Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 428 in total

  1. Nor Faeiza, M., Juliana, J., Chua, P.H.
    This study was done to determine the relationship between indoor air quality and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) among students in Retrofitting Building (Building A) located in Kuala Lumpur and Purposed-built Building (Building B) located in Selangor. A cross sectional study was conducted among student from selected buildings with the total number of 130 respondents. Modified questionnaire based on Indoor Air Quality and Work Symptoms Survey, NIOSH, Indoor Environmental Quality Survey, 1991 was used to record the number of students experienced SBS. Measurement of indoor air quality was performed using instruments recommended by the IAQ Code of Practice, Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Malaysia. There was a significantly higher number of occupants experienced SBS in Building A (60 of 65 respondents) compared to Building B (50 of 65 respondents) (Χ2= 4.127, p = 0.042). It was also found that there is a significant difference between the numbers of respondents having SBS between Building A and Building B (p < 0.045). Building A had higher CO2, bacteria, fungi, and UFP significantly as compared to Building B. However, only CO was significantly higher in Building B compared to Building A. It is suggested thatregular maintenance of both buildings is compulsory as ventilation played an important role in maintaining good indoor air quality in a building.
  2. Mirta Widia, Siti Zawiah Md Dawal, NukmanYusoff
    Extensive research has been carried out over the years to determine the maximum acceptable weight that a worker is capable of lifting in a given situation among the Occidental populations in the Europe and US. At present, there is a scarcity of studies in which lifting frequency is used as the measuring variable, especially in developing countries such as Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the effects of lifting loads on the maximum acceptable frequency limit (MAFL), physiological response (muscle activity) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for asymmetric lifting and lowering tasks of Malaysian males.Ten male subjects are recruited in this study and they perform asymmetric lifting and lowering tasks repetitively for 30 minutes. Two lifting loads are considered (1) 1 kg and (2) 5 kg. Each of the subjects adjusts his frequency of lifting using a psychophysical approach. The subjects are instructed to perform the lifting and lowering task as fast as they could over duration of 30 minutes without exhausting themselves or becoming overheated. Electromyography (EMG) signals are recorded from four muscles (Right Erector Spinae (RES), Left Erector Spinae (LES), Right Trapezius p Descendenz (RTD) and Left Trapezius p Descendenz (LTD) and analysed in terms of the normalized MVC during asymmetric lifting and lowering tasks. The ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for four body parts (arms, lower back, shoulders and entire body) are also collected after the subjects have completed the lifting and lowering task. The mean frequency of the lifting and lowering task obtained from the experiment is 13.41 and 9.66 times/minute for a lifting load of 1 and 5 kg, respectively. The results of the independent sample t-test show that load has a statistically significant effect on the maximum acceptable frequency limit (p < 0.05). However, it is found that even though there is an increase in muscle activity and RPE with an increase in lifting load, there is no significant difference in the overall mean muscle activity and RPE (p > 0.05). The percentage decrease in the maximum acceptable frequency for Malaysian males is higher than the Occidental populations for both of the loads investigated in this study.
  3. Zuli’zam, R., Nooh, A. B., Raja Ariffin, R. G.
    The study of driver posture and comfort in driver workspace is important in vehicle package design especially in two
    different type of vehicle, sedan and Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MPV). Due to different seat position in the driver
    workspace, investigation of driver accommodation in relations to driver anthropometry is essential to ensure its
    meet the ergonomic quality. Therefore, this research is to investigate the preferred driving posture of Malaysian
    driver in both sedan and MPV type of car. Sixty two subjects (32 males and 30 females) aged between 17–60 years old
    were selected to simulate the comfortable driving posture using mock-ups of sedan car and MPV. Measurements
    based on SAE J1100 vehicle package design geometry were carried out for each subject. Result shows slight
    differences in the range of posture angle between the two types of vehicles, the posture joint angle in MPV is
    slightly smaller as compared to those of sedan car. The range postural angles for Malaysian driver population also is
    slightly smaller compare to Caucasian people especially on lower body portion such as knee angle, hip angle and
    ankle angle. These angles are due to the body stature and body segment length in which the population of Malaysia
    have shorter thighs and legs than those in Europe and America.
  4. Sukadarin, E.H., Deros, B.M., Nawi, N.S.M., Rambely, A.S., Bakar, S.A., Tamrin, S.B.M.
    Posture is one of the most important factor that need to be considered in any postural analysis. Awkward, extreme,
    and repetitive postures can increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). As observational methods are more
    widely used than instrumentation-based methods to assess postural problems, this study reviews and assesses the
    scientific literature of observational methods and focused on pen and paper based specifically. In order to identify the
    published methods, a list of English or Malay articles dating as far back as 1990 was compiled from PubMed, Science
    Direct and Google Scholar. The keywords were ergo*, posture*, method*, observational*, postural problems*, pen and
    paper*, posture analysis*, indirect* and macro-ergo*. In addition, a secondary search was also performed using
    bibliography of retrieved articles so that additional papers for conducting review and evaluations can be collected. A
    total of 121 articles that assessed postural problems in working activities were found. However, after intensive
    screening process only 6 articles were selected to be further analyzed. Posture of upper arms/shoulder, lower arms/
    elbow, wrist, neck, back/trunk and leg were highlighted in this study. The limitations and the strengths of the
    published pen and paper based observational method focusing on those postures were also discussed. The finding of
    this review will benefit researchers in the process of understanding unsafe posture in workplace. It could also provide
    to researcher on how to improve the current pen and paper based observational method for assessing postural
  5. RoscellaInja, Abdul Rahman H
    Teachers face one of the highest demands of any professional group to use their voices at work. Thus, they are at
    higher risk of developing voice disorder than the general population. The consequences of voice disorder may have
    impact on teacher’s social and professional life as well as their mental, physical and emotional state and their
    ability to communicate. Objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of voice disorder and the
    relationship between voice disorder with associated risk factors such as teaching activities and lifestyle factors
    among primary school teachers in Bintulu, Sarawak. A cross sectional study was conducted based on random sample
    of 4 primary schools in Bintulu, Sarawak between January-March 2014. A total of 100 full-time primary school
    teachers were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire
    addressing the prevalence of voice disorder and potential risk factors. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test was
    used to measure the relationship between voice disorder and associated risk factors. The response rate for this study
    was 78% (78/100). The study found that the prevalence of voice disorder among primary school teachers in Bintulu,
    Sarawak was 13%. Chi-square test results revealed that factors significantly associated with voice disorder (p
  6. Idyawati, H., Fauzi, Y., Khairul, N., Firdaus, I., Saidatina, F.
    This paper describes the process of quantifying the qualitative data in discovering the requirement of designing a
    glucose sensor for diabetic patients. A participatory design approach was conducted among stakeholders which
    include project managers, developers and users in early phases. Early phase of the design requires a problem
    gathering and identifying pain points. The goals and objectives of the designing the product by project members
    were evaluated. Users’ expectation was then validated with the stakeholder’s goals. The results showed that there
    was a contradiction of goals and need among team members and medical practitioners. The findings provide a
    literature on a case study of an industry practice and useful methods to be applied to capture hidden needs and
    requirements when designing healthcare products.
  7. Nur Syazwani Mohd Nawi, Baba Md Deros, Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman, Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Norani Nordin
    Agricultural activities have always been associated with hazards and injuries. Most common injuries experienced by workers are health, safety and ergonomic injuries. It stems from many causes, such as the use of manual tools, incorrect working position, inadequate rest and overloading. This paper aims to reveal the daily hazardous work task of oil palm plantation workers with highlighting the ergonomics problems and risk of injury they faced. Observations of work tasks and distribution of Modified Nordic Questionnaire (MNQ) were performed for every work unit. Worker’s activities and posture while performing work tasks were recorded extensively using camera and video recordings for ergonomics analysis. Results from the observation and questionnaire survey conducted, showed that oil palm plantation workers are exposed to the risk of dangerous work every day. Fresh fruit bunches cutter and loose fruit collectors were having highest body pain complaints and almost from them are having low back pain problems. Therefore, it is necessary for an immediate action from the management in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Using of manual tools should be avoided and plantation workers should be provided with ergonomics machines that can help them reduce their workload and injuries.
  8. Aniza Abd. Aziz, Barman, Arunodaya, Rahmah Mohd Amin, Oo, San San, Norizhar Kadarman, Ahmad Fadhlinoor Marican, et al.
    The communities settled in this traditional flood-prone area are potentially at risk of frequent inundation. This
    compelled the affected population to cope or adapt some strategy to reduce the negative impacts on their lives. The
    objective of this study was to explore the coping approach among the residents in a flood affected traditional village in
    Kuala Nerus, Terengganu and determine its associated factors. A cross sectional study which involved 210 adults who
    lived in traditional village houses was conducted from April to May 2015. Universal sampling was applied. This
    community-based study was part of the curriculum requirement for undergraduate medical students of UniSZA. The
    participants’ background, experience during the recent flood and their coping response were assessed using selfadministered
    validated Malay version Brief COPE inventory that consists of three domains (emotion-focused, problemfocused
    and less-useful), 14 subscales and 30 items. The mean (SD) age of participants were 46.7(15.54) years with
    almost equal sex ratio. Most of the participants were married (78.1%) and unemployed (54.8%). The most common coping
    approach applied by the villagers was emotion-focused followed by problem-focused and less-useful coping. There were
    four adjusted variables significantly associated with higher total coping score namely awareness on evacuation site
    (b=5.38, 95%CI:1.68,9.08, p=0.005), knowledge on health risk of flood (b=3.79, 95%CI:0.92,6.66, p=0.010), discussed on
    flood preparedness with family (b=2.50, 95%CI:0.84,4.16, p=0.003) and stored food before flood (b=4.506, 95%CI
    1.67,7.34, p=0.002). The emotion-focused coping was the most preferred coping approach among the villagers. A
    significant better coping was associated with the villagers who were aware of the gazetted evacuation site and have
    knowledge on the flood health hazard. The villagers who planned with their family and practiced storage of adequate
    food as part of household preparedness also demonstrated significant higher coping level.
  9. Nurulhuda Mat Hasan, Norwati Daud, Juwita Shaaban
    Lifestyles such as unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity and smoking are considered fundamental risk factors for
    cardiovascular disease. Preventive activities have been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular
    disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular lifestyle risks and cardiovascular preventive
    activities among healthy government servants in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was done from June
    to September 2013 among 121 government servants working at the Federal Complex, Kuala Terengganu. A questionnaire
    which consists of socio-demographic data, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the dietary component of
    WHO STEPS and cardiovascular screening activities were used as tools. Clustering of cardiovascular lifestyle risks was
    defined as the presence of two or more of smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. Optimal cardiovascular
    screening is defined as having done the required screening for hypertension, diabetes, dyslipideamia and obesity. The
    study response rate was 90.9% (110 of 121). Prevalence of smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet were 20%, 50%
    and 87% respectively. The prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular lifestyle risks was 57%. The prevalence of optimal
    cardiovascular screening for age was 49%. The prevalence of cardiovascular lifestyle risks among government servants in
    Kuala Terengganu is still high. About half of them did not have the optimal screening for cardiovascular disease.
    Measures need to be done to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in the community. Effort should be made at the
    primary care level and public health to screen those with multiple cardiovascular lifestyle risks in order to optimize
    cardiovascular disease prevention.
  10. Nur Jannah Ambak, Aniza Abd Aziz, Nor Azwany Yaacob, Siti Raihan Ishak, Wan Mohd Razin Wan Hassan, Syaratul Emma Hashim, et al.
    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) may result in progressive visual impairment and blindness which affects the diabetic patients‟ morbidity and quality of life significantly. The objective of this study was to determine the proportions and prognostic factors of DR severity among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A cross sectional study was conducted at the Ophthalmology Clinic in a tertiary hospital using the medical record database from 2005 to 2011. A total of 216DR patients were randomly selected. The study outcome was DR severity which was classified into four grading based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Scale. Descriptive statistics and Ordinal Logistic Regression were applied using Stata SE/11. The mean (SD) age of DR
    in this study was 56.06 (9.98) years old with almost equal sex ratio. Proportion of mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was 48.6% (95% CI: 40.0, 60.0), moderate NPDR was 28.2% (95%CI: 22.0, 40.0), severe NPDR was 6.9% (95% CI: 4.0, 11.0) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was 16.2% (95%CI: 10.0, 22.0). Diabetic patients that suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years, having nephropathy, every increased of HbA1c by 1% and higher total cholesterol were at increased risk of worsening DR.
    Note: content of full text inconsistent with title and abstract. Author informed.
  11. Nor HakimahAbRahman, AnizaAbd. Aziz, Wan MohdZahiruddin W Mohammad, Abdul NawfarSadagatullah, Wisam Abdul Kadder Yassin, Zawawi Nordin
    Diabetic foot ulcer is a major health care problem leading to hospitalization, morbidity, amputation and mortality in
    diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to determine the amputation-free probability and prognostic factors of major
    amputation among hospitalized diabetic foot patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. A retrospective record
    review study was conducted among 231 hospitalized diabetic foot patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from 1st
    January 2007 until 31st December 2011 followed by 1 year follow up. Patients’ medical records were retrieved and
    reviewed. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and amputation endpoint status were recorded. The duration of
    amputation-free time was measured from the date of being diagnosed as diabetic foot until the date of
    amputation.Simple and Multiple Cox regression were performed to determine the prognostic factors of major
    amputation. The patients’ age ranged from 21 to 83, with mean (SD) was 56.9 (10.4) years. Majority were male (51.5%)
    and Malays (95.7%). The overall proportion of amputation due to diabetic foot was 88.7% which comprised of minor
    (76.6%) and major amputation (13.7%). The adjusted prognostic factors that were found to be significantly influence the
    risk of having major amputation among hospitalized diabetic foot patients in HUSM were age at diagnosed of DFU
    (Adjusted HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.09, P=0.033), gender (Adjusted HR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07,0.66, P=0.007), duration of DM
    (Adjusted HR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.25, 6.12, P=0.012), smoking status(Adjusted HR: 4.19, 95% CI: 1.12, 15.65, P=0.033) and
    status of DFU (Adjusted HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.10, 6.07, P=0.029). Older diabetic patients, female, having diabetes more
    than 10 years, smoker and recurrent DFU were at higher risk of major amputation.
  12. Sharifah Nurul Aida Syed Ghazaili, Norwati Daud
    Job satisfaction is defined as pleasurable or positive emotional state which results from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. It is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations. There are many factors which are related to job satisfaction among family physicians. Data on satisfaction among family physicians varies from country to country. This study aimed to determine the level of job satisfaction among family physicians in Malaysia and its associated factors. A cross sectional study was performed among 117 family physicians in Malaysia between July 2012 and December 2012. A questionnaire consists of socio-demographic characteristic, professional and health clinic characteristics and Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale was used. The results showed that 85% of Malaysian family physicians are satisfied with their job. They are mostly satisfied with hours of work, colleagues and fellow workers, and freedom to choose own method of working. They are least satisfied with physical working condition, rate of pay and recognition. Female gender and less number of health clinics in-charged were associated with increased in overall job satisfaction. Most of the family physicians in Malaysia are satisfied with their job. However there are certain areas that should be looked into which are physical working condition, rate of pay and recognition. Malaysian family physicians should receive equal career opportunity, promotion and salary scale like other specialties
  13. Thwe Aung, Myat Moe, Azmi Hassan, Norizhar Kadarman, Tengku Mohammad Ariff R. Hussin, Barman, Arunodaya, Salwani Ismail, et al.
    Aedes mosquito-borne Dengue morbidity is predominantly high in the tropics and subtropics regions. Dengue is also a
    public health problem in Malaysia since the first epidemic in 1973. Reducing the vector population and personal
    protection still plays an important role in dengue prevention and control. With the information of community’s dengue
    knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP), the authorities could construct evidence-based, community- empowered vector
    control program. Upon the understanding of the value of baseline data, a cross-sectional study was carried out in dengue
    hotspot areas in Seberang Takir using universal sampling. The study results showed that 54.6% of the population had high
    level of knowledge, 18.6% had good attitude and 91.7% were performing good practices against Dengue infection. After
    adjusting confounding variables, age and educational levels of respondents, knowledge as well as attitude were found to
    be significant associated factors for having good practice against Dengue. The study findings provide the need for further
    information to undertake a holistic approach which is in need of community participation and cooperatio
  14. Karimah Hanim Abd Aziz, Aniza Abd. Aziz, Halim Salleh, Nurul Jannah Ambak, Nor Hakimah Ab Rahman, Oo, San San, et al.
    The aim of this study was to develop a new validated questionnaire to assess the health impact of divorce on women. A
    cross sectional study was undertaken in a district in Terengganu, using a newly developed self-administered Malay
    language questionnaire comprising of six domains and 82 items. The questionnaire was constructed based on the
    literature review and discussions with experts. Exploratory factor analysis was applied in construct validity and internal
    consistency was used for reliability analysis. A total of 51 respondents were involved in this study. All the consented
    divorcees were Malays. The mean (SD) age for the divorced women was 35.8 (10.00). Majority (82.4%) of them had
    secondary education. All the final three domains demonstrated Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) of more than 0.6, significant
    Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Cronbach’s alpha of more than 0.80. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was excellent (0.920).
    The final questionnaire consisted of two domains. Factor loading for all items in each subdomains were satisfactory. The
    final functional somatic symptoms domain consisted of 6 subdomains and 19 items with factor loading from 0.402 to
    0.914. For emotional instability domain, the final items were 13 items with factor loading from 0.548 to 0.878. The
    questionnaire was valid and reliable to be used for functional somatic symptoms and emotional instability domains. It is
    useful to assess the health impact and related intervention of divorced women. A confirmatory factor analysis may
    further confirm the final model.
  15. Norhasiza Mat Jusoh, Husbani Mohd Amen Rebuan, Thwe Aun, Myat Moe, Mohaslinda Mohamad, Rohayah Husain, Abdul Rahman Esa, et al.
    Cooperative learning is one of the active learning techniques. There are three commonly recognized types of
    cooperative learning groups, namely informal cooperative learning (ICL), formal cooperative learning and
    cooperative base groups. There is no study been done on ICL which relate to radiology teaching. The results of this
    study will provide evidence to support either traditional lecture (TL) or ICL is a more suitable teaching method for
    radiology teaching. This study was aimed to compare students’ attitude and preference towards TL versus ICL in
    radiology teaching. This interventional study had been conducted among 52 third year Bachelor of Medicine and
    Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. They underwent both TL and ICL methods
    during eleven radiology lectures in classroom setting from September 2013 until July 2014. Subsequently, multiple
    items questionnaires regarding students’ attitude and preferences towards TL and ICL were administered. These
    questionnaires had undergone validation process and revealed excellent internal consistency with Cronbach’s Alpha
    of 0.90, 0.92 and 0.88 respectively. The mean total attitude score towards informal cooperative learning was (90.90)
    (SD: 11.73) significantly higher than the score for traditional lecture 85.46 (SD: 11.82) (p= 0.012). Students showed
    preference in ICL significantly in six domains. These domains were active involvement in the class, promotion of good
    rapport among classmates, getting an opportunity to help others, facilitation of understanding difficult materials,
    improvement of communication skills, opportunity for training to be a good leader and follower, and opportunity for
    enabling to participate in sharing information, making decision and problem solving. ICL method is recommended in
    radiology teaching because students demonstrated better students’ attitude and preferences in the learning sessions
    as compared to TL.
  16. Oo, San San, Rahmah Mohd Amin, Aniza Abd Aziz, Thwe Aung, Myat Moe, Rohayah Husain
    Floods can lead to direct economic and property losses and result not only in physical injuries and deaths but
    also in psychological trauma. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a commonly used indicator to evaluate
    psychological injuries after disaster. This study aimed to determine the relationship between PTSD prevalence
    and related perceived severity of post flood impact by economical, non-economical and flood status severity
    domains besides relevant socio-demographic factors according to gender specific analysis. This cross-sectional
    study was conducted among community in Kampung Hulu Takir, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia in 2015 two
    weeks after flood. It included a total of 98 males and 110 females aged 18 years and above. Data was
    collected by interview-guided questionnaire to determine the prevalence of PTSD. SPSS version 21.0 was used
    for analysis of the relationship between socio demographic factors, perceived economic, non-economic and
    flood severity with PTSD. Finally chi square test was used to assess the predictors of PTSD according to
    gender. The prevalence of PTSD was 9.2% in males and 10.9% in females, giving a total of 10.1%. Significantly
    higher prevalence of PTSD was found in severely perceived economic and flood impact categories (33.3% and
    23.8% in males; 23.8 % and 37.5% in females) and giving in overall 44.0% and 31.3 % respectively. Effective
    PTSD management strategies targeting females post flood victims who severely perceived economically and
    nature flood impact should be implemented in order to prevent further consequences of PTSD.
  17. Mohd Razif Shahril, Suhaina Sulaiman, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa, Sharifah Noor Akmal
    Vitamin A, C and E intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been
    inconsistent and limited to developed countries with higher cancer incidence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to
    examine the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with vitamin A, C and E intake from
    dietary sources. This is a population based case-control study conducted in Malaysian population among 382 breast cancer
    patients and 382 control group. Dietary intake was assessed via an interviewer-administered food frequency
    questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad
    range of potential confounders were included in analysis. The results of this study shows a significant decreased risk of
    breast cancer among premenopausal (ORQ4 to Q1=0.38, 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.55, p-trend=0.001) and postmenopausal (ORQ4 to
    Q1=0.26, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.75, p-trend=0.017) women was observed in the highest quartile of beta-carotene intake.
    Meanwhile, a higher intake of vitamin C showed significantly lowered risk only for premenopausal women (ORQ4 to
    Q1=0.13, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.32, p-trend=0.001). As a conclusion, beta-carotene intake was independently related to pre- and
    postmenopausal breast cancer risk, while vitamin C intake was associated with decreased risk among premenopausal
    women only. However, no association was observed for vitamin A especially retinol and vitamin E intake from dietary
  18. Nurzuhairiza Zolkifli, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Ng Yee Guan, Nur Shuhada Mohd Shukoor, Nur Fitriyah Md Akir, Ng Gin Siong, et al.
    Safety helmet become vital personal protective equipment especially in the plantation in preventing the head from injury. This study evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice on safety helmet usage among harvesters, the association between knowledge, attitude and practice of safety helmet usage with head injury; and the significant differences of the safety helmet practices before and after the intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 109 harvesters in two oil palm plantation located in Selangor, Malaysia. A set of questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic background data, knowledge, attitude and practice on the usage of safety helmet. An intervention program through tool box talk on proper usage of safety helmet also was given followed by an observation to look for the differences before and after the tool box promotion on the use of safety helmet. Result from the descriptive analysis showed high score for knowledge, fair score for the attitude and practice among harvesters. There is no association between knowledge (X2=2.733; p>0.05), attitude (X2=2.546; p>0.05) and practice (X2=2.473; p>0.05) with the head injury. The result also gave no significant differences (p>0.05) of the practices before and after the intervention. However, the trends showed decrease in number of practices after the intervention. This study reveals that the knowledge, attitude and practice are not a prominent indicator for head injury among harvesters.
  19. Mahmood Ali, Mohd Sapuan Salit, Karmegam Karuppiah, Abu Saleh Ahmed
    This study was conducted to evaluate the discomfort level of students from the Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak while they were sitting on chairs. Polytechnic Kuching students (n=500) completed a set of questionnaires utilizing a survey form which showed the body chart discomfort using Borg’s CR-10 Scale. The students was asked to identify body areas experiencing discomfort and to rate this discomfort using score rating groups (0 to 5) where score 0-1.99 = No discomfort (1), score2.00-3.99 =Discomfort (2) and score 4.00-5.00 = Very uncomfortable (3).The evaluation of seating discomfort levels showed acceptable levels for the students and possible outstanding problems. Students were asked to rank over an order 10 statements about comfort and choose three responses which gave the most consistent equal interval scale. The results showed that the main response of discomfort indicated the students felt cramped, stiff, numb, sore and tender muscle, unbearable pain, barely comfortable and uncomfortable. This project was identified to evaluate the comfort level for classrooms chairs of polytechnic students. Overall, there was a significant discomfort level for the students whilst sitting on chairs and a possible solution put forward is to design a new type of classroom chair made of natural fibre reinforced composite.
  20. Mohd Zahiruddin Zukfali, Haliza Abdul Rahman
    The objective of study is to determine traffic noise level and non-auditory effect among shop lot workers at Kajang Selangor. This cross sectional study was carried to study traffic noise exposure with annoyance and work performance level among shop lot workers in Jalan Mendaling, JalanTukang and Jalan Sulaiman at Kajang town, Selangor. This study involves 120 shop lot workers that exposed to the traffic noise during their working hours where they are randomly selected. Noise exposure was estimated using the Sound Level Meter for environmental noise. The traffic volume was recorded using video recorder and calculated using tally counter. One set questionnaire consist standard questionnaire was used to assess the annoyance level and work performance level among the respondents. Respondents were predominantly by male which are 94 and female, 26 respondents. The mean age of the respondent were ranged between 41 to 60 years old. Only 12.5% of respondent are ranged 21 until 30 years old. In total of 120 respondent, 54.2% of them are Chinese while Malay and India only 30% and 15.8% respectively. The result showed that the traffic noise level at study areas are exceeded the permissible sound limit of commercial and business area during daylight which is 70 dB(A). Regarding work performance, 94 respondents are having low work performance level and 82% of respondent high annoyance level during the exposure of traffic noise from four different sources which are noise from the traffic, speeding vehicle, high traffic volume and exhaust system. There is a significant relationship between traffic noise level with work performance level (p=0.001) and annoyance level (p=0.026). The average traffic noise (Laeq) level at Jalan Mendaling, Jalan Tukang and Jalan Sulaiman is 71.19 dB(A) which were high and exceeds permissible sound level from road traffic, commercial and business place at day time, 70 dB(A). The exposure from the traffic noise effect the annoyance level and work performance level among the shop lot worker. In order to reduce traffic noise exposure towards the shop lot workers, some recommendation are needed to control the traffic noise such as build a noise barrier, plant trees and also enforcement of legal requirement in noise level.
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