This paper summarises the paper presentation sessions at the Conference, as well giving insights on the issues related to developing countries. It also discusses the present status of practice and research on water and wastewater management, and projected future scenario based not only on the papers presented in the Conference, but also on other sources. The strategy is presented to overcome many problems in developing countries such as rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, financial and institutional problems and, depleting water resources. The strategy consists of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM), cleaner industrial production, waste minimisation and financial arrangements.
The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system for implementation in Malaysia. Theoretical, field, laboratory investigations, and modelling simulations have been carried out. The results of the study indicated that the SBR system was robust, relatively cost-effective, and efficient under Malaysian conditions. However, the SBR system requires highly skilled operators and continuous monitoring. This paper also attempted to identify operating conditions for the SBR system, which optimise both the removal efficiencies and the removal rates. The removal efficiencies could reach 90-96% for COD, up to 92% for TN, and 95% for SS. An approach to estimate a full operational cycle time, to estimate the de-sludging rate, and to control the biomass in the sludge has also been developed. About 4 hours react time was obtained, as 2.25 hours of nitrification with aerated slow fill and 1.75 hour of denitrification with HAc addition as an additional carbon source. Inefficient settling was one of the problems that affect the SBR effluent quality. The settling time was one hour for achieving Standard B (effluent quality) and 2 hours for Standard A.
The main objective of this work was to determine the effectiveness of various biofouling reducers (BFRs) to operational condition in hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A series of tests involving three bench scale (100 L) hybrid MBR were operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30 days with biofouling reducer (BFR). Three different biofouling reducers (BFRs) were powdered actived carbon (PAC), zeolite (Ze), and Moringa oleifera (Mo) with doses of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) respectively were used. Short-term filtration trials and critical flux tests were conducted. Results showed that, all BFRs successfully removed soluble microbial products (SMP), for PAC, Ze, and Mo at 58%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. At their optimum dosages, PAC provided above 70% reductions and 85% in fouling rates during the short-term filtration and critical flux tests.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the focus of current environmental issues, as they can cause adverse health effects to animals and human, subsequent to endocrine function. The objective of this study was to remove a specific compound of EDCs (i.e. pentachlorophenol, C(6)OCL(5)Na, molecular weight of 288 g/mol) using low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (LPROM). A cross flow module of LPROM was used to observe the effects of operating parameters, i.e. pH, operating pressure and temperature. The design of the experiment was based on MINITAB(TM) software, and the analysis of results was conducted by factorial analysis. It was found that the rejection of pentachlorophenol was higher than 80% at a recovery rate of 60 to 70%. The rejection was subjected to increase with the increase of pH. The flux was observed to be increased with the increase of operating pressure and temperature. This study also investigated the interaction effects between operating parameters involved.
A two-stage anoxic transformation process, involving growth of biomass utilizing two types of different electron acceptors, namely nitrate and nitrite, has been observed. The present water quality modules established for sewer processes cannot account for the two-stage process. This paper outlines the development of a model concept that enables the two-stage anoxic transformation process to be simulated. The proposed model is formulated in a matrix form that is similar to the Activated Sludge Models and Sewer Process Model matrices. The model was successfully applied to simulate changes in nitrate and nitrite concentrations during anoxic transformations in the bulkwater phase of municipal wastewater.
Biofouling control is important for effective process of membrane bioreactor (MBR). In this study, phenomena of biofouling for immersed type extended aeration MBR with two different anti-fouling aeration intensities were studied through a laboratory set up. The objectives of this study were (a) to observe biofouling phenomena of MBR that operates under different anti-fouling bubbling intensity, and simultaneously monitors performance of the MBR in organic carbon and nutrients removal; (b) to compare effectiveness of detergent and detergent-enzyme cleaning solutions in recovering biofouled membranes that operated in the extended aeration MBR. For MBR, which operated under continuous anti-fouling aeration, deposition and accumulation of suspended biomass on membrane surface were prohibited. However, flux loss was inescapable that biofilm layer was the main problem. Membrane cleaning was successfully carried out with detergent-enzyme mixture solutions and its effectiveness was compared with result from cleaning with just detergent solution.
This paper describes an investigation on the effect of microbial removal using IMF for high quality drinking water production. The comparison of IMF and IMF-PAC configuration was carried out in the study to highlight the importance of PAC in the system. The specific objective of this study was to study the effect of PAC adsorption in the IMF-PAC system particularly in removing microbial substances from contaminated raw water. A bench scale IMF-PAC configuration using a flat sheet microfiltration membrane was set up for experimental purposes. Experimentally, the result has shown high removal of microbial substances with the IMF-PAC system compared to IMF. The result of E. coli removal achieved was below the detectable level due to the microbial size, which is bigger than membrane pore size. The addition of PAC has shown a direct effect on total microbial removal. The adsorption of microbial onto PAC surfaces reduced the amount of smaller microbial present in permeate samples. As a conclusion, the configuration of IMF is a promising separation process in removing microbial substances, especially when the system is combined with PAC.
A significant breakthrough and progress have been made in the study of the kinetics of microbial transformation in sewers under aerobic and under changing aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Fundamental knowledge on anoxic kinetics of wastewater is still lacking, so it is not now possible to apply an integrated approach to municipal wastewater treatment incorporating sewer networks as a bio-chemical reactor. This paper presents the results of studies on determining half saturation constants for nitrate, KNO3, and nitrite, KNO2, in raw wastewater. The average values of KNO3 and KNO2, determined from experiments conducted on 7 different wastewater samples were found to be 0.76 gNO3-N/m3 and 0.33 gNO2-N/m3 respectively.
The sewer is an integral part of the urban wastewater system: the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant and the local receiving waters. The sewer is a reactor for microbial changes of the wastewater during transport, affecting the quality of the wastewater and thereby the successive treatment processes or receiving water impacts during combined sewer overflows. This paper presents the results of studies on anoxic processes, namely denitrification, in the bulk water phase of wastewater as it occurs in sewers. Experiments conducted on 12 different wastewater samples have shown that the denitrification process in the bulk wastewater can be simplified by the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen with significant accumulation of nitrite in the water phase. Utilization of nitrate was observed not to be limited by nitrate for concentrations above 5 gNO3-N/m3. The denitrification rates, under conditions of excess substrate and electron acceptor, were found to be in the range of 0.8-2.0 g NO3-N/(m3h). A discussion on the interaction of the sewer processes and the effects on a downstream located wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is provided.
Biofouling is a crucial factor in membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications, particularly for high organic loading operations. This paper reports a study on biofouling in an MBR to establish a relationship between critical flux, Jc, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (ranging from 5 to 20 g L-1) and volumetric loading rate (6.3 kg COD m-3 h-1) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A lab-scale 100 L hybrid MBR consisting of anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic reactors was used with flat sheet microfiltration (MF) submerged in the aerobic compartment. The food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio was maintained at 0.18 kg COD kg-1 MLSSd-1. The biofouling tendency of the membrane was obtained based on the flux against the transmembrane pressure (TMP) behaviour. The critical flux is sensitive to the MLSS. At the MLSS 20 g L-1 the critical flux is about four times lower than that for the MLSS concentration of 5 g L-1. The results showed high removal efficiency of denitrification and nitrification up to 97% at the MLSS concentration 20 g L-1. The results show that the operation has to compromise between a high and a low MLSS concentration. The former will favour a higher removal rate, while the latter will favour a higher critical flux.
This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.
The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment.
Phytochemical and bioactivity studies of the leaves and stem barks of Tibouchina semidecandra L. have been carried out. The ethyl acetate extract of the leaves yielded four flavonoid compounds, identified as quercetin, quercetin 3-O-α-l-(2''-O-acetyl) arabinofuranoside, avicularin, and quercitrin, while the stem barks gave one ellagitannin, identified as 3,3'-O-dimethyl ellagic acid 4-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside. Evaluation of the antioxidative activity on the crude extracts and pure compounds by electron spin resonance (ESR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric assays showed that the pure isolated polyphenols and the EtOAc extract possessed strong antioxidative capabilities. Quercetin was found to be the most active radical scavenger in DPPH-UV and ESR methods with SC(50) values of 0.7 μM ± 1.4 and 0.7 μM ± 0.6 μM, respectively, in the antioxidant assay. A combination of quercetin and quercitrin was tested for synergistic antioxidative capacity;, however, there was no significant improvement observed. Quercetin also exhibited strong antityrosinase activity with a percent inhibition of 95.0% equivalent to the positive control, kojic acid, in the tyrosinase inhibition assay.
The objective of this study was to investigate the cycling of arsenic in the water column of a post-mining lake. This study is part of a research project to develop health risk assessment for the surrounding population. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) and Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) have been used to analyze the total amount and speciation, respectively. A computer program, called MINTEOA2, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used for predicting arsenic, iron, and manganese as functions of pH and solubility. Studying the pH values and cycle of arsenic shows that the percentage of bound arsenate, As(V) species in the form of HAsO4- increases with range pH from 5 to 7, as well as Fe(II) and Mn(III). As expected phases of arsenic oxides are FeAsO4 and Mn3(AsO4), as a function of solubility, however none of these phases are over saturated and not precipitated. It means that the phases of arsenic oxides have a high solubility.
Municipal leachate was treated in an experimental unit of constructed wetlands of subsurface flow type. The parameters studied were organics (BOD and COD), solids and heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Pb). Using two types of emergent plants of Scirpus globulosus and Eriocaulon sexangulare, more than 80% removal was achieved for all the parameters. E. sexangulare removed organics and heavy metals better than Scirpus globulosus. A higher concentration of heavy metals in the influent did not change the removal efficiency.
The structural and hydrodynamic features for granules were characterized using settling experiments, predefined mathematical simulations and ImageJ-particle analyses. This study describes the rheological characterization of these biologically immobilized aggregates under non-Newtonian flows. The second order dimensional analysis defined as D2=1.795 for native clusters and D2=1.099 for dewatered clusters and a characteristic three-dimensional fractal dimension of 2.46 depicts that these relatively porous and differentially permeable fractals had a structural configuration in close proximity with that described for a compact sphere formed via cluster-cluster aggregation. The three-dimensional fractal dimension calculated via settling-fractal correlation, U∝l(D) to characterize immobilized granules validates the quantitative measurements used for describing its structural integrity and aggregate complexity. These results suggest that scaling relationships based on fractal geometry are vital for quantifying the effects of different laminar conditions on the aggregates' morphology and characteristics such as density, porosity, and projected surface area.
Industrial wastewater minimization can be conducted using four main strategies: (i) reuse; (ii) regeneration-reuse; (iii) regeneration-recycling; and (iv) process changes. This study is concerned with (i) and (ii) to investigate the most suitable approach to wastewater minimization for an old textile industry plant. A systematic water networks design using water pinch analysis (WPA) was developed to minimize the water usage and wastewater generation for the textile plant. COD was chosen as the main parameter. An integrated design method has been applied, which brings the engineering insight using WPA that can determine the minimum flowrate of the water usage and then minimize the water consumption and wastewater generation as well. The overall result of this study shows that WPA has been effectively applied using both reuse and regeneration-reuse strategies for the old textile industry plant, and reduced the operating cost by 16% and 50% respectively.
A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was fed with synthetic wastewater to investigate the possibility of simultaneous removal of organic, nitrogen and phosphorus by intermittent aeration. The MBR consists of two compartments using a microfiltration membrane with 0.2 microm pore size and a surface area of 0.35 m2. Hydraulic retention time was set at 24 hours and solid retention time 25 days. MLSS concentration in the reactor was in the range of 2,500-3,800 mg/L. The MLSS internal recycling ratio was maintained at 100% influent flow rate. Intermittent aeration was applied in this study to provide an aerobic-anaerobic cycle. Three stages of operations were conducted to investigate the effect of aeration and non-aeration on simultaneous organic and nutrient removal. In Stage 1, time cycles of aeration and non-aeration were set at 90/150 min and 150/90 min in the first and second compartment, the removal efficiency was 97%, 94% and 70% for COD, nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. In Stage 2, time cycles of aeration and non-aeration were set at 60/120 min and 120/60 min in the first and second compartment, the removal efficiency was 97%, 96% and 71% for COD, nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. In Stage 3, time cycles of aeration and non-aeration were set at 120/120 min and 120/120 min in compartment 1 and 2, the removal efficiency was 98%, 96% and 78% for COD, nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. Results show that longer non-aeration time in the second compartment provided better performances of biological phosphorus removal.
This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been applied to treat a broad range of industrial and municipal wastewater. AGS can be developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions. To provide anaerobic conditions, the mixed liquor is allowed to circulate in the reactor without air supply. The circulation flow rate of mixed liquor in anaerobic condition is the most important parameter of operation in the anaerobic-AGS processes. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of circulation rate on the performance of the SBR with AGS. Two identical reactors namely R1 and R2 were operated using fermented soy sauce wastewater at circulation rate of 14.4 and 36.0 l/h, respectively. During the anaerobic conditions, the wastewater was pumped out from the upper part of the reactor and circulated back into the bottom of the reactor for 230 min. A compact and dense AGS was observed in both reactors with a similar diameter of 2.0 mm in average, although different circulation rates were adopted. The best reactor performance was achieved in R2 with chemical oxygen demand removal rate of 89%, 90% total phosphorus removal, 79% ammonia removal, 10.1 g/l of mixed liquor suspended solids and a sludge volume index of 25 ml/g.