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  1. Yaacob NS, Kaderi MA, Norazmi MN
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2004 Mar;24(2):177-84.
    PMID: 15024185
    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta islet cells, probably via the influence of cytokines. However, direct correlation between the expression of selected cytokines by various immune cells at different time points during the progression of the disease has not yet been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we showed that the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and GM-CSF, were increased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine, TGF-beta, decreased in the peritoneal macrophages of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. IL-6 expression however decreased when the mice became diabetic. Surprisingly the expression of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by splenic CD4+ cells were lower in 5-week-old NOD mice as compared to the nonobese diabetic resistant (NOR) control mice, but their expression was higher in older NOD mice. The expression of IL-4 and IL-10 decreased in splenic CD4-positive lymphocytes. Splenic CD8-positive lymphocytes expressed increased levels of IFN-gamma and IL-10 but the latter decreased sharply when diabetes occurred. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is discussed.
  2. Yaacob NS, Kaderi MA, Norazmi MN
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2009 Sep;29(5):595-602.
    PMID: 19472040 DOI: 10.1007/s10875-009-9300-1
    BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated in immune regulation. We determined the transcriptional expression of the three isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma1, and PPARgamma2 in the peritoneal macrophages, CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice at 5 and 10 weeks of age as well as at diabetic stage.

    RESULTS: Compared to the non-obese diabetic resistant (NOR) mice, the peritoneal macrophages of NOD mice expressed increased levels of PPARalpha but reduced levels of PPARgamma2, while PPARgamma1 expression was unchanged in all age groups. CD4-positive lymphocytes expressed low levels of PPARalpha in diabetic NOD mice and greatly reduced expression of PPARgamma2 in all age groups. Unlike peritoneal macrophages and CD4-positive cells, the CD8-positive cells expressed low levels of PPARgamma1 in diabetic NOD mice but no difference in PPARalpha and PPARgamma2 expression was observed compared to NOR mice.

    CONCLUSION: The current findings may suggest an important regulatory role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes.

  3. Abd Hamid IJ, Slatter MA, McKendrick F, Pearce MS, Gennery AR
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2018 08;38(6):727-732.
    PMID: 30105620 DOI: 10.1007/s10875-018-0540-9
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but data on long-term impact of pre-HSCT chemotherapy, immune reconstitution and quality of life (QoL) of specific SCID genotypes are limited. We evaluated the long-term immune-reconstitution, health outcome and QoL in IL7Rα SCID, Artemis and RAG1 and 2 SCID survivors > 2 years post-HSCT in our center. Clinical data and immune reconstitution parameters were collated, and patients/families answered PedsQL generic core scale v4.0 questionnaires. Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of IL7Rα SCID (17 patients), Artemis SCID (8 patients) and RAG1/2 SCID (13 patients) had undergone HSCT with median age at last follow up for IL7Rα SCID, 14 years (range 4-27) and Artemis and RAG1/2 SCID, 10 years (range 2-18). Many patients have ongoing medical issues at latest follow-up [IL7Rα (73%), Artemis (85%), RAG1/2 (55%)]. Artemis SCID patients experienced more sequela than RAG1/2 SCID. Conditioned recipients with Artemis and RAG SCID had more CD4+ naïve lymphocytes compared to unconditioned recipients. All patients except those of IL7Rα SCID reported lower QoL; further subset group analysis showed parents and Artemis and RAG1/2 survivors without ongoing medical issues reported normal QoL. Conditioned recipients have superior long-term thymopoiesis, chimerism and immunoglobulin-independence. QoL was normal in those who did not have medical issues at long-term follow-up.
  4. Al-Herz W
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2008 Mar;28(2):186-93.
    PMID: 18008151
    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are heterogeneous group of illnesses that predispose patients to serious complications. Registries for these disorders have provided important epidemiological data and shown both racial and geographical variations. The clinical features of 76 patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders registered in Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry from 2004 to 2006 were recorded. Ninety-eight percent of the patients presented in childhood. The prevalence of these disorders in children was 11.98 in 100,000 children with an incidence of 10.06 in 100,000 children. The distribution of these patients according to each primary immunodeficiency category is: combined T and B cell immunodeficiencies (21%), predominantly antibody immunodeficiency (30%), other well defined immunodeficiencies (30%), diseases of immune dysregulation (7%), congenital defects of phagocyte number, function or both (8%), and complement deficiencies (4%). The consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 77%. The patients had a wide range of clinical features affecting different body systems. Primary immunodeficiency disorders are prevalent in Kuwait and have a significant impact into the health system.
  5. Lee JL, Mohamed Shah N, Makmor-Bakry M, Islahudin FH, Alias H, Noh LM, et al.
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2020 Jul;40(5):682-698.
    PMID: 32417999 DOI: 10.1007/s10875-020-00788-5
    PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-regression analysis to evaluate the impact of increasing immunoglobulin G (IgG) trough levels on the clinical outcomes in patients with PID receiving intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) treatment.

    METHODS: Systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane. Other relevant articles were searched by reviewing the references of the reviewed article. All clinical trials with documented IgG trough levels and clinical outcome of interest in patients receiving IVIG treatment were eligible to be included in this review. Meta-regression analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. Additional sensitivity analyses were undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the overall results.

    RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical studies with 1218 patients reported from year 2001 to 2018 were included. The mean IVIG dose used ranges from 387 to 560 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weekly, and mean IgG trough obtained ranges from 660 to 1280 mg/dL. Random-effects meta-regression slope shows that IgG trough level increases significantly by 73 mg/dL with every increase of 100 mg/kg dose of IVIG (p 

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