Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Abdullah JM, Zhang J
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Apr 1;13(5):744-8.
    PMID: 23373649
    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is composed of a variety of subunits and combinations and shows a characteristic distribution in the CNS. To date, 20 subunits of the GABA A receptor have been cloned: α1-6, β1-4, γ1-3, δ, π, ε , Θ, and ρ1-3. Oocyte of Xenopus laevis is one of the most frequently used heterologous expression systems, which are used to design and analyze specific combinations of GABA A receptor subunits. In oocytes, a certain GABA A receptor function is studied only by comparing the amplitude of the response to GABA and other drugs by physiological and pharmacological methods. According to the studies on Xenopus laevis oocytes, the α1β2γ2S receptor combination is mostly used. The α1-containing receptors mediate sedative and anticonvulsant acts. The results of studies on oocytes show that PKA, NKCC1, P2X3 receptors, and GABA A receptor-associated protein, etc., are existing systems that show different reactivity to the GABA A receptors. The GABA A receptor subunits contain distinct binding sites for BZDs, neurosteroids, general anesthetics, etc., which are responsible for the numerous functions of the GABA A receptor. A variety of other drugs, such as topiramate, TG41, (+)- and (-)-borneol, apigenin, and 6-methylflavone could also have modulatory effects on the GABA A receptors. Some of the different models and hypotheses on GABA A receptor structure and function have been achieved by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method in oocytes.
  2. Akter N, Radiman S, Mohamed F, Reza MI
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jul;13(9):1327-39.
    PMID: 23544469
    Self-assembled nanocarriers attract increasing attention due to their wide application in various practical fields; among them, one of the most focused fields is drug delivery. Appropriate selection of surfactant is the basis for preparing a successful nanocarrier. Until now, from phospholipid to synthetic surfactants, many surfactants have been used to explore a suitable drug delivery vehicle for the complex in-vivo environment. Among all, bio surfactants are found to be more suitable due to their bio-origin, less-toxicity, biodegradability, cheaper rate and above all, their versatile molecular structures. This molecular property enables them to self assemble into fascinating structures. Moreover, binding DNA, enhancing pH sensitivity and stability allows novelty over their synthetic counterparts and phospholipid. This review paper focuses on the properties and applications of bio-nano-carriers for drug delivery. Micelle, microemulsion, and vesicle are the three nanocarriers which are discussed herein.
  3. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Jasamai M
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jan;13(1):87-94.
    PMID: 22876943
    Chalcones (1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) are constituted by a three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. The biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids is initiated by chalcones. Notable pharmacological activities of chalcones and its derivatives include anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antituberculosis, antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral effects respectively. Owing to simplicity of the chemical structures and a huge variety of pharmacological actions exhibited, the entities derived from chalcones are subjected to extensive consideration. This review article is an effort to sum up the anti-inflammatory activities of chalcone derived chemical entities. Effect of chalcones on lipid peroxidation, heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), cyclooxygenase (COX), interleukin 5 (IL-5), nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) is summarized stepwise.
  4. Bukhari SN, Jasamai M, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2012 Nov;12(13):1394-403.
    PMID: 22876958
    Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic compounds, chalcones impart key role. They have showed worth mentioning therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of various diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained heed since they own simple structures, and diverse pharmacological actions. A lot of methods and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all, Aldol condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still grasp high up position. Other distinguished techniques include Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl cinnamates etc. These inventive techniques utilize various catalysts and reagents including SOCl(2) natural phosphate, lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na(2)CO(3), PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl(4) and ionic liquid etc. The development of better techniques for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in high demand. In brief, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones along with their biological activities in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes targeting better yield, less reaction time and least side effects with utmost pharmacological properties.
  5. Bukhari SN, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(13):1110-21.
    PMID: 26420724
    There is a crucial need to develop new effective drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the currently available AD treatments provide only momentary and incomplete symptomatic relief. Amongst natural products, curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, has been intensively investigated for its neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The ability of curcumin to attach to Aβ peptide and prevent its accumulation is attributed to its three structural characteristics such as the presence of two aromatic end groups and their co-planarity, the length and rigidity of the linker region and the substitution conformation of these aromatics. However, curcumin failed to reach adequate brain levels after oral absorption in AD clinical trials due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. A number of new curcumin analogs that mimic the active site of the compound along with analogs that mimic the curcumin anti-amyloid effect combined with anticholinesterase effect have been developed to enhance the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, water solubility, stability at physiological conditions and delivery of curcumin. In this article, we have summarized all reported synthetic analogs of curcumin showing effects on β-amyloid and discussed their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.
  6. Chakraborty C, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2016;16(15):1258-1268.
    PMID: 27145852
    The incidence of diabetes in developing countries in Asia has increased over the last few years. The economic development is radically changing the lifestyle of the younger generation who prefer to embrace the western lifestyle of eating high calorie fast food with minimal physical exercise. Previously, the rate of diabetes was very low but it is increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries in Asia. Admittedly, there is paucity of literature on the prevalence of patients with type-1 diabetes in Asian developing countries due to lower field surveys and lack of quantitative data. Few contributing factors such as body mass index (BMI) and its relation with obesity and diabetes, energy dense diet, excessive caloric intake, sedentary behaviors, lifestyle and family history, gene and genomewide association of diabetes, genes and gene polymorphisms are being discussed especially with regard to the Asian population. Dynamics of the diabetes and obesity was depicted for the population of Asian developing countries with special emphasis on China and India. Diabetes has become widespread among the low-income communities. Hence, it is necessary to develop appropriate healthcare policies in order to mitigate this rampant epidemic before it is too late.
  7. Anouar el H, Zakaria NS, Alsalme A, Shah SA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(14):1148-58.
    PMID: 26205959
    A natural pentacyclic triterpenoid oleanolic acid 1 and its biotransformed metabolites 2-3 are potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of compounds 1, 2 and 3 against α-glucosidase, we calculated (i) their electronic and optical properties using DFT and TD-DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in gas and IEF-PCM solvent; and (ii) their binding energies to α-glucosidase via docking study. DFT results showed that the α-glucosidase inhibtion is mainly depend on the polarity parameters of the studied compounds. Docking results revealed that the activity increased with binding energies (i.e. the stability of ligand-receptor complex). The specroscopic data of oleanolic acid 1 and its metabolites 2 and 3 are well predicetd for 13C NMR chemical shifts (R2=99%) and 1H NMR chemical shifts (R2=90%); and for (ii) UV/vis spectra. The assignments and interpretation of NMR chemical shifts and bathochromic shift of λMAX absorption bands are discussed.
  8. Yee-Lin V, Pooi-Fong W, Soo-Beng AK
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(2):173-183.
    PMID: 28714398 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666170717125821
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a form of head and neck cancer of multifactorial etiologies that is highly prevalent among men in the population of Southern China and Southeast Asia. NPC has claimed many thousands of lives worldwide; but the low awareness of NPC remains a hindrance in early diagnosis and prevention of the disease. NPC is highly responsive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but radiocurable NPC is still dependent on concurrent treatment of megavoltage radiotherapy with chemotherapy. Despite a significant reduction in loco-regional and distant metastases, radiotherapy alone has failed to provide a significant improvement in the overall survival rate of NPC, compared to chemotherapy. In addition, chemo-resistance persists as the major challenge in the management of metastatic NPC although the survival rate of advanced metastatic NPC has significantly improved with the administration of chemotherapy adjunctive to radiotherapy. In this regard, targeted molecular therapy could be explored for the discovery of alternative NPC therapies. Nutlin-3, a small molecule inhibitor that specifically targets p53-Mdm2 interaction offers new therapeutic opportunities by enhancing cancer cell growth arrest and apoptosis through the restoration of the p53-mediated tumor suppression pathway while producing minimal cytotoxicity and side effects. This review discusses the potential use of Nutlin-3 as a p53-activating drug and the future directions of its clinical research for NPC treatment.
  9. Soliman A, Teoh SL, Ghafar N, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018 Oct 25.
    PMID: 30360709 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181025155204
    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide. One of the main complications in DM is delayed wound healing which often requires amputation. Various drugs have been used to treat DM but they present with various complications and patients often do not comply with such treatment. This opens the door for complementary and alternative medicine. In the present review, we explore the molecular concept of wound healing occurring in different stages with special emphasis to DM. We also highlight potential herbal products such as NF3 (Chinese 2-Herb Formula), Zicao, Jing Wan Hong ointment, mixture of Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe Vera, and henna, Aleo vera, Phenol-rich compound sweet gel, Jinchuang ointment, San-huang-sheng-fu (S) oil, Yi Bu A Jie extract, Astragali Radix (AR) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Yiqi Huayu, Tangzu yuyang ointment, Shengji Huayu recipe, Angelica sinensis, Lithospermun erythrorhison, Hippophae rhamnoides L., Curcuma longa, and Momordica charantia that could be effectively used to treat DM wounds. Future clinical trials are needed for designing potential drugs which may be effective in treating DM wounds.
  10. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018 Oct 09.
    PMID: 30306865 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181009151008
    BACKGROUND: Increased rate of mortality due to the development of resistance to currently available antimicrobial and anticancer agents initiated the need to develop new chemical entities for the treatment of microbial infections and cancer.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to synthesize and evaluate antimicrobial and anticancer activities of Schiff bases of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole.

    METHOD: The Schiff bases of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole was synthesized from 4-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and anticancer activities by tube dilution method and sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay respectively.

    RESULTS: Compounds 8 (MICpa, an = 2.41, 1.20 µM/ml), 10 (MICse, sa = 2.50 µM/ml), 20 (MICec = 2.34 µM/ml) and 25 (MICca = 1.46 µM/ml) showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains and compounds 20 (IC50 = 8 µg/ml) and 23 (IC50 = 7 µg/ml) exhibited significant anticancer activity.

    CONCLUSION: In general, the synthesized derivatives exhibited moderate antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Compounds 8 and 25 having high antifungal potential among the synthesized compounds may be taken as lead compound for the development of novel antifungal agents.

  11. Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(10):851-864.
    PMID: 30306864 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181009141924
    BACKGROUND: A series of 5-(2-amino-6-(3/4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)benzene-1,3-diol scaffolds was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and characterized by NMR, IR, Mass and elemental analyses.

    METHODS: The synthesized pyrimidine scaffolds were screened for their antimicrobial activity by tube dilution method as well for antiproliferative activity (human colorectal (HCT116) cancer cell line) by SRB assay.

    RESULTS: The antimicrobial screening results demonstrated that compounds, k6, k12, k14 and k20 were found to be the most potent ones against selected microbial species. The anticancer screening results indicated that compounds, k8 and k14 displayed potent anticancer activity against cancer cell line (HCT116).

    CONCLUSION: Further, the molecular docking study carried to find out the interaction between active pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein indicated that compound k14 showed best dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may be used as a lead for rational drug designing of the anticancer molecule.

  12. Pillai MK, Young DJ, Bin Hj Abdul Majid HM
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(14):1220-1232.
    PMID: 28969549 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666171002154123
    The plant Alpinia officinarum of the ginger family originated in China and is used throughout South and South-East Asian countries to flavor food and as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review summarizes the biological, pharmacological and phytochemical properties of extracts and subsequently isolated compounds from A. officinarum. In vitro and in vivo studies of both extracts and pure compounds indicate a wide variety of potent bioactivities including antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiobesity, anticancer, enzyme inhibitory and remarkable antiviral properties. The latter is particularly promising in the face of emerging, virulent respiratory diseases in Asia and the Middle East.
  13. Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(7):609-621.
    PMID: 30526456 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666181210162413
    BACKGROUND: A series of 6, 6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-(4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine) derivatives has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and its chemical structures was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR spectral and elemental analyses. The molecular docking study was carried out to find the interaction between active bis-pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the synthesized compounds was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species as well fungal species by tube dilution technique. Antimicrobial results indicated that compound 11y was found to be most potent one against E. coli (MICec = 0.67 µmol/mL) and C. albicans (MICca = 0.17 µmol/mL) and its activity was comparable to norfloxacin (MIC = 0.47 µmol/mL) and fluconazole (MIC = 0.50 µmol/mL), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Anticancer screening of the synthesized compounds using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay demonstrated that compounds 2y (IC50 = 0.01 µmol/mL) and 4y (IC50= 0.02 µmol/mL) have high antiproliferative potential against human colorectal carcinoma cancer cell line than the reference drug (5- fluorouracil) and these compounds also showed best dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may also be used lead for rational drug designing.

  14. Safdar MH, Hasan H, Afzal S, Hussain Z
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(12):1047-1063.
    PMID: 29173165 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666171123212039
    The immune system is an intricate and coordinated nexus serving as a natural defense to preclude internal and external pathogenic insults. The deregulation in the natural balance of immunological functions as a consequence of either over expression or under expression of immune cells tends to cause disruption of homeostasis in the body and may lead to development of numerous immune system disorders. Chalcone moieties (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) have been well-documented as ideal lead compounds or precursors to design a wide range of pharmacologically active agents to down-regulate various immune disorders. Owing to their unique structural and molecular framework, these α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties have also gained remarkable recognition due to their other multifarious pharmacological properties including antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-tuberculosis, and anticancer potential. Though a great number of methodologies are currently being employed for their synthesis, this review mainly focuses on the natural and synthetic chalcone derivatives that are exclusively synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and their immunomodulatory prospects. We have critically reviewed the literature and provided convincing evidence for the promising efficacy of chalcone derivatives to modulate functioning of various innate and adaptive immune players including granulocytes, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T-lymphocytes.
  15. Ghanghoria R, Kesharwani P, Jain NK
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2017;17(18):1713-1724.
    PMID: 26891934 DOI: 10.2174/1389557516666160219122002
    The experimental models are of vital significance to provide information regarding biological as well as genetic factors that control the phenotypic characteristics of the disease and serve as the foundation for the development of rational intervention stratagem. This review highlights the importance of experimental models in the field of cancer management. The process of pathogenesis in cancer progression, invasion and metastasis can be successfully explained by employing clinically relevant laboratory models of the disease. Cancer cell lines have been used extensively to monitor the process of cancer pathogenesis process by controlling growth regulation and chemo-sensitivity for the evaluation of novel therapeutics in both in vitro and xenograft models. The experimental models have been used for the elaboration of diagnostic or therapeutic protocols, and thus employed in preclinical studies of bioactive agents relevant for cancer prevention. The outcome of this review should provide useful information in understanding and selection of various models in accordance with the stage of cancer.
  16. Zarkasi KA, Jen-Kit T, Jubri Z
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019 Jan 30.
    PMID: 30706809 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666190130164334
    Myocardial infarction is a major cause of deaths globally. Modulation of several molecular mechanisms occur during the initial stages of myocardial ischemia prior to permanent cardiac tissue damage, which involve both pathogenic as well as survival pathways in the cardiomyocyte. Currently, there are increasing evidence regarding the cardioprotective role of vitamin E in alleviating the disease. This fat-soluble vitamin does not only act as a powerful antioxidant; it also has the ability to regulate several intracellular signalling pathways including HIF-1, PPAR-γ, Nrf-2, and NF-κB that influence the expression of a number of genes and their protein products. Essentially, it inhibits the molecular progression of tissue damage and preserves myocardial tissue viability. This review aims to summarize the molecular understanding of the cardiomodulation in myocardial infarction as well as the mechanism of vitamin E protection.
  17. Hussan F, Yahaya MF, Teoh SL, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(8):697-710.
    PMID: 28971772 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666170927155707
    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased globally. Various complications such as blindness, nephropathy leading to renal failure, neuropathy, foot ulceration, amputation, and disturbance in autonomic nervous system were reported. Although, allopathy treatment still remains the treatment of choice, there is a need to look at the easy availability, patient compliance and cheaper cost of the drugs used in day-day practice. In this regard, complementary and alternative medicine has a greater role to play. Numerous plant extracts were shown to exhibit antihyperglycemic properties. In the present review, we surfed published literature in Pubmed and google databases with regard to the herbs used for DM wound treatment. We also discuss the possible mechanism of wound healing in DM with regard to advanced glycation end products, inflammation, macrophages, non-leukocytic cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, matrix metalloproteinase and miRNA. The review opens the door for effective treatment of DM wounds with plant extracts and plan future treatment options.
  18. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018 Sep 03.
    PMID: 30179132 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180903151849
    Various analogues of benzimidazole are found to be biologically and therapeutically potent against several ailments. Benzimidazole when attached with heterocyclic rings has shown wide range of potential activities. So, from the above provided facts, we altered benzimidazole derivatives so that more potent antagonists could be developed. In the search for a new category of antimicrobial and anticancer agents, novel azomethine of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derived from 3-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide were synthesized.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The synthesized analogues were characterized by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR and MS studies as well C, H, N analysis. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. typhi) strains and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger strains by serial dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) described in µM/ml. The in vitro anticancer activity of synthesized compounds was determined against humancolorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) using 5-fluorouracil as standard drug.

    CONCLUSION: In general, all the synthesized derivatives exhibited significant antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Compounds 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, 20 and 22 showed significant antimicrobial activity towards tested bacterial and fungal strains and compound 26 exhibited significant anticancer activity.

  19. Ali Y, Hamid SA, Rashid U
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(18):1548-1558.
    PMID: 29792144 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180524113111
    Azo dyes are widely used in textile, fiber, cosmetic, leather, paint and printing industries. Besides their characteristic coloring function, azo compounds are reported as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and cytotoxic agents. They have the ability to be used as drug carriers, either by acting as a 'cargo' that entrap therapeutic agents or by prodrug approach. The drug is released by internal or external stimuli in the region of interest, as observed in colon-targeted drug delivery. Besides drug-like and drug carrier properties, a number of azo dyes are used in cellular staining to visualize cellular components and metabolic processes. However, the biological significance of azo compounds, especially in cancer chemotherapy, is still in its infancy. This may be linked to early findings that declared azo compounds as one of the possible causes of cancer and mutagenesis. Currently, researchers are screening the aromatic azo compounds for their potential biomedical use, including cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we highlight the medical applications of azo compounds, particularly related to cancer research. The biomedical significance of cis-trans interchange and negative implications of azo compounds are also discussed in brief.
  20. Ridzuan NRA, Rashid NA, Othman F, Budin SB, Hussan F, Teoh SL
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019 Mar 20.
    PMID: 30894108 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666190320124438
    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent for the treatment of metastatic tumors, advanced bladder cancer and many other solid tumors. However, at higher doses, toxicities such as nephrotoxicity may appear. Cisplatin leads to DNA damage and subsequently renal cell death. Besides that, oxidative stress is also implicated as one of the main causes of nephrotoxicity. Several studies showed that numerous natural products: ginseng, curcumin, licorice, honey and pomegranate were able to reduce the oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and also at the same time act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, pre-treatment with vitamin supplementation such as vitamin C, E and riboflavin markedly decreased serum urea and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes in kidney even after cisplatin induction in cancer patients. These natural products possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory medicinal properties, and they can be safely used as a supplementary regime or combination therapy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The present review focused on the protective role of few natural products which is widely used in folk medicines in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
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