METHODS: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (OR(M)) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0.
RESULTS: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89-39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96).
CONCLUSION: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.
METHODS: Acceptable spirometry data were obtained from 30 281 healthy subjects aged 35-70 years comprising Malays, Chinese and Indians from the Malaysian Cohort. Local reference values were calculated using regression analysis and evaluated using ERS/GLI reference values to obtain GLI Z-scores.
RESULTS: The mean (SD) of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) for males were 2.67 (0.46), 2.89 (0.48) and 2.60 (0.46) and females were 1.91 (0.36), 2.13 (0.37) and 1.86 (0.35) for Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. For forced vital capacity (FVC), the mean (SD) for males were 3.03 (0.53), 3.28 (0.58) and 2.92 (0.53) and females were 2.15 (0.40), 2.38 (0.43) and 2.07 (0.41) for Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The mean GLI Z-scores were less than -0.5 for FEV1 and FVC and more than 0.5 for FEV1 /FVC. A large percentage of subjects in all the three ethnic groups were defined lower than the lower limit of normal.
CONCLUSION: This present and large multi-ethnic Asian-based study demonstrates clinically significant deviation from ERS/GLI 2012 equations for spirometry. It highlights the importance of validating predicted equations for spirometry in local populations.