RESULTS: Compared to the non-obese diabetic resistant (NOR) mice, the peritoneal macrophages of NOD mice expressed increased levels of PPARalpha but reduced levels of PPARgamma2, while PPARgamma1 expression was unchanged in all age groups. CD4-positive lymphocytes expressed low levels of PPARalpha in diabetic NOD mice and greatly reduced expression of PPARgamma2 in all age groups. Unlike peritoneal macrophages and CD4-positive cells, the CD8-positive cells expressed low levels of PPARgamma1 in diabetic NOD mice but no difference in PPARalpha and PPARgamma2 expression was observed compared to NOR mice.
CONCLUSION: The current findings may suggest an important regulatory role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes.
METHODS: Systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane. Other relevant articles were searched by reviewing the references of the reviewed article. All clinical trials with documented IgG trough levels and clinical outcome of interest in patients receiving IVIG treatment were eligible to be included in this review. Meta-regression analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. Additional sensitivity analyses were undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the overall results.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical studies with 1218 patients reported from year 2001 to 2018 were included. The mean IVIG dose used ranges from 387 to 560 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weekly, and mean IgG trough obtained ranges from 660 to 1280 mg/dL. Random-effects meta-regression slope shows that IgG trough level increases significantly by 73 mg/dL with every increase of 100 mg/kg dose of IVIG (p