We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae).
A new species of the genus Cheleion Vårdal & Forshage, 2010, Cheleion jendeki sp. n., from Johor, Malaysia is described, illustrated and compared with the type species of the genus, Cheleion malayanum Vårdal & Forshage, 2010. Photographs of the two species are presented. The adaptation to inquilinous lifestyle of Cheleion is compared with those in other beetle groups and briefly discussed.
Blood meal analysis (BMA) from ticks allows for the identification of natural hosts of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The aim of this study is to identify the blood meal sources of field collected on-host ticks using PCR analysis. DNA of four genera of ticks was isolated and their cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene was amplified to identify host blood meals. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on data of Cyt b sequences using Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis using MEGA 5.05 for the clustering of hosts of tick species. Twenty out of 27 samples showed maximum similarity (99%) with GenBank sequences through a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) while 7 samples only showed a similarity range of between 91-98%. The phylogenetic trees showed that the blood meal samples were derived from small rodents (Leopoldamyssabanus, Rattustiomanicus and Sundamysmuelleri), shrews (Tupaiaglis) and mammals (Tapirusindicus and Prionailurusbengalensis), supported by 82-88% bootstrap values. In this study, Cyt b gene as a molecular target produced reliable results and was very significant for the effective identification of ticks' blood meal. The assay can be used as a tool for identifying unknown blood meals of field collected on-host ticks.
Three new species of the family Rotundabaloghiidae are discovered and described from Sabah, Malaysia. The unusual Angulobaloghiarutra sp. n. differs from the other known Angulobaloghia Hirschmann, 1979 species in the long anterior process of the female's genital shield. Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) tobiasisp. n. has very long and apically pilose dorsal setae and two pairs of bulbiform setae, which are unique in the subgenus Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) Hirschmann, 1975. The long, serrate and curved setae in the big ventral cavity of Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) serratasp. n. is a so far unknown character in the subgenus Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda) Kontschán, 2010.
A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined.
The south-east Asian genus Eupoa is redescribed and diagnosed. Seven new species are diagnosed, described and illustrated: E. daklak sp. n. (♀) from Viet-Nam; E. lehtineni sp. n. (♂♀) from India, Thailand and Viet-Nam; E. lobli sp. n. (♂) from Malaysia; E. pappi sp. n. (♂) from Thailand; E. pulchella sp. n.(♂) from Thailand; E. schwendingeri sp. n. (♂♀) from Thailand; and E. thailandica sp. n. (♂♀) from Thailand. Eupoa prima Żabka, 1985 and E. yunnanensis Peng & Kim, 1997 are redescribed and illustrated on the basis of type and/or newly collected materials. The female of E. yunnanensis Peng & Kim, 1997 is found and described for the first time.
The south Asian amisegine genus Atoposega Krombein, 1957, is reevaluated. Three new species, A. rufithorax, A. striata and A. thailandica are described from Thailand and the previously described species, A. lineata (Krombein, 1957) from Borneo, A. rieki (Krombein, 1957) from Myanmar and A. simulans Kimsey, 1986 from Malaysia are redescribed. The species, A. decorata Kimsey, 1995, was found to lack the generic characters diagnostic for Atoposega. Atoposega is only known from females.
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.
Twelve new species of the streptaxid snail genus Discartemon Pfeiffer, 1856 are described from southern Thailand and western Malaysia, D. afthonodontia sp. n., D. circulus sp. n., D. deprima sp. n., D. discadentus sp. n., D. discamaximus sp. n., D. expandus sp. n., D. flavacandida sp. n., D. kotanensis sp. n., and D. megalostraka sp. n. from southern Thailand, as well as D. conicus sp. n., D. epipedis sp. n. and D. triancus sp. n. from western Malaysia. All 15 previously described species are revised and commented upon based on examined material. Streptaxis paradiscus Möllendorff, 1900 is considered a junior subjective synonym of the type species D. discus (Pfeiffer, 1853). Details of the genital anatomy of twelve species, and the radula and pallial system, are provided for the first time. An identification key is provided.
Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.
Eleven taxa including one new species of gammaridean amphipods are reported from the waters of Pulau Tioman. The presence of Tethygeneia sunda sp. n. represents the first record of the genus from the South China Sea. Additional material of Ampelisca brevicornis (Costa, 1853); Cymadusa vadosa Imbach, 1967; Paradexamine setigera Hirayama, 1984; Ericthonius pugnax (Dana, 1853); Leucothoe furina (Savigny, 1816); Microlysias xenokeras (Stebbing, 1918); Monoculodes muwoni Jo, 1990 are identified from the South China Sea, supporting previous records by Lowry (2000), Huang (1994), Imbach (1967), Margulis (1968) and Nagata (1959). Three additional species, Gitanopsis pusilla K.H. Barnard, 1916, Liljeborgia japonica Nagata, 1965b and Latigammaropsis atlantica (Stebbing, 1888), whilst previously reported from the neighbouring waters, comprise new records for the South China Sea.
Tetrasticta gnatha sp. n., collected under the bark of a rotten fallen tree in Peninsular Malaysia, is described. A habitus photograph, line drawings of diagnostic characters, and a diagnosis are provided. The new species is readily distinguished from all known congeners by having long mandibles, and long, curved maxillary palpi.
The leafhopper subfamily Signoretiinae is redescribed and includes two tribes: Signoretiini Baker and Phlogisini Linnavuori. Redescriptions of included tribes, diagnoses and a taxonomic key to genera are provided. New records for genera of Signoretiinae are as follows: Phlogis in Central African Republic, Malaysia and Thailand; Preta in Thailand; and Signoretia in the Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan (China). Signoretia pacifica is newly recorded from Cameroon. In addition, detailed illustrations of the male genitalia of the previously described species, Chouious tianzeus, Preta gratiosa,and Signoretia yangli are provided; the male genitalia of Signoretia malaya are described for the first time; and two new species of Signoretia are described, Signoretia delicata sp. n. from the Philippinesand Signoretia kintendela sp. n. from the Republic of the Congo.
The genera Odontacolus Kieffer and Cyphacolus Priesner are among the most distinctive platygastroid wasps because of their laterally compressed metasomal horn; however, their generic status has remained unclear. We present a morphological phylogenetic analysis comprising all 38 Old World and four Neotropical Odontacolus species and 13 Cyphacolus species, which demonstrates that the latter is monophyletic but nested within a somewhat poorly resolved Odontacolus. Based on these results Cyphacolus syn. n. is placed as a junior synonym of Odontacolus which is here redefined. The taxonomy of Old World Odontacolus s.str. is revised; the previously known species Odontacolus longiceps Kieffer (Seychelles), Odontacolus markadicus Veenakumari (India), Odontacolus spinosus (Dodd) (Australia) and Odontacolus hackeri (Dodd) (Australia) are re-described, and 32 new species are described: Odontacolus africanus Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe), Odontacolus aldrovandii Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Nepal), Odontacolus anningae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Cameroon), Odontacolus australiensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia), Odontacolus baeri Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia), Odontacolus berryae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island), Odontacolus bosei Valerio & Austin sp. n. (India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), Odontacolus cardaleae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia), Odontacolus darwini Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Thailand), Odontacolus dayi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Indonesia), Odontacolus gallowayi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia), Odontacolus gentingensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Malaysia), Odontacolus guineensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Guinea), Odontacolus harveyi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia), Odontacolus heratyi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji), Odontacolus heydoni Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Malaysia, Thailand), Odontacolus irwini Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji), Odontacolus jacksonae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Cameroon, Guinea, Madagascar), Odontacolus kiau Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Papua New Guinea), Odontacolus lamarcki Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Thailand), Odontacolus madagascarensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Madagascar), Odontacolus mayri Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Indonesia, Thailand), Odontacolus mot Valerio & Austin sp. n. (India), Odontacolus noyesi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (India, Indonesia), Odontacolus pintoi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island), Odontacolus schlingeri Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji), Odontacolus sharkeyi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Thailand), Odontacolus veroae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji), Odontacolus wallacei Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, Indonesia, Malawi, Papua New Guinea), Odontacolus whitfieldi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (China, India, Indonesia, Sulawesi, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam), Odontacolus zborowskii Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia), and Odontacolus zimi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Madagascar). In addition, all species of Cyphacolus are here transferred to Odontacolus: Odontacolus asheri (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Sri Lanka), Odontacolus axfordi (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Australia), Odontacolus bhowaliensis (Mani & Mukerjee) comb. n. (India), Odontacolus bouceki (Austin & Iqbal) comb. n. (Australia), Odontacolus copelandi (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Kenya, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Thailand), Odontacolus diazae (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Kenya), Odontacolus harteni (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Yemen, Ivory Coast, Paskistan), Odontacolus jenningsi (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Australia), Odontacolus leblanci (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Guinea), Odontacolus lucianae (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Ivory Coast, Madagascar, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe), Odontacolus normani (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (India, United Arab Emirates), Odontacolus sallyae (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Australia), Odontacolus tessae (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Australia), Odontacolus tullyae (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Australia), Odontacolus veniprivus (Priesner) comb. n. (Egypt), and Odontacolus watshami (Valerio, Masner & Austin) comb. n. (Africa, Madagascar). Two species of Odontacolus are transferred to the genus Idris Förster: Idris longispinosus (Girault) comb. n. and Idris amoenus (Kononova) comb. n., and Odontacolus doddi Austin syn. n. is placed as a junior synonym of Odontacolus spinosus (Dodd). Odontacolus markadicus, previously only known from India, is here recorded from Brunei, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The relationships, distribution and biology of Odontacolus are discussed, and a key is provided to identify all species.
The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridaes. l., Scelioninae) from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: Macroteleia carinigena sp. n. (China), Macroteleia flava sp. n. (China), Macroteleia gracilis sp. n. (China), Macroteleia salebrosa sp. n. (China), Macroteleia semicircula sp. n. (China), Macroteleia spinitibia sp. n. (China) and Macroteleia striatipleuron sp. n. (China). Ten species are redescribed: Macroteleia boriviliensis Saraswat (China, India, Thailand), Macroteleia crawfordi Kiefer, stat. n. (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam), Macroteleia dolichopa Sharma (China, India, Vietnam), Macroteleia emarginata Dodd (China, Malaysia), Macroteleia indica Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Vietnam), Macroteleia lamba Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Thailand, Vietnam), Macroteleia livingstoni Saraswat (China, India), Macroteleia peliades Kozlov & Lê (China, Vietnam), Macroteleia rufa Szelényi (China, Egypt, Georgia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine) and Macroteleia striativentris Crawford (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam). The following five new synonyms are proposed: Macroteleia crates Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and Macroteleia demades Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of Macroteleia crawfordi Kieffer; Macroteleia cebes Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and Macroteleia dones Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of Macroteleia indica Saraswat & Sharma; Macroteleia dores Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of Macroteleia lamba Saraswat & Sharma. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.
The genera Parandrocephalus Heller, 1916 and Hexamitodera Heller, 1896 are reviewed and redescribed. Based on the combination of chromatic sexual dimorphism, velvety pubescence on the whole dorsal body and distinctly developed carina on the elytra, Parandrocephalus blairi Bentanachs & Vives, 2009 is transferred to Hexamitodera. A new subgenus, Sulcognatha Perger, is instituted to accommodate mandible, head and metasternal modifications in Hexamitodera blairi comb. n. that are lacking in the type species of Hexamitodera, Hexamitodera semivelutina. As indicated by fundamental structural differences in the mandibles of Parandrocephalus and Hexamitodera (Sulcognatha) blairi comb. n., the exaggerated secondary sexual traits and open procoxal cavities in both taxa are presumably the result of convergent evolution. Contrary to Bentanachs & Vives (2009), the presence of the two Parandrocephalus species in Sundaland and the endemism of Hexamitodera on Sulawesi agree well with the zoogeographical separation of both areas by the Wallace line.
Three new species of the Oriental bolboceratine genus Bolbochromus Boucomont 1909, Bolbochromus minutus Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Thailand), Bolbochromus nomurai Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Vietnam), and Bolbochromus malayensis Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Malaysia), are described from continental Southeast Asia with diagnoses, distributions, remarks and illustrations. The genus is discussed with emphasis on continental Southeast Asia. A key to species known from Indochina and Malay Penisula is presented. An annotated checklist of Bolbochromus species is presented.
An unusual new species of green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Semachrysa jadesp. n.) is described from Selangor (Malaysia) as a joint discovery by citizen scientist and professional taxonomists. The incidental nature of this discovery is underscored by the fact that the species was initially photographed and then released, with images subsequently posted to an online image database. It was not until the images in the database were randomly examined by the professional taxonomists that it was determined that the species was in fact new. A subsequent specimen was collected at the same locality and is described herein along with another specimen identified from nearby Sabah.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) roslihashimisp. n. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lurauensesp. n., are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. These two new species are placed in the ceylonicum species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) roslihashimisp. n. is most distinctive with the male having almost entirely yellow antennae, and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lurauensesp. n. is characterized in the female by having the elongate sensory vesicle and the yellowish-white hairs on the base of the costal vein and on the stem vein, in the male by the greater number of large upper-eye facets and the spindle-shaped hind basitarsi which are much narrower than the hind tibiae and femora and in the pupa by the small terminal hooks. Keys to species of the ceylonicum species-group reported from Peninsular Malaysia are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
The present paper provides a taxonomic revision of the genus Fecenia with emphasis on the characteristics of the pre-epigynes which are integrated for the first time into an identification key. As a result, one species is revalidated, Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891, stat. n., and two new junior synonyms for Fecenia protensa are recognised: Fecenia sumatrana Kulczyński, 1908, syn. n. and Fecenia nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977), syn. n. New records are reported: Fecenia ochracea (Doleschall, 1859)from Malaysian Borneo, Fecenia macilenta (Simon, 1885) from Sumatra, Indonesia, Fecenia protensa from Thailand and Malaysia, Fecenia travancoria Pocock, 1899 from Sri Lanka and Thailand, and Fecenia cylindrata Thorell, 1895 from Thailand and Laos. Additional information on the biology of Fecenia is provided and the validity of characters for identifying Fecenia species is discussed.