Centella asiatica or known as ‘pegaga’ in Malaysia, is a popular medicinal herb, which is being used as main ingredient or incorporated into various herbal products. Apart from efficacy, the chemical profile and potential toxic effect of the plant are two important aspects of concern towards ensuring product satisfaction and safety of consumers. This paper reports the qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the leaf ethanolic extract of C. asiatica using LCMS/MS. The acute toxiciy effect of the extract and selected marker chemical constituents were further analysed using a zebrafish model. Twenty constituents, were identified and the main chemical marker constituents of the plant viz asiaticoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid were further quantified. Asiaticoside was found to be present in higher concentration than the other marker constituents. Meanwhile in the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of the extract on the zebrafish model was determined to be 1250 mg/L while 100% mortality was observed at the highest test concentration of 2500 mg/L. However, acute toxicity evaluation on four marker triterpenoids of the herb, i.e asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside, indicated them to be quite safe on the zebrafish model, with no mortality shown for test concentrations between 10 to 500 mg/kg BW.
An ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research should meet several characteristics, such as low cost and amenable for high throughput testing. Javanese medaka (JM) has been widely used in the ecotoxicological studies related to the marine and freshwater environment, but rarely utilized for biomedical research. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of using JM in the neurotoxicology research was assessed using biochemical comparison with an established model organism, the zebrafish. Identification of biochemical changes due to the neurotoxic effects of ethanol and endosulfan was assessed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Treatment with ethanol affected the level of lipids, proteins, glycogens and nucleic acids in the brain of JM. Meanwhile, treatment with endosulfan showed alteration in the level of lipids and nucleic acids. For the zebrafish, exposure to ethanol affected the level of protein, fatty acid and amino acid, and exposure to endosulfan induced alteration in the fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids and protein in the brain of zebrafish. The sensitive response of the JM toward chemicals exposure proved that it was a valuable model for neurotoxicology research. More studies need to be conducted to further develop JM as an ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research.