Misuse of alcohol among adolescents, particularly schoolchildren has become one of the public health concerns in Malaysia due to its serious effects and an increased risk of alcohol related injuries, especially motor vehicle injuries. This is the most common type of youthful fatal injury in Malaysia. However the availability of data on the extent of alcohol abuse particularly among school children in this country is limited. Therefore, we conducted this study with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of alcohol drinking among school children in Kuala Lumpur, factors rekited to alcohol drinking among the adolescents and to assess health status of their parents through the presence of any related alcohol diseases and the habits of alcohol drinking among their parents.
In this baseline study a two stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 8532 eligible students from the selected secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence of alcohol drinking was 9.0% (771 / 8532) . Significant factors identihed related to alcohol consumption were akoholic father (OR=1.29), akoholic mother (1 .55) ; elder siblings consume alcohol (2 .49) and the Chinese ethnic group (1 .55) . The study revealed that factors which signihcantly contributed to the habit of alcohol drinking were related to whether their parents consumed alcohol or not or either their eMer siblings were ako taking alcohol. Therefore, the, results from this study could be used as a baseline data to describe the level of alcohol consumption among adolescents particularly school children. Ehfective public health interventions that focus on the familial context of adolescents' drinking habits may be developed.
The Students' Resilience and Interpersonal Skills Development Education (STRIDE) is a preventive drug education programme. The rational of this programme is that preventive drug education has to begin early in age, before the development of social attitudes and behaviour of students. A pre and a post intervention surveys were performed to evaluate the impact of this programme. Nine schools from three states were identified to participate in the intervention. These schools were selected based on their locations in high-drug-use areas (where the prevalence of drug use exceeds 0.5% of the student population). The new intervention curriculum was put into practice for three months in the nine schools. The overall scores obtained by each respondent to assess their knowledge on drugs and its implications were analysed. The results showed that the programme made a positive impact from the pre to post intervention programme by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p < 0.05). A high percentage of the questions showed significant evidence through the McNemar matched pair Chi-Squared test with Bonferonni correction that there were positive shifts in the answers by comparing the pre and post intervention results (p < 0.05). Recommendations have been discussed with the Ministry of Education to integrate this programme into the national primary school curriculum.
This study aims to determine the level of knowledge and to understand their attitude towards smoking and secondly to determine how sociodemographic background, smoking status and knowledge on the health risks of smoking contribute toward the development of such attitude. A total of 10,545 respondents age 18 years and above across Malaysia were interviewed. Results indicated that level of knowledge and attitude varied by gender, education level, smoking status, age, ethnicity and smoker category. Smokers' low education, poor knowledge on the dangers of smoking and being males had more positive or greater impact on their attitudes towards smoking. Formulation and implementation of a holistic programme aimed at increasing knowledge and attitude change that accounts for sociodemographic background of the population is recommended in order to bring down smoking rates and thus reduce smoking related health problems in this country.
Smoking among adolescent is a public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies on smoking prevalence and its related factors have been conducted in Malaysia, however, they were specific to either urban or rural areas alone. Studies in mixed settlement areas (urban, rural, land development area) had not been intensively investigated. This study reports the prevalence, demographic and factors related to smoking amongst form four students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. A cross-sectional study of 16-year old secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district was conducted using two-stage stratified, proportionate sampling in July 2005. The study instrument used was a validated structured questionnaire on smoking and its related factors. Smoking prevalence was found to be 29.7%. More than 50% of male students were smokers. Prevalence was highest in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) settlement areas. Smoking was associated with having a brother or friend who smokes and poor academic performance. The study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, especially among male students in land development schemes. This situation will contribute to high smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.
In order to control any pest it is essential to study the life cycle, biology and bionomics of the target pest under control. With this respect, we have studied the flight range of the house fly Musca domestica (L.). The flight range of the house fly from two sites i.e, the poultry farm and a stable farm has been studied. The flight range study was conducted using a mark release technique. The approach we used in this study was that the flies collected from the respective farms were marked and released at different distances from the farms. The flies were then re-captured from the poultry farm and the stable farm. Studies conducted elsewhere use the technique of releasing the insect species at one spot and recapturing the insect species with the help of baited traps placed at various locations from the release point. The advantage of the approach used in this study was that the flight range as well as the homing effect was determined. From this study, the flight range of house flies released at the poultry farm was 7 km whereas flight range for flies release from stable farm was 5 km. The recovery rate of house flies at the poultry and stable farm was 0.05% and 0.016%, In this study, marked specimens has been detected up to 8 days in field conditions indicating that under field condition the life expectancy could be in the range of 1-2 weeks.