Misuse of alcohol among adolescents, particularly schoolchildren has become one of the public health concerns in Malaysia due to its serious effects and an increased risk of alcohol related injuries, especially motor vehicle injuries. This is the most common type of youthful fatal injury in Malaysia. However the availability of data on the extent of alcohol abuse particularly among school children in this country is limited. Therefore, we conducted this study with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of alcohol drinking among school children in Kuala Lumpur, factors rekited to alcohol drinking among the adolescents and to assess health status of their parents through the presence of any related alcohol diseases and the habits of alcohol drinking among their parents.
In this baseline study a two stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 8532 eligible students from the selected secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence of alcohol drinking was 9.0% (771 / 8532) . Significant factors identihed related to alcohol consumption were akoholic father (OR=1.29), akoholic mother (1 .55) ; elder siblings consume alcohol (2 .49) and the Chinese ethnic group (1 .55) . The study revealed that factors which signihcantly contributed to the habit of alcohol drinking were related to whether their parents consumed alcohol or not or either their eMer siblings were ako taking alcohol. Therefore, the, results from this study could be used as a baseline data to describe the level of alcohol consumption among adolescents particularly school children. Ehfective public health interventions that focus on the familial context of adolescents' drinking habits may be developed.
Rural health clinics in Sri Aman Division in Sarawak, Malaysia lack diagnostic tests for malaria. Many of the medical assistants in the clinic diagnose malaria solely on clinical ground. The study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis of rnahtria made by medical assistants using results of microscopy examination as gold standard. The study period was from September to December 2003. Three rural clinics without laboratory or diagnostic tests services and one urban clinic with laboratory facility serving malarious areas were selected. All patients clinically diagnosed as malaria by the attending medical assistants were included as clinical malaria cases. Blood slides were taken for examination of malaria parasites. Non clinical malaria cases were all other patients without clinical malaria for whom blood slides were taken for malaria parasites. Out of 362 patients included in the study, 75 were clinically diagnosed as having mahria. The sensitivity of headache, history of fever and chills/rigors to detect malaria cases was above 90% but the specificity and positive predictive value was low, below 40% and 20% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of malaria clinical diagnosis made by medical assistants was 82.1 %, 84 .4% and 30.7% respectively. Clinical diagnosis of malaria increases the slide positive rate by four folds. However the sensitivity, specincity and positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis by medical assistant and clinical characteristics was insufficient to enable each of them to be used alone to differentiate true malaria cases from non mahiria cases.
The Healthy City concept was taken by Malaysia in 1994 and Malacca State has initiated this project in late 1997 and launched in September 1998. The aim of the project is to had ways of achieving a better quality of urban life. The objective of this study was to assess the views and responses of Melaka Tengah community with regards to the existing facilities and services rendered in the district. The views will be incorporated into ideas for the policymakers and planners to develop Malacca into a healthy city. Three methods were used to collect the data. Questionnaires were given to the community of Melaka Tengah District. The respondents were selected by multistage sampling, Observation was carried out at selected public places to assess the community's practices and contribution, Ten focus group discussion were conducted consisting of health staff and public to discuss on environmental, social, physical and economic issues of Malacca. There were 3 sectors that had mean scores above 3.0 (the cut off level for being satisfed). They were health, housing and environment, ln terms of dissatisfaction, there were 4 sectors scoring below 3.0, These include domestic waste dnposal, road system, public transportation and recreational park. The community
expected the services to be improved especially in terms of cleanliness, They agreed to contribute in their own ways in developing the sectors discussed except for public transportation, wet market and food premises which were beyond their control. Observation showed that some of the community members exhibit bad behaviours that can contribute to an unhealthy city. The Melaka
Tengah community expected ejficient and quality services and they agreed to contribute in making Malacca into a Healthy City.
Exposure to secondhand smoke has consistently been linked to adverse health effects in children, including reduced lung function and various respiratory diseases. There is also increasing evidence that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral problems in children, This cross sectional study was done on 795 chiMren to determine the association between secondhand smoke exposure and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and cognitive performance among the primary school children in Kota Bharu Kelantan. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography and smoking status of the household. The PEER was measured using a child Mini Wright peak expiratory flow meter while cognitive performance was y
assessed by four subtests of Weschler Intelligence Scale For Children (WISC III). Data analysis was done using SPSS version 11. Children were classified as exposed to secondhand smoke when at least one househoH member smoked. There were 442 (55 .6%) children exposed to secondhand smoke at home. The mean (SD) PEFR for unexposed and exposed children were 266.18 (60.80)
l/min and 266 .06 (57. 70) l/min respectively, The mean (SD) scores for Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward Coding and Arithmetic in unexposed chiMren were 6.84 (1.80), 4.Z7(1.68), 45.25 (9,99) and 8.04 (1.04) respectively. The mean (SD) scores for exposed children were 6.73 (1 .77). 4.07 (l .65), 45.1 I (1 I ,03) and 8.13 (1 .00) respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no signincant dijference in the PEFR (p=O.816) and the cognitive scores between exposed and unexposed primary school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan
Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer in Malaysia with a prevalence of 86.2 cases per 100,000 women in 1996. Pronling breast cancer patients is important for better planning of preventive and screening strategies for Malaysian women. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to identify histological presentation, socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics
and prevalence of risk or protective factors of breast cancer among women with breast cancer in Kelantan. A total of 175 female breast cancer patients who were diagnosed in 1991 to 2000, were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. The mean (sd) age was 47.0 (9.6) years with 77.7% Malay, 20.6% Chinese and 1.7% others. About half (52.6%) had 9 years or less of formal education, while 59.4% were housewives/unemployed and 60.6% had a monthly family income of less than RM1 ,000. The commonest histological type was innltrative ductal carcinoma (73 .7%) . Presentation of breast cancer with the stage lll or Vl was 59.4%. The prevalence of nulliparity · 13.1%, breastfeeding longer than two years - 58.9%, premenstrual period - 72.0%, menarche at 11 years old or less - 5 .7%, positive family history - 14.4%, overweight/obesity - 48.0%, oral contraceptives use 30.3%, hormone replacement therapy » 1.1%, cigarette smoking - 4.6%, consuming akohol - 3.4%, previous benign breast disease - 6.3%, previous breast biopsy - 2.9% and previous oophorectomy - 4.6%. The patients were younger compared to other studies. The ethnic distribution did not represent the population distribution of Kelantan. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and smoking were higher than the national prevalence among women, thus they should be included in the prevention strategies for breast cancer. Further studies are recommended to investigate why many of breast cancer patients in Kelantan presented at a younger age and at advanced stages of cancer.
A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan state with the objectives to determine the prevalence of smoking in 2004 and
to determine the relationship between smoking and age, sex, educational level, family and peer influence. All residents aged 15
years and above from all the selected households were included in this study. A standardized pre»tested structured questionnaire
was used in this study. Out of 1025 respondents interviewed the prevalence of ever and current smokers was 34% and 25.1%
respectively. The prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers was signihcantly higher in males as compared to females
Cancer of uterine cervix is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide, second only to breast cancer in incidence and mortality. Industrialized countries have dramatically reduced the incidence of mortality from cervical cancer in the last 5 O years through aggressive screening programs utilizing pelvic examinations and Papanicolaou (pap) smears. The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between socio-demography, knowledge, attitude and practice regarding pap smear screening among female patients in Hospital Teluk Intan. There was statistically signihcant association between level of knowledge and practice (p
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the perception of Hospital Directors in performing clinical duties. This was
Wil `l l done through a postal survey which was conducted covering all public hospitals in Malaysia. The majority o Hospital Directors
X; l had read the circular at the time of the study and agreed to do clinical work besides managerial duties. Before the issuance of the
ll j directive, the majority of those directors were already doing some clinical work. However they disagreed that by doing clinical
J' ` li = work they could help overcome the problem of shortage o doctors. They agreed that the duration o I0 hours er week is suitable
il ii P
'l l ~ to do clinical duties. In term o con idence in giving curative treatment, the Hos ital Directors es eciall those rom district
,,, D i> r
li hospitals without specialists were confident in giving curative care to individuals. As for the clinicians, the majority felt that the
l implementation of the directive for Hospital Directors to do clinical work will not disrupt the clinicians' routine duties.
All road users are at risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Approximately 52.2% of all fatalities and 70.9% of all casualties related to MVCs in Kelantan were motorcycle riders and pilliori riders. A number of risk factors have been established in the relationship between traffic accidents and road-user, the vehicle as well as road and traffic conditions. The study was a cross-sectional study to identify factors associated with the severity of injury sustained by motorcyclist accident patients admitted to the Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), assessed through face to face interview based questionnaire and, at the same time the severity of injury was determined through Revised Trauma Score. Data analysis was done using simple and multiple logistic regressions. The study revealed that age more than 5O years, no motorcycle license, no stressful condition and crashes on two·way road showed higher risk of sustaining a more severe injury. However, sleep time of six to less than nine hours per day, crash on a straight roadway and wet road surface were associated with less severe injury. We recommend that public education, licensing and enforcement on accident prevention and safety riding should be given a priority.
Risks of transfusion increase with the increase in the number and volume of transfusions occurring in hospitals year after year. Knowledge and practice of the nurses on proper transfusion techniques and risk reduction procedures should always be updated to ensure that transfusions are safely carried out. The study was done to determine the levels of knowledge and practice of trained nurses regarding blood transfusion in a general hospital. The study is a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, distributed to all staff nurses in the medical-based wards and intensive care unit (ICU) in the hospital. The total score were added for each category of knowledge and practice. Ninety one percent of the total population of staff nurses in medical based wards anti ICU were recruited into the study. A score of 80% or more in the knowledge and score of IOO% is required for practice to consider it as a pass, The outcome of the study showed that no one respondent in the study has achieved the required level, with regard to neither knowledge nor practice. The mean knowledge score was 54.8 with SD. of 9,9; while the mean practice score was 63 .8 with S.D. of 1.4. It was found that there was no rehtionship between knowledge score, nor practice score with the clinical postings (place of work) , work experience, and nursing qualification. This survey had indicated probkms faced by the nursing population in the hospital studied that there was a need to improve knowledge and practice levels with regards to blood transfusion procedure. It is crucial that updated information concerning transfusions be communicated to these nurses since they were the ones who carry out the procedures whilst continuously observing the patients during transfusion.
A cross·sectional study was done to determine the capacity of Public Health Inspectors in Selangor using a seh administered questionnaire and universal sampling, to determine the enforcement of public health legislation and its influencing factors. A total of 99 respondents from the District Health Offices and 100 respondents from the Local Health Departments participated. The level of enforcement is generally low in all the units except for the Food Unit and Sanitary and Hygiene Units. Factors influencing enforcement of Public Health Legislations are the unit where the respondents worlc and the length of service with the unit. Further analysis using multiple logistic regression, found that respondents from the Food Unit (OR ZZ; 95% C1: 7 .9-58.9 ) , being in the
U8 category (OR 5; 95% C1: l.4» 17.6), service offour years and above in the same unit (OR 6; 95% C1: 2.2»13.8) , received service rewards (OR 3; 95% C1 : 1.2· 6.9); low exposure to bribery (OR 46; 95% C1: 2.3·100.0) and offered bribes while on the field (OR 3; 95% C1: 1.02» 4.8) have higher kvel enforcement performance. Attention must be given to the enforcement organization with respect to duration of service, service awards and monitoring of bribes exposure to help develop the enforcement of public health legislations.
Kepuasan pelanggan terhadap perkhidmatan kesihatan adalah penting untuk orang ramai, terutamanya mereka yang menjalani rawazan untuk penyahit tuberkulosis (TB) kerana ianya memerlukan mereka melalui proses regimen rawatan yang sukar. Objektif kajian adalah untuk menilai tahap l
A study was conducted in Kelantan, Mabysia, in the year 2001 , to assess the typhoid reporting coverage and timeliness, and to estimate the annual incidence. Cases were persons given the diagnosis of typhoid clinically, and conhrmed cases are those with positive laboratory results. In all, 174/252 (69%) cases (95% CI = 63%-75%) were reported, ofwhich 89/131 (83%) within 7 days of diagnosis. The estimated annual typhoid incidence in Kelantan is 37/ 1 00,000.
Hypertension is one of the commonest health problems in Malaysia and its cases are on a rise. In conjunction with the above statement, it is predictable that the cost of healthcare services will further increase in the future. Therefore, cost study is necessary to estimate the health related economic burden of hypertension in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was carried out to quantify the direct treatment cost of hypertension. Three hundred and ninety one hypertensive patients’ data from Bandar Tasik Selatan Primary Medical Centre in year 2010 were collected and analysed. The direct treatment costs were calculated. The result showed that out of 391 hypertensive patients, 12.5% was diagnosed hypertensive without any co-morbidity, 25.3% with 1 co-morbidity dyslipidemia only; 4.3% with diabetes mellitus type 2 only; 0.5% with chronic kidney disease only and none with ischaemic heart disease. Patients with 2 co-morbidities (dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus type 2) were 42.2%; with 3 co-morbidities (diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease) was 4.3%. The mean cost of direct treatment of hypertension per visit/ year was RM289.42 ±196.71 with the breakdown costs for each component were medicines 72.2%, salary 14.6%, laboratory tests 5.0%, administration 4.4% and radiology tests 3.8%. Dyslipidemia is by far the commonest co-morbidity among hypertensive patients. Direct costs of treating hypertension are mostly dependent on present of co-morbidity and numbers of drugs used. Thus, the annual budget could be calculated precisely in the future especially for drugs.
Chronic low back pain is a common preventable occupational health illness affecting most workers. Large amount of financial and benefit cost had been spent by the developed countries to prevent, treat and rehabilitate a large number of workers who are exposed to hazards that are attributed to low back pain. Efforts on primary prevention of low back pain had been challenging due to difficulties in affirming work- relatedness of chronic back pain among workers. As such, efforts have to be focused on existing literatures to propose acceptable variables to develop the definition of workrelatedness specific to chronic low back pain. Such identified variables or factors could be used to develop a set of criteria in defining work- related chronic back pain. Literature search using specific work- related and chronic low back pain key words were used. Comparable articles were judged and a summarized result was obtained. These variables could be grouped into individual characteristics, health behaviours, physical conditions at work, work organizations and ergonomic factors. With proper methodology and statistical analysis, tools could be developed to aid physicians in determining work- related chronic low back pain among employees.
Dioxins are a most toxic compound ever studied by human until today. Their significant health effects involved all ranges of age, including infants due to exposure to contaminated breast milk. The objective of the study was to appraise the status of dioxin contamination in breast milk among postnatal mothers live in urban and suburban areas in Klang Valley. It was conducted as a cross sectional study involving 101 postnatal mothers who came for their infant second hepatitis B vaccination. The samples were analysed using High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC) following the USEPA Method 8290. About 70.3% of the samples were found detected with dioxin congeners. More suburban mothers have positive breast milk dioxins compared to urban mothers, 100.0% and 67.0% respectively. Significant associated factors include high fat daily intake (p=0.013), high milk daily intake (p= 0.044), high meat daily intake (p=0.001), body mass index more than 30 kg/m2 (p=0.005), and body fat % of more than 26% (p=0.046). In conclusion, amount daily intake of fat diet, meat, milk, body mass index and body fat are significant associated factors for the present of dioxins in breast milk among postnatal mothers in Klang Valley. More suburban mothers contain dioxins in their breast milk, which poses higher risk of health problems among their infants. A comprehensive study need to be conducted and regular followup need to be established in monitoring the future severity of maternal breast milk contamination to ensure the health of the next generations.
The Orang Asli of Malaysia continue to experience poor health. There appears to be stagnation of certain aspect of their health status. Underweight (low weight-for-age) and stunting (low height-for-age) are significant amongst Orang Asli children. Worm infestation such as Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm continue to afflict Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Orang Asli communities can also be afflicted by other kinds of parasites, e.g. malaria parasites, microsporida parasites and Cryptosporidium parasites. Thus, primary care doctors who treat Orang Asli patients should be on the lookout for malnutrition and its effects (including anaemia, iodine deficiency, Vitamin A deficiency) as well as worm and parasite infestations. Such patients may need to undergo de-worming at regular intervals because of the tendency to get re-infected. Primary care doctors also need to be aware of possible interactions between infestations and nutritional deficiencies.
Although the Ministry of Health Malaysia has been encouraging the practice of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (T&CM)1, 2 , 3, 4 but patients/clients has not been able to apply it for their need of medical treatments and sometimes it leads to negative outcomes due to lack of knowledge on T&CM and its safe applications5,6’ 7,8 Most of the western-trained physicians are ignorant of risk and benefits of T&CM9,10,11 . This study was aimed to determine the gap between knowledge regarding T&CM and perception on education in T&CM among the medical staffs in five selected hospitals in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was done at five public hospitals among medical staff in Malaysia by using quantitative methods. A total of 477 medical staffs were involved in this study. The study showed that the overall knowledge of T&CM among the medical staffs were poor (61.2%). Having good knowledge regarding T&CM were significantly higher in Hospital Duchess of Kent (52%, p=0.001), among the non-Malays (44%, p=0.047) and pharmacists (47.2%, p=0.030). Positive perception on health education in T&CM among medical staffs were high (85.3%) especially among females (88.1%, p=0.002) and pharmacists (93.7%, p< 0.001). The use of T&CM among the general population is relatively high in Malaysia and many patients increasingly seek the information on T&CM therapies from medical staffs. Knowledge regarding T&CM was poor in this study because most of the medical staffs have not been exposed to T&CM education. This interesting scenario between poor knowledge and high positive perception on health education in T&CM shows the demand of urgent intervention in educating the medical staffs. We recommend that medical staffs must have some basic education and knowledge about T&CM before they could offer advice to their patients. Doctors are of the utmost important in this regard because they play a very important role in patient care. Providing T&CM education to medical staff may help to integrate T&CM into the mainstream medicine.
The rapid development in the health sector has spurred many healthcare organizations to improve their productivity and quality, particularly in terms of service. Clinical Pathways was introduced with the objective of improving the quality of care and services in health; while at the same time eyeing the possibility of reducing the medical expenses. It can be defined as a document based tool that links the best available evidence and clinical practice and provides recommendations, the process and time frame for the clinical management of healthcare. A cross sectional study was carried out at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) Malaysia with the aim to evaluate the level of knowledge about Clinical Pathways (CP) and to ascertain its level of practice in the implementation of CP among healthcare workers at UKMMC; and to establish correlated determinant factors. The study involved a total of 127 respondents; majority of whom were female (77.2%), aged between 32 and 45 years (51.2%), working as nurses (71.7%), and having working experience of six years or longer (52.0%) at UKMMC. The findings reveal that 52.8% of respondents agreed that there is a proper implementation of the Clinical Pathways (CP) programme at UKMMC; and that 52.0% of the respondents have a higher level of knowledge about CP and 70.1% of them practiced it well. The findings also unravel two factors (position and working experience) as the predictors of respondents’ level of knowledge about CP, and position as a predictor representing the practice of it at UKMMC. It can be safely surmised that most of the respondents have a higher level of knowledge about Clinical Pathways and that they practice it well in their daily task as healthcare workers.
This study aimed at measuring the quality of life (QOL) among young adults in rural area of Selangor, and determined the factors that affect the QOL scores. A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adults aged 18 to 39 years in rural area of Hulu Langat district, Selangor with a total sample of 308 selected through simple random sampling. Validated Malay version of WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure the QOL, which generated overall QOL score and four domains’ scores of physical health, psychological health, social relationship and environmental QOL. The results showed that the highest mean score was social relationship domain 67.07 (18.87), followed by overall QOL 65.10 (17.92), environmental QOL domain 64.88 (12.83), psychological health domain 60.67 (11.88) and physical health domain 58.23 (11.00). Variables such as unemployment, having chronic diseases and mental distress were found to lower the QOL score.