Species identities of Goniobranchus nudibranchs with white bodies and various marginal bands have long been problematic. In this study, specimens of these Goniobranchus nudibranchs from the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, and Madagascar were analyzed and molecular data were obtained in order to re-examine the relationships between species within this "white Goniobranchus with marginal bands" group. The analyses clearly recovered six species groups corresponding to the described species Goniobranchusalbonares, G.preciosus, G.rubrocornutus, G.sinensis, and G.verrieri as well as one new species, G.fabulus Soong & Gosliner, sp. nov. Notably, G.preciosus, G.sinensis, G.rubrocornutus, G.verrieri, and G.fabulus Soong & Gosliner, sp. nov. exhibit color variation and polymorphism, suggesting that some aspects of color patterns (e.g., presence or absence of dorsal spots) may not always be useful in the identification of species in the "white Goniobranchus with marginal bands" group, whereas other features such as gill and rhinophore colors and the arrangement and colors of the mantle marginal bands are more diagnostic for each species.