Maslan SF, Md Saad WM, Thani NSIA, Ibnu Rasid EN, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Sep;131:110538.
    PMID: 31152790 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.046
    Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill (DH), also known a tropical yam or intoxicating yam is a bitter wild tuber which is consumed as a staple food and traditionally used as a remedy in Malaysia. However, DH is also notorious for its intoxicating effects and there is currently a dearth of study of possible effects of DH on liver and placental tissues and hence its safe consumption warrants in-depth investigation. This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p 
  13. Zamakshshari NH, Ee GCL, Ismail IS, Ibrahim Z, Mah SH
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Nov;133:110800.
    PMID: 31479710 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110800
    The stem bark of Calophyllum depressinervosum and Calophyllum buxifolium were extracted and examined for their antioxidant activities, together with cytotoxicity towards human cancer cells. The methanol extract of C. depressinervosum exhibited good DPPH and NO scavenging effects. The strongest BCB inhibition and FIC effects were shown by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of both species. Overall, DPPH, FRAP and FIC assays showed strong correlation with TPC. For cytotoxicity, hexane extract of C. depressinervosum possessed the strongest anti-proliferative activities towards SNU-1 cells while the hexane extract of C. buxifolium showed the strongest activity towards LS-174T and K562 cells with the IC50 values ranging from 7 to 17 μg/mL. The purification of plant extracts afforded eight xanthones, ananixanthone (1), caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone I (3), caloxanthone J (4) xanthochymone B (5), thwaitesixanthone (6), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (7) and dombakinaxanthone (8). All the xanthones, except 1 were reported for the first time from both Calophyllum species. The xanthones were examined for their cytotoxic effect against K562 leukemic cells. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong cytotoxicity with the IC50 values of 2.96 and 1.23 μg/mL, respectively. The molecular binding interaction of 2 was further investigated by performing molecular docking study with promising protein receptor Src kinase.
  14. Mutazah R, Hamid HA, Mazila Ramli AN, Fasihi Mohd Aluwi MF, Yusoff MM
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Oct 15.
    PMID: 31626839 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110869
    Clinacanthus nutans has attracted Malaysian public interest due to its high medicinal value in the prevention of cancer. Currently, the specific compound or compounds giving rise to the anticancer potential of C. nutans has not been investigated thoroughly. The extraction was carried out by MeOH at room temperature using the powdered bark of C. nutans, while chromatography was carried out on a silica gel RP-18 column using the crude methanolic extract. Six fractions collected from column chromatography were evaluated by MTT assay against two breast cancer cell lines: MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Amongst the fractions, A12 and A17 were shown to exhibit the highest activity. Two sulphur-containing compounds, viz., entadamide C (1) and clinamide D (2), were isolated from these fractions. Molecular docking simulation studies revealed that entadamide C and clinamide D could bind favourably to the caspase-3 binding site with the binding energy of -4.28 kcal/mol and -4.84 kcal/mol, respectively. This study provides empirical evidence for the presence of sulphur-containing compounds in the leaves of C. nutans that displayed anticancer effects which explains its ethnomedicinal application against breast cancer. The docking simulation study showed that both compounds could serve as important templates for future drug design and development.
  15. Ali Khan MS, Ahmed N, Misbah, Arifuddin M, Zakaria ZA, Al-Sanea MM, et al.
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2018 May;115:523-531.
    PMID: 29555329 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.021
    In view of the report on anti-nociceptive activity of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea {Roxb.} Wight & Arn. (Combretaceae) leaves, the present study was conducted to isolate the active constituents and identify the underlying mechanisms. The methanolic extract of T. coriacea leaves (TCLME) at doses 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg orally, was subjected to various in-vivo assays in acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced paw-licking tests with aspirin (100 mg/kg) and morphine (5 mg/kg) as reference drugs. Three flavonoids, rutin, robinin and gossypetin 3-glucuronide 8-glucoside were isolated and characterized from TCLME for the first time. The extract showed significant (p 
  16. Jaćević V, Wu Q, Nepovimova E, Kuča K
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2020 Jan 22.
    PMID: 31981685 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2020.111138
    T-2 toxin, A trichothecenes mycotoxin, is immunotoxic to animals and humans. Although it is highly cardiotoxic, the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy caused by T-2 toxin is not entirely clear. Hence, in our research, cardiomyopathy was induced by a single injection of T-2 mycotoxin (0.23 mg/kg s.c., 1 LD50.) to Wistar rats. The cardiac tissue was carefully examinated by using basic histopathology, semiquantitative (tissue grading score scales) and imaging (a total number of mast cells - MCs) analyses on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 of the study. The most intensive myocardial alterations (cardiac damage score, CDS = 4.20-4.40), irregular glycogen distribution (glycogen distribution score, GDS = 4.07-4.17), haemorrhagic foci (vascular damage score, VDS = 4.57-4.90), diffuse accumulation and degranulation of MCs were observed on day 28 and 60 after treatment (p 
  17. Fakurazi S, Hairuszah I, Nanthini U
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Aug;46(8):2611-5.
    PMID: 18514995 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.04.018
    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level.
  18. Anuar NS, Zahari SS, Taib IA, Rahman MT
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Jul;46(7):2384-9.
    PMID: 18468758 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.03.025
    The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya.
  19. Ang HH
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Jun;46(6):1969-75.
    PMID: 18328612 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.01.037
    The Drug Control Authority (DCA) of Malaysia implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January, 1992. A total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Eugenia dyeriana, either single or combined preparations (more than one medicinal plant), were analyzed for the presence of lead contamination, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These samples were bought from different commercial sources in the Malaysian market, after performing a simple random sampling. Results showed that 22% of the above products failed to comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Although this study showed that 78% of the products fully complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to lead, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.
  20. Choi EM, Kim YH
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Jan;46(1):375-9.
    PMID: 17904263 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.018
    The present study was undertaken to determine whether Ligularia fischeri leaf extract (LF) is efficacious against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. DBA/1J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen and treated with LF (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 49 days. Mice were assessed regularly for signs of arthritis and the levels of rheumatoid factor, anti-type II collagen antibody, cytokines, AST, ALT, and creatinine in serum were also examined after the animals were killed. The arthritis score and paw edema were markedly suppressed in the groups treated with LF. Moreover, levels of rheumatoid factor, anti-type II collagen antibody, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 in sera were reduced by LF administration. These data suggest that L. fischeri might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis like human rheumatoid arthritis.
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