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  1. Abd Hamid IJ, Slatter MA, McKendrick F, Pearce MS, Gennery AR
    Blood, 2017 04 13;129(15):2198-2201.
    PMID: 28209722 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2016-11-748616
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures the T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and natural killer (NK)-cell differentiation defect in interleukin-2 γ-chain receptor (IL2RG)/JAK3 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We evaluated long-term clinical features, longitudinal immunoreconstitution, donor chimerism, and quality of life (QoL) of IL2RG/JAK3 SCID patients >2 years post-HSCT at our center. Clinical data were collated and patients/families answered PedsQL Generic Core Scale v4.0 questionnaires. We performed longitudinal analyses of CD3+, CD4+ naive T-lymphocyte, CD19+, and NK-cell numbers from pretransplant until 15 years posttransplant. Thirty-one of 43 patients (72%) survived. Median age at last follow-up was 10 years (range, 2-25 years). Twenty-one (68%) had persistent medical issues, mainly ongoing immunoglobulin replacement (14; 45%), cutaneous viral warts (7; 24%), short stature (4; 14%), limb lymphoedema (3; 10%), and bronchiectasis (2; 7%). Lung function was available and normal for 6 patients. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated sustained CD3+, CD19+, and NK-cell output 15 years post-HSCT. CD4+ naive lymphocyte numbers were better in conditioned vs unconditioned recipients (P, .06). B-lymphocyte and myeloid chimerism were highly correlated (ρ, 0.98; P < .001). Low-toxicity myeloablative conditioning recipients have better B-lymphocyte/myeloid chimerism and are free from immunoglobulin replacement therapy. IL2RG/JAK3 SCID survivors free from immunoglobulin replacement have normal QoL.
  2. Abd Hamid IJ, Slatter MA, McKendrick F, Pearce MS, Gennery AR
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2018 Aug;38(6):727-732.
    PMID: 30105620 DOI: 10.1007/s10875-018-0540-9
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but data on long-term impact of pre-HSCT chemotherapy, immune reconstitution and quality of life (QoL) of specific SCID genotypes are limited. We evaluated the long-term immune-reconstitution, health outcome and QoL in IL7Rα SCID, Artemis and RAG1 and 2 SCID survivors > 2 years post-HSCT in our center. Clinical data and immune reconstitution parameters were collated, and patients/families answered PedsQL generic core scale v4.0 questionnaires. Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of IL7Rα SCID (17 patients), Artemis SCID (8 patients) and RAG1/2 SCID (13 patients) had undergone HSCT with median age at last follow up for IL7Rα SCID, 14 years (range 4-27) and Artemis and RAG1/2 SCID, 10 years (range 2-18). Many patients have ongoing medical issues at latest follow-up [IL7Rα (73%), Artemis (85%), RAG1/2 (55%)]. Artemis SCID patients experienced more sequela than RAG1/2 SCID. Conditioned recipients with Artemis and RAG SCID had more CD4+ naïve lymphocytes compared to unconditioned recipients. All patients except those of IL7Rα SCID reported lower QoL; further subset group analysis showed parents and Artemis and RAG1/2 survivors without ongoing medical issues reported normal QoL. Conditioned recipients have superior long-term thymopoiesis, chimerism and immunoglobulin-independence. QoL was normal in those who did not have medical issues at long-term follow-up.
  3. Slatter MA, Rao K, Abd Hamid IJ, Nademi Z, Chiesa R, Elfeky R, et al.
    Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant., 2018 03;24(3):529-536.
    PMID: 29155317 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.11.009
    We previously published results for 70 children who received conditioning with treosulfan and cyclophosphamide (n = 30) or fludarabine (n = 40) before undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency (PID). Toxicity was lower and T cell chimerism was better in the patients receiving fludarabine, but cohort numbers were relatively small and follow-up was short. Here we report outcomes of 160 children who received homogeneous conditioning with treosulfan, fludarabine, and, in most cases, alemtuzumab (n = 124). The median age at transplantation was 1.36 years (range, .09 to 18.25 years). Donors included 73 matched unrelated, 54 1 to 3 antigen-mismatched unrelated, 12 matched sibling, 17 other matched family, and 4 haploidentical donors. Stem cell source was peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in 70, bone marrow in 49, and cord blood in 41. Median duration of follow-up was 4.3 years (range, .8 to 9.4 years). Overall survival was 83%. No patients had veno-occlusive disease. Seventy-four patients (46%) had acute GVHD, but only 14 (9%) greater than grade II. Four patients underwent successful retransplantation for graft loss or poor immune reconstitution. Another patient experienced graft rejection and died. There was no association between T cell chimerism >95% and stem cell source, but a significant association was seen between myeloid chimerism >95% and use of PBSCs without an increased risk of significant GVHD compared with other sources. All 11 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diagnosed at birth were alive at up to 8.7 years of follow-up. Long-term studies are needed to determine late gonadotoxic effects, and pharmacokinetic studies are needed to identify whether specific targeting is advantageous. The combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and alemtuzumab is associated with excellent results in HSCT for PID.
  4. Marciano BE, Huang CY, Joshi G, Rezaei N, Carvalho BC, Allwood Z, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2014 Apr;133(4):1134-41.
    PMID: 24679470 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.028
    BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome characterized by profound T-cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with SCID. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percentage of patients with SCID are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected.

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in patients with SCID.

    METHODS: An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcomes regarding BCG vaccination in patients given a diagnosis of SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Data on 349 BCG-vaccinated patients with SCID from 28 centers in 17 countries were analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients had BCG-associated complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000- and 400-fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (P = .006) and death caused by BCG-associated complications (P < .0001). The odds of experiencing complications among patients with T-cell numbers of 250/μL or less at diagnosis was 2.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.4-3.4 times higher; P = .001) than among those with T-cell numbers of greater than 250/μL. BCG-associated complications were reported in 2 of 78 patients who received antimycobacterial therapy while asymptomatic, and no deaths caused by BCG-associated complications occurred in this group. In contrast, 46 BCG-associated deaths were reported among 160 patients treated with antimycobacterial therapy for a symptomatic BCG infection (P < .0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccine has a very high rate of complications in patients with SCID, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient antituberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications.

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