Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Abdullah JM, Zhang J
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Apr 01;13(5):744-8.
    PMID: 23373649
    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is composed of a variety of subunits and combinations and shows a characteristic distribution in the CNS. To date, 20 subunits of the GABA A receptor have been cloned: α1-6, β1-4, γ1-3, δ, π, ε , Θ, and ρ1-3. Oocyte of Xenopus laevis is one of the most frequently used heterologous expression systems, which are used to design and analyze specific combinations of GABA A receptor subunits. In oocytes, a certain GABA A receptor function is studied only by comparing the amplitude of the response to GABA and other drugs by physiological and pharmacological methods. According to the studies on Xenopus laevis oocytes, the α1β2γ2S receptor combination is mostly used. The α1-containing receptors mediate sedative and anticonvulsant acts. The results of studies on oocytes show that PKA, NKCC1, P2X3 receptors, and GABA A receptor-associated protein, etc., are existing systems that show different reactivity to the GABA A receptors. The GABA A receptor subunits contain distinct binding sites for BZDs, neurosteroids, general anesthetics, etc., which are responsible for the numerous functions of the GABA A receptor. A variety of other drugs, such as topiramate, TG41, (+)- and (-)-borneol, apigenin, and 6-methylflavone could also have modulatory effects on the GABA A receptors. Some of the different models and hypotheses on GABA A receptor structure and function have been achieved by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method in oocytes.
  2. Akter N, Radiman S, Mohamed F, Reza MI
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jul;13(9):1327-39.
    PMID: 23544469
    Self-assembled nanocarriers attract increasing attention due to their wide application in various practical fields; among them, one of the most focused fields is drug delivery. Appropriate selection of surfactant is the basis for preparing a successful nanocarrier. Until now, from phospholipid to synthetic surfactants, many surfactants have been used to explore a suitable drug delivery vehicle for the complex in-vivo environment. Among all, bio surfactants are found to be more suitable due to their bio-origin, less-toxicity, biodegradability, cheaper rate and above all, their versatile molecular structures. This molecular property enables them to self assemble into fascinating structures. Moreover, binding DNA, enhancing pH sensitivity and stability allows novelty over their synthetic counterparts and phospholipid. This review paper focuses on the properties and applications of bio-nano-carriers for drug delivery. Micelle, microemulsion, and vesicle are the three nanocarriers which are discussed herein.
  3. Bukhari SN, Jasamai M, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2012 Nov;12(13):1394-403.
    PMID: 22876958
    Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic compounds, chalcones impart key role. They have showed worth mentioning therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of various diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained heed since they own simple structures, and diverse pharmacological actions. A lot of methods and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all, Aldol condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still grasp high up position. Other distinguished techniques include Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl cinnamates etc. These inventive techniques utilize various catalysts and reagents including SOCl(2) natural phosphate, lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na(2)CO(3), PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl(4) and ionic liquid etc. The development of better techniques for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in high demand. In brief, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones along with their biological activities in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes targeting better yield, less reaction time and least side effects with utmost pharmacological properties.
  4. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Jasamai M
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jan;13(1):87-94.
    PMID: 22876943
    Chalcones (1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) are constituted by a three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. The biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids is initiated by chalcones. Notable pharmacological activities of chalcones and its derivatives include anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antituberculosis, antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral effects respectively. Owing to simplicity of the chemical structures and a huge variety of pharmacological actions exhibited, the entities derived from chalcones are subjected to extensive consideration. This review article is an effort to sum up the anti-inflammatory activities of chalcone derived chemical entities. Effect of chalcones on lipid peroxidation, heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), cyclooxygenase (COX), interleukin 5 (IL-5), nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) is summarized stepwise.
  5. Chakraborty C, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2016;16(15):1258-1268.
    PMID: 27145852
    The incidence of diabetes in developing countries in Asia has increased over the last few years. The economic development is radically changing the lifestyle of the younger generation who prefer to embrace the western lifestyle of eating high calorie fast food with minimal physical exercise. Previously, the rate of diabetes was very low but it is increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries in Asia. Admittedly, there is paucity of literature on the prevalence of patients with type-1 diabetes in Asian developing countries due to lower field surveys and lack of quantitative data. Few contributing factors such as body mass index (BMI) and its relation with obesity and diabetes, energy dense diet, excessive caloric intake, sedentary behaviors, lifestyle and family history, gene and genomewide association of diabetes, genes and gene polymorphisms are being discussed especially with regard to the Asian population. Dynamics of the diabetes and obesity was depicted for the population of Asian developing countries with special emphasis on China and India. Diabetes has become widespread among the low-income communities. Hence, it is necessary to develop appropriate healthcare policies in order to mitigate this rampant epidemic before it is too late.
  6. Bukhari SN, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(13):1110-21.
    PMID: 26420724
    There is a crucial need to develop new effective drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the currently available AD treatments provide only momentary and incomplete symptomatic relief. Amongst natural products, curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, has been intensively investigated for its neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The ability of curcumin to attach to Aβ peptide and prevent its accumulation is attributed to its three structural characteristics such as the presence of two aromatic end groups and their co-planarity, the length and rigidity of the linker region and the substitution conformation of these aromatics. However, curcumin failed to reach adequate brain levels after oral absorption in AD clinical trials due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. A number of new curcumin analogs that mimic the active site of the compound along with analogs that mimic the curcumin anti-amyloid effect combined with anticholinesterase effect have been developed to enhance the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, water solubility, stability at physiological conditions and delivery of curcumin. In this article, we have summarized all reported synthetic analogs of curcumin showing effects on β-amyloid and discussed their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.
  7. Anouar el H, Zakaria NS, Alsalme A, Shah SA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(14):1148-58.
    PMID: 26205959
    A natural pentacyclic triterpenoid oleanolic acid 1 and its biotransformed metabolites 2-3 are potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of compounds 1, 2 and 3 against α-glucosidase, we calculated (i) their electronic and optical properties using DFT and TD-DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in gas and IEF-PCM solvent; and (ii) their binding energies to α-glucosidase via docking study. DFT results showed that the α-glucosidase inhibtion is mainly depend on the polarity parameters of the studied compounds. Docking results revealed that the activity increased with binding energies (i.e. the stability of ligand-receptor complex). The specroscopic data of oleanolic acid 1 and its metabolites 2 and 3 are well predicetd for 13C NMR chemical shifts (R2=99%) and 1H NMR chemical shifts (R2=90%); and for (ii) UV/vis spectra. The assignments and interpretation of NMR chemical shifts and bathochromic shift of λMAX absorption bands are discussed.
  8. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018 Sep 03.
    PMID: 30179132 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180903151849
    Various analogues of benzimidazole are found to be biologically and therapeutically potent against several ailments. Benzimidazole when attached with heterocyclic rings has shown wide range of potential activities. So, from the above provided facts, we altered benzimidazole derivatives so that more potent antagonists could be developed. In the search for a new category of antimicrobial and anticancer agents, novel azomethine of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derived from 3-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide were synthesized.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The synthesized analogues were characterized by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR and MS studies as well C, H, N analysis. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. typhi) strains and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger strains by serial dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) described in µM/ml. The in vitro anticancer activity of synthesized compounds was determined against humancolorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) using 5-fluorouracil as standard drug.

    CONCLUSION: In general, all the synthesized derivatives exhibited significant antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Compounds 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, 20 and 22 showed significant antimicrobial activity towards tested bacterial and fungal strains and compound 26 exhibited significant anticancer activity.

  9. Yee-Lin V, Pooi-Fong W, Soo-Beng AK
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(2):173-183.
    PMID: 28714398 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666170717125821
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a form of head and neck cancer of multifactorial etiologies that is highly prevalent among men in the population of Southern China and Southeast Asia. NPC has claimed many thousands of lives worldwide; but the low awareness of NPC remains a hindrance in early diagnosis and prevention of the disease. NPC is highly responsive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but radiocurable NPC is still dependent on concurrent treatment of megavoltage radiotherapy with chemotherapy. Despite a significant reduction in loco-regional and distant metastases, radiotherapy alone has failed to provide a significant improvement in the overall survival rate of NPC, compared to chemotherapy. In addition, chemo-resistance persists as the major challenge in the management of metastatic NPC although the survival rate of advanced metastatic NPC has significantly improved with the administration of chemotherapy adjunctive to radiotherapy. In this regard, targeted molecular therapy could be explored for the discovery of alternative NPC therapies. Nutlin-3, a small molecule inhibitor that specifically targets p53-Mdm2 interaction offers new therapeutic opportunities by enhancing cancer cell growth arrest and apoptosis through the restoration of the p53-mediated tumor suppression pathway while producing minimal cytotoxicity and side effects. This review discusses the potential use of Nutlin-3 as a p53-activating drug and the future directions of its clinical research for NPC treatment.
  10. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(13):1080-1092.
    PMID: 30306865 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181009151008
    BACKGROUND: Increased rate of mortality due to the development of resistance to currently available antimicrobial and anticancer agents initiated the need to develop new chemical entities for the treatment of microbial infections and cancer.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to synthesize and evaluate antimicrobial and anticancer activities of Schiff bases of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole.

    METHODS: The Schiff bases of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole were synthesized from 4-(2-(1H-benzo[d]- imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and anticancer activities by tube dilution method and Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compounds 8 (MICpa, an = 2.41, 1.20 µM/ml), 10 (MICse, sa = 2.50 µM/ml), 20 (MICec = 2.34 µM/ml) and 25 (MICca = 1.46 µM/ml) showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains and compounds 20 (IC50 = 8 µg/ml) and 23 (IC50 = 7 µg/ml) exhibited significant anticancer activity.

    CONCLUSION: In general, the synthesized derivatives exhibited moderate antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Compounds 8 and 25 having high antifungal potential among the synthesized compounds may be taken as lead molecules for the development of novel antifungal agents.

  11. Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(10):851-864.
    PMID: 30306864 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181009141924
    BACKGROUND: A series of 5-(2-amino-6-(3/4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)benzene-1,3-diol scaffolds was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and characterized by NMR, IR, Mass and elemental analyses.

    METHODS: The synthesized pyrimidine scaffolds were screened for their antimicrobial activity by tube dilution method as well for antiproliferative activity (human colorectal (HCT116) cancer cell line) by SRB assay.

    RESULTS: The antimicrobial screening results demonstrated that compounds, k6, k12, k14 and k20 were found to be the most potent ones against selected microbial species. The anticancer screening results indicated that compounds, k8 and k14 displayed potent anticancer activity against cancer cell line (HCT116).

    CONCLUSION: Further, the molecular docking study carried to find out the interaction between active pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein indicated that compound k14 showed best dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may be used as a lead for rational drug designing of the anticancer molecule.

  12. Hussan F, Yahaya MF, Teoh SL, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(8):697-710.
    PMID: 28971772 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666170927155707
    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased globally. Various complications such as blindness, nephropathy leading to renal failure, neuropathy, foot ulceration, amputation, and disturbance in autonomic nervous system were reported. Although, allopathy treatment still remains the treatment of choice, there is a need to look at the easy availability, patient compliance and cheaper cost of the drugs used in day-day practice. In this regard, complementary and alternative medicine has a greater role to play. Numerous plant extracts were shown to exhibit antihyperglycemic properties. In the present review, we surfed published literature in Pubmed and google databases with regard to the herbs used for DM wound treatment. We also discuss the possible mechanism of wound healing in DM with regard to advanced glycation end products, inflammation, macrophages, non-leukocytic cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, matrix metalloproteinase and miRNA. The review opens the door for effective treatment of DM wounds with plant extracts and plan future treatment options.
  13. Ghanghoria R, Kesharwani P, Jain NK
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2017;17(18):1713-1724.
    PMID: 26891934 DOI: 10.2174/1389557516666160219122002
    The experimental models are of vital significance to provide information regarding biological as well as genetic factors that control the phenotypic characteristics of the disease and serve as the foundation for the development of rational intervention stratagem. This review highlights the importance of experimental models in the field of cancer management. The process of pathogenesis in cancer progression, invasion and metastasis can be successfully explained by employing clinically relevant laboratory models of the disease. Cancer cell lines have been used extensively to monitor the process of cancer pathogenesis process by controlling growth regulation and chemo-sensitivity for the evaluation of novel therapeutics in both in vitro and xenograft models. The experimental models have been used for the elaboration of diagnostic or therapeutic protocols, and thus employed in preclinical studies of bioactive agents relevant for cancer prevention. The outcome of this review should provide useful information in understanding and selection of various models in accordance with the stage of cancer.
  14. Safdar MH, Hasan H, Afzal S, Hussain Z
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(12):1047-1063.
    PMID: 29173165 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666171123212039
    The immune system is an intricate and coordinated nexus serving as a natural defense to preclude internal and external pathogenic insults. The deregulation in the natural balance of immunological functions as a consequence of either over expression or under expression of immune cells tends to cause disruption of homeostasis in the body and may lead to development of numerous immune system disorders. Chalcone moieties (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) have been well-documented as ideal lead compounds or precursors to design a wide range of pharmacologically active agents to down-regulate various immune disorders. Owing to their unique structural and molecular framework, these α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties have also gained remarkable recognition due to their other multifarious pharmacological properties including antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-tuberculosis, and anticancer potential. Though a great number of methodologies are currently being employed for their synthesis, this review mainly focuses on the natural and synthetic chalcone derivatives that are exclusively synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and their immunomodulatory prospects. We have critically reviewed the literature and provided convincing evidence for the promising efficacy of chalcone derivatives to modulate functioning of various innate and adaptive immune players including granulocytes, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T-lymphocytes.
  15. Abdullahi SA, Unyah NZ, Nordin N, Basir R, Nasir WM, Alapid AA, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(9):739-753.
    PMID: 31660810 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666191029105736
    Identification of drug target in protozoan T. gondii is an important step in the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Likewise, exploring phytochemical compounds effective against the parasite can lead to the development of new drug agent that can be useful for prophylaxis and treatment of toxoplasmosis. In this review, we searched for the relevant literature on the herbs that were tested against T. gondii either in vitro or in vivo, as well as different phytochemicals and their potential activities on T. gondii. Potential activities of major phytochemicals, such as alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids and tannins on various target sites on T. gondii as well as other related parasites was discussed. It is believed that the phytochemicals from natural sources are potential drug candidates for the treatment of toxoplasmosis with little or no toxicity to humans.
  16. Das S, Mohamed IN, Teoh SL, Thevaraj T, Ku Ahmad Nasir KN, Zawawi A, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(7):626-635.
    PMID: 31969099 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200122124445
    The incidence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has risen globally. MetS includes a combination of features, i.e. blood glucose impairment, excess abdominal/body fat dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. Other than conventional treatment with drugs, the main preventive approaches include lifestyle changes, weight loss, diet control and adequate exercise also proves to be beneficial. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical regulatory roles in most biological and pathological processes. In the present review, we discuss various miRNAs which are related to MetS by targeting various organs, including the pancreas, liver, skeletal muscles and adipose tissues. These miRNAs have the effect on insulin production and secretion (miR-9, miR-124a, miR-130a,b, miR152, miR-335, miR-375), insulin resistance (miR-29), adipogenesis (miR-143, miR148a) and lipid metabolism (miR-192). We also discuss the miRNAs as potential biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. This review may be beneficial for molecular biologists and clinicians dealing with MetS.
  17. Mishra A, Tahlan S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, Narasimhan B
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020 May 05.
    PMID: 32368977 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200505124125
    Being derived from primary amine and aromatic aldehyde, Schiff base and their complexes have an imperative role in the improvement of inorganic chemistry which are broadly studied as coordination compounds and are gradually becoming more important in biochemical and analytical applications. They have also been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitubercular activities. Novel synthesised Schiff's base 2-methoxy-4-((3-methylpyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol (SB) and its metal complexes (Zn[II], Cu[II], Co[II] and Ni[II]) were characterised by UV, IR and NMR spectroscopy. Formation of the Schiff base and the metal (Zn[II], Cu[II], Co[II] and Ni[II]) chelates was supported by spectral and analytical data. The ligand and metal complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against the fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Further, the synthesised compounds were also screened for antiproliferative activity against the human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) cell line using the Sulforhodamine B assay. Metal complexes formed were found to enhance the potency of the Schiff base due to coordination with copper complex, showing better activity than others. Copper complex was observed to be more potent than other complexes against all the pathogenic microbes and cancer cell line (HCT116).
  18. Yazit NAA, Juliana N, Das S, Teng NIMF, Effendy N, Azmani S, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020 Jun 21.
    PMID: 32564754 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200621182717
    Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) refers to the condition of neurocognitive decline following a surgery in a cognitive and sensory manner. There are several risk factors, which may be life-threatening for this condition. Neuropsychological assessment of this condition is very important. In the present review, we discuss the association of apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) and few miRNAs with POCD, and highlight the clinical importance for prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of POCD. Microarray is a genome analysis that can be used to determine DNA abnormalities. This current technique is rapid, efficient and high-throughout. Microarray techniques are widely used to diagnose diseases, particularly in genetic disorder, chromosomal abnormalities, mutations, infectious diseases and disease-relevant biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA that are widely found distributed in eukaryotes. Few miRNAs influence the nervous system development, and nerve damage repair. Microarray approach can be utilized to understand the miRNAs involved and its pathways in POCD development, unleashing its potential to be considered as a diagnostic marker for POCD. This paper summarizes and identifies the studies that use microarray based approaches for POCD analysis. Since the application of microarray in POCD is expanding, there is a need to review the current knowledge of this approach.
  19. Hanim A, Mohamed IN, Mohamed RMP, Das S, Nor NSM, Harun RA, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020 Jun 24.
    PMID: 32579497 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200624122325
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by compulsive binge alcohol intake, leading to various health and social harms. Protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a specific family of PKC isoenzyme, regulates binge alcohol intake and potentiates alcohol-related cues. Alcohol via upstream kinases like mammalian target to rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or 2 (mTORC2), may affect the activities of PKCε or vice versa in AUD. mTORC2 phosphorylates PKCε at hydrophobic and turn motif, and mTORC2 was recently reported to be associated with alcohol seeking behavior, suggesting the potential role of mTORC2-PKCε interactions in pathophysiology of AUD. Mammalian target to rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), another form of mTOR complex regulates translation of synaptic proteins involved in alcohol-induced plasticity. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the molecular composition of mTORC1 and mTORC2, drugs targeting PKCε, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in AUD, upstream regulation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in AUD and downstream cellular mechanisms of mTORCs in pathogenesis of AUD.
  20. Lew SY, Teoh SL, Lim SH, Lim LW, Wong KH
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020 May 26.
    PMID: 32452327 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200526125534
    Depression is the most common form of mental illness and the major cause of disability worldwide. Symptoms of depression including feelings of intense sadness and hopelessness may occur after a specific event or in response to a gradual decline in health and functional status, often associated with ageing. Current therapies for treating these symptoms include antidepressant drugs, counseling and behavioral therapy. However, antidepressant drugs are associated with mild to severe adverse effects, which has prompted the need for better treatment options. Medicinal mushrooms are valuable sources of food and medicine and are increasingly being used as supplements or as alternative medicines in standard healthcare. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of medicinal mushrooms, which is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this review, we comprehensively examine the role of these medicinal mushrooms in the treatment of depression. However, to apply these natural products in clinical settings, the therapeutic agent needs to be properly evaluated, including the active ingredients, presence of synergistic effects, efficient extraction methods and stabilization of the active ingredients for delivery into the body as well as crossing the blood-brain barrier.
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