Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Akter N, Radiman S, Mohamed F, Reza MI
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jul;13(9):1327-39.
    PMID: 23544469
    Self-assembled nanocarriers attract increasing attention due to their wide application in various practical fields; among them, one of the most focused fields is drug delivery. Appropriate selection of surfactant is the basis for preparing a successful nanocarrier. Until now, from phospholipid to synthetic surfactants, many surfactants have been used to explore a suitable drug delivery vehicle for the complex in-vivo environment. Among all, bio surfactants are found to be more suitable due to their bio-origin, less-toxicity, biodegradability, cheaper rate and above all, their versatile molecular structures. This molecular property enables them to self assemble into fascinating structures. Moreover, binding DNA, enhancing pH sensitivity and stability allows novelty over their synthetic counterparts and phospholipid. This review paper focuses on the properties and applications of bio-nano-carriers for drug delivery. Micelle, microemulsion, and vesicle are the three nanocarriers which are discussed herein.
  2. Bukhari SN, Jasamai M, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2012 Nov;12(13):1394-403.
    PMID: 22876958
    Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic compounds, chalcones impart key role. They have showed worth mentioning therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of various diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained heed since they own simple structures, and diverse pharmacological actions. A lot of methods and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all, Aldol condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still grasp high up position. Other distinguished techniques include Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl cinnamates etc. These inventive techniques utilize various catalysts and reagents including SOCl(2) natural phosphate, lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na(2)CO(3), PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl(4) and ionic liquid etc. The development of better techniques for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in high demand. In brief, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones along with their biological activities in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes targeting better yield, less reaction time and least side effects with utmost pharmacological properties.
  3. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Jasamai M
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jan;13(1):87-94.
    PMID: 22876943
    Chalcones (1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) are constituted by a three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. The biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids is initiated by chalcones. Notable pharmacological activities of chalcones and its derivatives include anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antituberculosis, antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral effects respectively. Owing to simplicity of the chemical structures and a huge variety of pharmacological actions exhibited, the entities derived from chalcones are subjected to extensive consideration. This review article is an effort to sum up the anti-inflammatory activities of chalcone derived chemical entities. Effect of chalcones on lipid peroxidation, heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), cyclooxygenase (COX), interleukin 5 (IL-5), nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) is summarized stepwise.
  4. Abdullah JM, Zhang J
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Apr 01;13(5):744-8.
    PMID: 23373649
    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is composed of a variety of subunits and combinations and shows a characteristic distribution in the CNS. To date, 20 subunits of the GABA A receptor have been cloned: α1-6, β1-4, γ1-3, δ, π, ε , Θ, and ρ1-3. Oocyte of Xenopus laevis is one of the most frequently used heterologous expression systems, which are used to design and analyze specific combinations of GABA A receptor subunits. In oocytes, a certain GABA A receptor function is studied only by comparing the amplitude of the response to GABA and other drugs by physiological and pharmacological methods. According to the studies on Xenopus laevis oocytes, the α1β2γ2S receptor combination is mostly used. The α1-containing receptors mediate sedative and anticonvulsant acts. The results of studies on oocytes show that PKA, NKCC1, P2X3 receptors, and GABA A receptor-associated protein, etc., are existing systems that show different reactivity to the GABA A receptors. The GABA A receptor subunits contain distinct binding sites for BZDs, neurosteroids, general anesthetics, etc., which are responsible for the numerous functions of the GABA A receptor. A variety of other drugs, such as topiramate, TG41, (+)- and (-)-borneol, apigenin, and 6-methylflavone could also have modulatory effects on the GABA A receptors. Some of the different models and hypotheses on GABA A receptor structure and function have been achieved by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method in oocytes.
  5. Bukhari SN, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(13):1110-21.
    PMID: 26420724
    There is a crucial need to develop new effective drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the currently available AD treatments provide only momentary and incomplete symptomatic relief. Amongst natural products, curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, has been intensively investigated for its neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The ability of curcumin to attach to Aβ peptide and prevent its accumulation is attributed to its three structural characteristics such as the presence of two aromatic end groups and their co-planarity, the length and rigidity of the linker region and the substitution conformation of these aromatics. However, curcumin failed to reach adequate brain levels after oral absorption in AD clinical trials due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. A number of new curcumin analogs that mimic the active site of the compound along with analogs that mimic the curcumin anti-amyloid effect combined with anticholinesterase effect have been developed to enhance the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, water solubility, stability at physiological conditions and delivery of curcumin. In this article, we have summarized all reported synthetic analogs of curcumin showing effects on β-amyloid and discussed their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.
  6. Anouar el H, Zakaria NS, Alsalme A, Shah SA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(14):1148-58.
    PMID: 26205959
    A natural pentacyclic triterpenoid oleanolic acid 1 and its biotransformed metabolites 2-3 are potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of compounds 1, 2 and 3 against α-glucosidase, we calculated (i) their electronic and optical properties using DFT and TD-DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in gas and IEF-PCM solvent; and (ii) their binding energies to α-glucosidase via docking study. DFT results showed that the α-glucosidase inhibtion is mainly depend on the polarity parameters of the studied compounds. Docking results revealed that the activity increased with binding energies (i.e. the stability of ligand-receptor complex). The specroscopic data of oleanolic acid 1 and its metabolites 2 and 3 are well predicetd for 13C NMR chemical shifts (R2=99%) and 1H NMR chemical shifts (R2=90%); and for (ii) UV/vis spectra. The assignments and interpretation of NMR chemical shifts and bathochromic shift of λMAX absorption bands are discussed.
  7. Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(7):609-621.
    PMID: 30526456 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666181210162413
    BACKGROUND: A series of 6, 6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-(4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine) derivatives has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and its chemical structures was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR spectral and elemental analyses. The molecular docking study was carried out to find the interaction between active bis-pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the synthesized compounds was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species as well fungal species by tube dilution technique. Antimicrobial results indicated that compound 11y was found to be most potent one against E. coli (MICec = 0.67 µmol/mL) and C. albicans (MICca = 0.17 µmol/mL) and its activity was comparable to norfloxacin (MIC = 0.47 µmol/mL) and fluconazole (MIC = 0.50 µmol/mL), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Anticancer screening of the synthesized compounds using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay demonstrated that compounds 2y (IC50 = 0.01 µmol/mL) and 4y (IC50= 0.02 µmol/mL) have high antiproliferative potential against human colorectal carcinoma cancer cell line than the reference drug (5- fluorouracil) and these compounds also showed best dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may also be used lead for rational drug designing.

  8. Zarkasi KA, Jen-Kit T, Jubri Z
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(17):1407-1426.
    PMID: 30706809 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666190130164334
    Myocardial infarction is a major cause of deaths globally. Modulation of several molecular mechanisms occurs during the initial stages of myocardial ischemia prior to permanent cardiac tissue damage, which involves both pathogenic as well as survival pathways in the cardiomyocyte. Currently, there is increasing evidence regarding the cardioprotective role of vitamin E in alleviating the disease. This fat-soluble vitamin does not only act as a powerful antioxidant; but it also has the ability to regulate several intracellular signalling pathways including HIF-1, PPAR-γ, Nrf-2, and NF-κB that influence the expression of a number of genes and their protein products. Essentially, it inhibits the molecular progression of tissue damage and preserves myocardial tissue viability. This review aims to summarize the molecular understanding of the cardiomodulation in myocardial infarction as well as the mechanism of vitamin E protection.
  9. Lew SY, Teoh SL, Lim SH, Lim LW, Wong KH
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(15):1518-1531.
    PMID: 32452327 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200526125534
    Depression is the most common form of mental illness and the major cause of disability worldwide. Symptoms of depression, including feelings of intense sadness and hopelessness, may occur after a specific event or in response to a gradual decline in health and functional status, often associated with aging. Current therapies for treating these symptoms include antidepressant drugs, counseling and behavioral therapy. However, antidepressant drugs are associated with mild to severe adverse effects, which has prompted the need for better treatment options. Medicinal mushrooms are valuable sources of food and medicine and are increasingly being used as supplements or as alternative medicines in standard healthcare. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of medicinal mushrooms, which are attributed to their antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this review, we comprehensively examine the role of these medicinal mushrooms in the treatment of depression. However, to apply these natural products in clinical settings, the therapeutic agent needs to be properly evaluated, including the active ingredients, the presence of synergistic effects, efficient extraction methods, and stabilization of the active ingredients for delivery into the body as well as crossing the blood-brain barrier.
  10. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(15):1559-1571.
    PMID: 30179132 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180903151849
    BACKGROUND: Various analogues of benzimidazole are found to be biologically and therapeutically potent against several ailments. Benzimidazole when attached with heterocyclic rings has shown wide range of potential activities. So, from the above provided facts, we altered benzimidazole derivatives so that more potent antagonists could be developed. In the search for a new category of antimicrobial and anticancer agents, novel azomethine of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derived from 3-(2- (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide were synthesized.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The synthesized analogues were characterized by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR and MS studies as well C, H, N analysis. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. typhi) strains and in vitro antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger strains by serial dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) described in μM/ml. The in vitro anticancer activity of synthesized compounds was determined against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT- 116) using 5-fluorouracil as standard drug.

    CONCLUSION: In general, most of the synthesized derivatives exhibited significant antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Compounds 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, 20 and 22 showed significant antimicrobial activity towards tested bacterial and fungal strains and compound 26 exhibited significant anticancer activity.

  11. Abdullahi SA, Unyah NZ, Nordin N, Basir R, Nasir WM, Alapid AA, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(9):739-753.
    PMID: 31660810 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666191029105736
    Identification of drug target in protozoan T. gondii is an important step in the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Likewise, exploring phytochemical compounds effective against the parasite can lead to the development of new drug agent that can be useful for prophylaxis and treatment of toxoplasmosis. In this review, we searched for the relevant literature on the herbs that were tested against T. gondii either in vitro or in vivo, as well as different phytochemicals and their potential activities on T. gondii. Potential activities of major phytochemicals, such as alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids and tannins on various target sites on T. gondii as well as other related parasites was discussed. It is believed that the phytochemicals from natural sources are potential drug candidates for the treatment of toxoplasmosis with little or no toxicity to humans.
  12. AlMatar M, Albarri O, Makky EA, Var I, Köksal F
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(18):1908-1916.
    PMID: 32811410 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200818211405
    The need for new therapeutics and drug delivery systems has become necessary owing to the public health concern associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Among the newly discovered therapeutic agents is cefiderocol, which was discovered by Shionogi Company, Japan as an injectable siderophore cephalosporin. Just like the other β-lactam antibiotics, cefiderocol exhibits antibacterial activity via cell wall synthesis inhibition, especially in Gram negative bacteria (GNB); it binds to the penicillin-binding proteins, but its unique attribute is that it crosses the periplasmic space of bacteria owing to its siderophore-like attribute; it also resists the activity of β-lactamases. Among all the synthesized compounds with the modified C-7 side chain, cefiderocol (3) presented the best and well-balanced activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria, including those that are resistant to carbapenem. İn this article, an overview of the recent studies on cefiderocol was presented.
  13. Abbasi M, Yaqoob M, Haque RA, Iqbal MA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(1):69-78.
    PMID: 32767935 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200807130721
    Development of novel metallodrugs with pharmacological profile plays a significant role in modern medicinal chemistry and drug design. Metal complexes have shown remarkable clinical results in current cancer therapy. Gold complexes have attained attention due to their high antiproliferative potential. Gold-based drugs are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Gold-containing compounds with selective and specific targets are capable to assuage the symptoms of a range of human diseases. Gold (I) species with labile ligands (such as Cl in TEPAuCl) interact with isolated DNA; therefore, this biomolecule has been considered as a target for gold drugs. Gold (I) has a high affinity towards sulfur and selenium. Due to this, gold (I) drugs readily interact with cysteine or selenocysteine residue of the enzyme to form protein-gold(I) thiolate or protein-gold (I) selenolate complexes that lead to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Au(III) compounds due to their square-planner geometriesthe same as found in cisplatin, represent a good source for the development of anti-tumor agents. This article aims to review the most important applications of gold products in the treatment of human colon cancer and to analyze the complex interplay between gold and the human body.
  14. Gokada MR, Pasupuleti VR, Bollikolla HB
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(10):1173-1181.
    PMID: 33397236 DOI: 10.2174/1389557521666210104165733
    The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an epidemic disease that appeared at the end of the year 2019 with a sudden increase in number and came to be considered as a pandemic disease caused by a viral infection which has threatened most countries for an emergency search for new anti-SARS-COV drugs /vaccines. At present, the number of clinical trials is ongoing worldwide on different drugs i.e. Hydroxychloroquine, Remedisvir, Favipiravir that utilize various mechanisms of action. A few countries are currently processing clinical trials, which may result in a positive outcome. Favipiravir (FPV) represents one of the feasible treatment options for COVID-19, if the result of the trials turns out positive. Favipiravir will be one of the developed possibly authoritative drugs to warrant benefits to mankind with large-scale production to meet the demands of the current pandemic Covid-19 outbreak and future epidemic outbreaks. In this review, the authors tried to explore key molecules, which will be supportive for devising COVID-19 research.
  15. Shirbhate E, Patel P, Patel VK, Veerasamy R, Sharma PC, Sinha BN, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(8):1004-1016.
    PMID: 33280595 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666201204162103
    The novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that emerged from Wuhan, China, and has spread all around the world, affecting 216 countries or territories with 21,732,472 people infected and 770,866 deaths globally (as per WHO COVID-19 updates of August 18, 2020). Continuous efforts are being made to repurpose the existing drugs and develop vaccines for combating this infection. Despite, to date, no certified antiviral treatment or vaccine exists. Although, few candidates have displayed their efficacy in in vitro studies and are being repurposed for COVID- 19 treatment. This article summarizes synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds displaying potent activity in clinical uses or studies on COVID-19 and also focuses on the mode of action of drugs being repositioned against COVID-19.
  16. Abdullah MA, Mohd Faudzi SM, Nasir NM
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(9):1058-1070.
    PMID: 33272171 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520999201203213957
    Medicinal chemists have continuously shown interest in new curcuminoid derivatives, diarylpentadienones, owing to their enhanced stability feature and easy preparation using a one-pot synthesis. Thus far, methods such as Claisen-Schmidt condensation and Julia- Kocienski olefination have been utilised for the synthesis of these compounds. Diarylpentadienones possess a high potential as a chemical source for designing and developing new and effective drugs for the treatment of diseases, including inflammation, cancer, and malaria. In brief, this review article focuses on the broad pharmacological applications and the summary of the structure-activity relationship of molecules, which can be employed to further explore the structure of diarylpentadienone. The current methodological developments towards the synthesis of diarylpentadienones are also discussed.
  17. Faheem, Kumar BK, Sekhar KVGC, Kunjiappan S, Jamalis J, Balaña-Fouce R, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(4):398-425.
    PMID: 33001013 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666201001130114
    β-Carboline, a naturally occurring indole alkaloid, holds a momentous spot in the field of medicinal chemistry due to its myriad of pharmacological actions like anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, antimalarial, neuropharmacological, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic among others. β-Carbolines exhibit their pharmacological activity via diverse mechanisms. This review provides a recent update (2015-2020) on the anti-infective potential of natural and synthetic β-carboline analogs focusing on its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal properties. In cases where enough details are available, a note on its mechanism of action is also added.
  18. Yazit NAA, Juliana N, Das S, Teng NIMF, Fahmy NM, Azmani S, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(17):1781-1790.
    PMID: 32564754 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200621182717
    Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) refers to the condition of neurocognitive decline following surgery in a cognitive and sensory manner. There are several risk factors, which may be life-threatening for this condition. Neuropsychological assessment of this condition is very important. In the present review, we discuss the association of apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) and few miRNAs with POCD, and highlight the clinical importance for prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of POCD. Microarray is a genome analysis that can be used to determine DNA abnormalities. This current technique is rapid, efficient and high-throughout. Microarray techniques are widely used to diagnose diseases, particularly in genetic disorder, chromosomal abnormalities, mutations, infectious diseases and disease-relevant biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that are widely found distributed in eukaryotes. Few miRNAs influence the nervous system development, and nerve damage repair. Microarray approach can be utilized to understand the miRNAs involved and their pathways in POCD development, unleashing their potential to be considered as a diagnostic marker for POCD. This paper summarizes and identifies the studies that use microarray based approaches for POCD analysis. Since the application of microarray in POCD is expanding, there is a need to review the current knowledge of this approach.
  19. Hanim A, Mohamed IN, Mohamed RMP, Das S, Nor NSM, Harun RA, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(17):1696-1708.
    PMID: 32579497 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200624122325
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by compulsive binge alcohol intake, leading to various health and social harms. Protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a specific family of PKC isoenzyme, regulates binge alcohol intake, and potentiates alcohol-related cues. Alcohol via upstream kinases like the mammalian target to rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or 2 (mTORC2), may affect the activities of PKCε or vice versa in AUD. mTORC2 phosphorylates PKCε at hydrophobic and turn motif, and was recently reported to be associated with alcohol-seeking behavior, suggesting the potential role of mTORC2-PKCε interactions in the pathophysiology of AUD. mTORC1 regulates translation of synaptic proteins involved in alcohol-induced plasticity. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the molecular composition of mTORC1 and mTORC2, drugs targeting PKCε, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in AUD, upstream regulation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in AUD and downstream cellular mechanisms of mTORCs in the pathogenesis of AUD.
  20. Ali Y, Hamid SA, Rashid U
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(18):1548-1558.
    PMID: 29792144 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180524113111
    Azo dyes are widely used in textile, fiber, cosmetic, leather, paint and printing industries. Besides their characteristic coloring function, azo compounds are reported as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and cytotoxic agents. They have the ability to be used as drug carriers, either by acting as a 'cargo' that entrap therapeutic agents or by prodrug approach. The drug is released by internal or external stimuli in the region of interest, as observed in colon-targeted drug delivery. Besides drug-like and drug carrier properties, a number of azo dyes are used in cellular staining to visualize cellular components and metabolic processes. However, the biological significance of azo compounds, especially in cancer chemotherapy, is still in its infancy. This may be linked to early findings that declared azo compounds as one of the possible causes of cancer and mutagenesis. Currently, researchers are screening the aromatic azo compounds for their potential biomedical use, including cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we highlight the medical applications of azo compounds, particularly related to cancer research. The biomedical significance of cis-trans interchange and negative implications of azo compounds are also discussed in brief.
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