Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 506 in total

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  1. Nik Madihah Nik Azis, Khamiza Zainol Abidin
    MyJurnal
    Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practice behaviours of primary healthcare professionals in
    government Maternal and Child Healthcare Clinics (MCHC) on the association between oral health and pregnancy
    outcomes namely pre-term and/or low birth weight (PT/LBW) infants and to identify the barriers of utilisation of
    oral healthcare services by pregnant mothers. Questionnaires were distributed to government healthcare
    professionals working at all seven government MCHC in the Manjung District, Malaysia. 136 out of 158 questionnaires
    were returned completed yielding a 92% response rate. The questionnaire covers respondents characteristics,
    attitude and practice behaviours related to oral health and barriers faced when referring pregnant mothers to the
    dental clinic. 65% of respondents noticed dental/ gum problems in the pregnant mothers that they encountered.
    The two most frequent response for outcome of delivery linked to gum/ dental problems were premature delivery
    (49%) responses and low birth weight (27%). Although 95% of the respondents believed that regular dental check-ups
    is compulsory for pregnant mothers, only 69% regularly refer pregnant mothers for dental check-ups. There was a
    significance between healthcare professionals that receive continuing dental education and their referrals of
    antenatal mothers for dental check-ups .
  2. Lin, Lua Pei, Noor Salihah Zakaria, Nik Mazlan
    MyJurnal
    A concern in breast cancer involves changes in weight which may adversely affect the prognosis of patients. This
    study intended to evaluate weight changed uring chemotherapy and its association with prognostic outcome
    measured as event-free survival (EFS)among breast cancer patients. A total of63 women diagnosed with breast cancer
    and have been treated by anthracycline-based chemotherapy between 2005 and 2011were included.A weight change
    (WC) was calculated based on relative percentage of weight changes from baseline to post-chemotherapy and
    categorized into either weight change (WC >5%) or stable (±5% WC).Survival probabilities were estimated using the
    Kaplan-Meier (SPSS 20). Upon treatment completion, 42.9% of the women experienced weight changes. A small
    weight reduction was observed (61.1 ± 11.6kg to 60.2 ± 11.9kg; -0.8 ± 4.0kg; p=0.106). The median EFS of women who
    experienced weight change was shorter (median 61.0 months) compared to those who maintained their weight
    (median 89.0 months) (p=0.044). In this study, weight changes during breast cancer chemotherapy were associated
    with poorer prognosis in comparison to women who maintained their weight.
  3. Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Dastan, Ilker, Dilmac, Elife, Kahveci, Rabia, Tutuncu, Tanju, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is patient classification system designed to produce limited number of classes
    which are relatively similar in terms of resource consumption and clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to
    assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Turkish health care providers toward DRG system
    implemented in Turkey.A total of 238 healthcare providers were randomly selected from two urbanand one rural hospital
    in Turkey.A questionnaire was used for data collection; contacting 32 items (10 items about knowledge, 12 items about
    attitude and 10 items about the practice) and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed
    using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression.In this study,only one third of healthcare providers showed good
    knowledge (35.7%) and good practice (37.4%) about DRG system,compared to 54.2% of them showed good attitude.There
    was significant difference between age, gender, occupation groups and whether the respondents have attended a
    workshop for DRG system in terms of KAP (p > 0.05).These results indicated the need for further actions to implement
    DRG system in terms of creation of suitable environment and increasing awareness among healthcare providers,
    especially male, medical doctors, nurses, elderly, and those who have never attended a workshop, in addition to regular
    review to ensure the program would reach its targets.
  4. Siti Khuzaimah Ahmad Sharoni, Halimaton Duriah Yunus
    MyJurnal
    Patients with chronic heart failure suffer from undesirable effects in their daily activities. Effective self-care management in conjunction with social support gives improved the wellbeing of patients with chronic heart failure. This study determines social support and self-care management among patients with chronic heart failure. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Cardiology Clinic in Hospital Serdang, Selangor from April 2014 to June 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, MOS Social Survey and Self-Care Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) was distributed to a total of 113 respondents. The results show moderately high level of social support (3.51±0.89) and level of self-care management (160.49±44.39). For instance, social support and self-care management were not statistically significant with the demographic characteristics (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between social support and self-care management (r=0.263, p<0.05) and the findings suggest that social support should be considered a predictor in self-care management of patients with chronic heart failure.
    Keywords: social support, self-care management, patient(s), chronic heart failure

    Study site: Cardiology Clinic in Hospital Serdang, Selango
  5. Noor A, Ismail NH
    MyJurnal
    The prevalence of occupational stress among academician is increasing in developed and developing countries. The job is not only to teach, but also involve in doing research, publications, consultation and administrative work. This study aims to assess the prevalence of occupational stress among academic staff in a research university and to investigate the association and correlation between stress and job factors which are career development, research, teaching and interpersonal relationship. One research university in Malaysia was selected randomly. A cross-sectional study was conducted and the respondents were recruited by using a randomized stratified sampling method. A total of 380 self-administered and validated Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and Stress Sources Questionnaires (SSQ) were distributed among academic staff between March to May 2012. The statistical analyses used were χ2, independent–t test and Pearson Correlation. Response rate was 81.1%. Stress prevalence was 22.1%. All socio-demographic factors showed no association with stress except ethnic group. Teaching, research and career development had significant association with stress among academic staff (p<0.05). Overall result showed career development, that include university condition and required publications for promotion were the greatest source of stress among the academicians. Occupational stress showed positive linear relationship to career development, research and teaching. There was a fair positive relationship between occupational stress and career development, research and teaching. It is recommended to organize continuous stress assessment program to identify and evaluate the current level of stress at the university level. This data could be a foundation for implementing prevention and control measures to reduce stress in the workplace.
    Keywords: academic staff, lecturer, occupational stress, research, teaching, career development, interpersonal relationship, research university, job stress
  6. Aniza, I, Nurmawati, A, Hanizah, Y, Ahmad Taufik, J
    MyJurnal
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abdominal obesity, smoking and psychosocial stress. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients have never achieved adequate control of CVD risk factors despite them being identified. The aims of this study were to measure the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and to determine its associated factors. A cross sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Malaysia from March 2011 to November 2011 on 1489 respondents aged 18 and above who were selected via convenient sampling. The survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview using a standardized self administered questionnaire. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease identified was 72 cases (4.8%). Overall, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors were predominant compared to non modifiable, with abdominal obesity (51.2%) hypertension (39.5%) and psychosocial stress (33.8%) being among the highest. However, the prevalence of other modifiable risk factors was relatively low with smoking (25.2%), and diabetes mellitus (10.9%) respectively. Respondent with diabetes mellitus and hypertension were 4 times more likely to have cardiovascular disease and those who are obese had associated 2.5risks towards cardiovascular disease. Therefore, community health intervention measures should be mobilized,specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors.
  7. Rahimi, Azam, Maimaiti, Namaitijiang, Rahimi, Aqdas, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Saperi Sulong
    MyJurnal
    Realizing the huge potential of e-learning in casemix education and since there was no e-learning program on casemix
    and clinical coding available globally. International Centre for Case-mix and Clinical Coding (ITCC) proposed to establish
    a universal case-mix education programs through providing an e-learning program (ELP) for case-mix and clinical coding
    and evaluate its success. The aim of this study is to describe the process of development of e-learning program for
    casemix system and clinical coding. The introduction of course about casemix and clinical coding was redesigned for elearning
    program by applying ADDIE model (refer to Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation).A
    total number of 57 learners attended to the course from around the world (40 different countries). The mean age of
    subjects was 34.70±8.66 years. Regarding profession, the largest percentiles (40.4%) of e-learners were belonging to
    academic sector and healthcare sector. All of the participants felt satisfied or very satisfied with the program. There
    was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test for e-learners knowledge score at the 0.05 alpha levels. The
    findings of the evaluation of the case-mix e-learning program indicated that e-learners found the educational
    performances of the case-mix online program to be satisfactory. With the advent of modern computer networking
    systems, organizations can employ these systems to enhance learning and performance improvement of case mix system.
  8. Hasanain Faisal Ghaz, Al-abed Ali Ahmed Al-abed, TibaNezar Hasan, Zaleha Md. Is, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Saif Abdul-Majeed
    MyJurnal
    The association between nutrition and cancer in general had been a controversial issue between scientists in the last
    three decades, because some argued that there is a relationship and some nutrients can help in preventing cancer
    occurrence, although this has not been a consistent finding by other studies. Studies were identified through a
    systematic review of literature available on PubMed in between 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013. We
    included all studies that assessed nutrition or diet with occurrence or mortality of breast cancer. Out of 42 articles,
    we included 8 articles in our screening and discussion. Among these 8 studies, there were 2 case-controls, 3 cohort
    and 3 randomized control trials (RCT) studies. Although most studies reported that nutrition isassociated with
    decreased risk, some reported the contrary,whereas others reported no relation. It was demonstrated a conflict
    between the included papers in regards of the association between nutrition and breast cancer. These finding needs
    to be re-evaluated in future studies.
  9. Shariat A, Mohd Tamrin SB, Arumugam M, Danaee M, Ramasamy R
    MyJurnal
    Lower back, neck and shoulder pain are the most prevalent musculoskeletal problems affecting office workers worldwide, and they have both personal and socioeconomic consequences as well. Several hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms and the maintenance behind office work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been presented. There is some evidence, based on epidemiological studies as well as studies upon smaller groups of subjects, that individuals who sit and work for a long time not only show cognitive impairment at the workplace, but also suffer from poorer and fragmented daytime sleep, in addition to increased risks of developing various psychological, physiological and medical impairments and musculoskeletal disorders. The related physical mechanisms behind musculoskeletal disorders are discussed in the context of new findings. The main causes, as well as varying levels in severity of musculoskeletal disorders,not to mentionthe link between such disorders in the neck, shoulder and lower back regions and physical activity among office workers are also stated. The main objective of this review paper is to conduct a systematic review to identify musculoskeletal disorders and how these disorders are
    correlated with physical activity among office workers. The results of this review indicate that the musculoskeletal disorder is a critical issue among office workers and the main cause is related to the absence of physical activity as well as the subjects’ sedentary lifestyle. As a practical message, regular physical activity can be effective in the prevention and decrease of physical discomfort among office workers who suffer from musculoskeletal pain.
  10. Rajamoorth, Yogambigai, Niazlin Mohd Taib, Khalid Abdul Rahim, Munusamy, Subramaniam
    MyJurnal
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an upcoming public health problem in Malaysia. This study analysed the
    trend of Hepatitis B (HB) cases from 2003 to 2012 and project the cases for an 18-year period (2013–2030).
    Based on the national data of annual reported cases and the Malaysian population projections (2010–2040),
    trend/regression lines were fitted to analyse the trend and estimated HB incidence. The number of HB
    cases decreased for six consecutive years and began to increase from 2010 onwards. During the 10-year
    period (2003–2012), the highest number of HB cases was reported in Sabah, followed by Pahang and
    Wilayah Persekutuan; the lowest was reported in Perlis. The exponential curve shows a decrease of HB
    cases by an average of 6.3%. However, the polynomial curve shows fluctuations in the trend, with a higher
    degree of R-square (0.8655). Most states appear to be at moderate vulnerability to HBV infection (Kedah,
    Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu, Sabah, and Sarawak), except for Melaka, Wilayah Persekutuan, and
    Selangor, which were at high risk of HB incidences. Overall, the estimated HB cases indicate that the
    number of cases and the incidence rates will increase in the future in all states, except for Penang. As the
    estimated HB cases and incidence rates show an increasing pattern, the government should strengthen
    their strategies in the management of HB and take preventive measures such as educating the public
    through awareness programmes, conducting compulsory blood screening, and sustaining the Expanded
    Programme on Immunization effectively.
  11. Padmanathan, Vinothini, Baharrudin Omar, Joseph, Leonard
    MyJurnal
    This cross sectional study investigated the test –retest reliability of the Malay Version Job Content
    Questionnaire (M- JCQ) among electricity linemen. The M-JCQquestionnaire was administered to 10
    electricity linemen working in private sub-contract company. The data were collected at two occasions
    with one week interval of time between each sessions. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland
    Altman plot were used to analyze the reliability of the M-JCQ. The ICC for the ‘psychological demand’,
    ‘decision latitude’, ‘work related social support’ and ‘job insecurity’ scale were 0.96, 0.52, 0.99 and 0.55
    respectively. The Bland Altman plot indicated that the tests and retest score for all the four scales had an
    acceptable agreement. These findings indicated that the M- JCQ is reliable and consistent for assessing
    work related psychosocial risk factors among electricity linemen.
  12. Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Nor MaizuraYusoff, Anita Abd Rahman, Dayana Hazwani, M.S.N., Mansour A. Balkhyour
    MyJurnal
    The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of hand-arm vibration (HAVS) among the automobile
    assembly workers and the associated risks. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of
    HAVS and also ascertain the association between HAVS and reduction in VPT among workers using vibration hand held
    tool in automobile industry. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome
    (HAVS) among vibrating hand held tool exposed workers. A cross sectional study design using structured
    questionnaire and invasive measurement of vibrotactile perception threshold (VPT) at the fingertips was conducted
    in one of the automobile company in Klang Valley. All the respondents were hand arm vibration exposed workers. A
    total 109 assembly line workers with at least one year job tenure participated in this study. The finding revealed
    that 27.5% of workers reported HAVS through questionnaire. This study consisted of 109 respondents. All of them
    were male. The mean age was 32.9 years. The mean daily vibration exposure for 8-hours was 1.41m/s2. There was
    11% of the tools measured were above the Action Level recommended by European Union Directive 2002. The overall
    prevalence of HAVS based on reported symptom through questionnaire was 27.5%. None of the respondent reported
    any whiteness at their fingers due to exposure to vibration. However, 36.7% of the respondent reported tingling
    sensation and 57.8 % reported the feeling of numbness in their hands. Only 10.1% claim that the pain was
    persistence. Since this study was done among exposed workers without control group, the thresholds were measured
    by comparing the observed VPT with the VPT of healthy population provided by ISO 13091-2. The result showed that
    98.2% of the respondent in this study having positive threshold which indicate the percentage of respondent that
    having deterioration in finger tactile perception. The positive threshold from comparison above showed that the
    respondent of this study was affected with the vibration exposure. The value proven that the exposure has caused
    the deterioration of tactile sensitivity in 98.2% of respondent in this study which showed by having positive threshold
    compared to healthy population. The result also showed that there was a significant correlation between daily
    vibration exposure A (8) and VPT at both frequency tested which was 31.5Hz (r = 0.417, p = 0.002) and 125Hz (r =
    0.480, p = 0.001). Even though the mean daily vibration exposure for 8-hours was low and below the recommended
    level, the workers still exposed to the effect of hand arm vibration.
  13. Nazlin, H.A., Siti Zawiah, M.D.
    MyJurnal
    This study focuses on the application of the Malaysian Driving Behaviour Questionnaire(DBQ). The aim of this study is
    to investigate and analyse the significant driving behaviour of the ageing Malaysian automobile drivers. The sets of
    questionnaire was completed by a total number of 102 ageing drivers consists of 58 males (56.86%) and 44 females
    (43.14%). The age of respondents ranges from 50 to 75 years (M = 57.21) and (SD = 5.60). The DBQ contains 12 items
    of demographic questions and 41 items measuring driving behaviour in traffic. The driving behaviours were classified
    into four factors which are driving distractions, violations, errors and lapses. The most significant correlation
    coefficient is between age and distractions (r = 0.456, p
  14. Mohd Razif Shahril, Suhaina Sulaiman, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa, Sharifah Noor Akmal
    MyJurnal
    Vitamin A, C and E intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been
    inconsistent and limited to developed countries with higher cancer incidence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to
    examine the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with vitamin A, C and E intake from
    dietary sources. This is a population based case-control study conducted in Malaysian population among 382 breast cancer
    patients and 382 control group. Dietary intake was assessed via an interviewer-administered food frequency
    questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad
    range of potential confounders were included in analysis. The results of this study shows a significant decreased risk of
    breast cancer among premenopausal (ORQ4 to Q1=0.38, 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.55, p-trend=0.001) and postmenopausal (ORQ4 to
    Q1=0.26, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.75, p-trend=0.017) women was observed in the highest quartile of beta-carotene intake.
    Meanwhile, a higher intake of vitamin C showed significantly lowered risk only for premenopausal women (ORQ4 to
    Q1=0.13, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.32, p-trend=0.001). As a conclusion, beta-carotene intake was independently related to pre- and
    postmenopausal breast cancer risk, while vitamin C intake was associated with decreased risk among premenopausal
    women only. However, no association was observed for vitamin A especially retinol and vitamin E intake from dietary
    sources.
  15. Karimah Hanim Abd Aziz, Aniza Abd. Aziz, Halim Salleh, Nurul Jannah Ambak, Nor Hakimah Ab Rahman, Oo, San San, et al.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study was to develop a new validated questionnaire to assess the health impact of divorce on women. A
    cross sectional study was undertaken in a district in Terengganu, using a newly developed self-administered Malay
    language questionnaire comprising of six domains and 82 items. The questionnaire was constructed based on the
    literature review and discussions with experts. Exploratory factor analysis was applied in construct validity and internal
    consistency was used for reliability analysis. A total of 51 respondents were involved in this study. All the consented
    divorcees were Malays. The mean (SD) age for the divorced women was 35.8 (10.00). Majority (82.4%) of them had
    secondary education. All the final three domains demonstrated Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) of more than 0.6, significant
    Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Cronbach’s alpha of more than 0.80. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was excellent (0.920).
    The final questionnaire consisted of two domains. Factor loading for all items in each subdomains were satisfactory. The
    final functional somatic symptoms domain consisted of 6 subdomains and 19 items with factor loading from 0.402 to
    0.914. For emotional instability domain, the final items were 13 items with factor loading from 0.548 to 0.878. The
    questionnaire was valid and reliable to be used for functional somatic symptoms and emotional instability domains. It is
    useful to assess the health impact and related intervention of divorced women. A confirmatory factor analysis may
    further confirm the final model.
  16. Norhasiza Mat Jusoh, Husbani Mohd Amen Rebuan, Thwe Aun, Myat Moe, Mohaslinda Mohamad, Rohayah Husain, Abdul Rahman Esa, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Cooperative learning is one of the active learning techniques. There are three commonly recognized types of
    cooperative learning groups, namely informal cooperative learning (ICL), formal cooperative learning and
    cooperative base groups. There is no study been done on ICL which relate to radiology teaching. The results of this
    study will provide evidence to support either traditional lecture (TL) or ICL is a more suitable teaching method for
    radiology teaching. This study was aimed to compare students’ attitude and preference towards TL versus ICL in
    radiology teaching. This interventional study had been conducted among 52 third year Bachelor of Medicine and
    Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. They underwent both TL and ICL methods
    during eleven radiology lectures in classroom setting from September 2013 until July 2014. Subsequently, multiple
    items questionnaires regarding students’ attitude and preferences towards TL and ICL were administered. These
    questionnaires had undergone validation process and revealed excellent internal consistency with Cronbach’s Alpha
    of 0.90, 0.92 and 0.88 respectively. The mean total attitude score towards informal cooperative learning was (90.90)
    (SD: 11.73) significantly higher than the score for traditional lecture 85.46 (SD: 11.82) (p= 0.012). Students showed
    preference in ICL significantly in six domains. These domains were active involvement in the class, promotion of good
    rapport among classmates, getting an opportunity to help others, facilitation of understanding difficult materials,
    improvement of communication skills, opportunity for training to be a good leader and follower, and opportunity for
    enabling to participate in sharing information, making decision and problem solving. ICL method is recommended in
    radiology teaching because students demonstrated better students’ attitude and preferences in the learning sessions
    as compared to TL.
  17. Nur Syazwani, M. N., Baba, M. D., Mohd Nizam, A.R., Ezrin Hani, S., Norani, N., Shamsul Bahri, M.T., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Oil palm workers are exposed to ergonomics problems in their routine works. Although many technological advances have been developed, a large number of workers are still using manual handling tools in their daily work. A study was done to identify and solve the problems or issues of material handling effect on oil palm collectors and loaders during their daily work activities. A cross sectional study was done in an oil palm plantation in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Twenty five workers were selected randomly to participate in this study. Musculoskeletal symptoms were recorded using Modified Nordic Questionnaires and awkward postures of the workers were assessed using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Result showed that 61% of workers were exposed to high risk level and 39% to very high risk level of working posture problems. In conclusion, majority of oil palm collectors and loaders need to correct their working posture as soon as possible. The manual handling activities need to be improved with respect to correct procedure for health and safety concerns.
  18. Rosnah Mohd. Yusuff, Siti Zawiah Md. Dawal, Dian D.I. Daruis, Siti Nurani Hassan
    MyJurnal
    Ergonomics is generally to design for human use and optimizing the working and living conditions. The comfort, safety and ease of use of systems, products and machines require the principles of ergonomics to be incorporated into the design. Anthropometry is a part of ergonomics which deals with the measurement of body dimensions, its capability and limitations of the human ability. Studies have indicated that body dimensions differ for various populations, depending on ethnic group, sex and age. The measurement of physical characteristics and abilities of people provides information that is essential for the appropriate design of occupational and non- occupational environments, as well as for the design of consumer products, clothing, tools and equipment. It has been considered as the very basic core of ergonomics in an attempt to resolve the dilemma of 'fitting people to machines'. It has also been regarded as a branch of anthropology which deals with physical characteristics of the man in time and space, particularly with individual variation, ontogenesis and generic development. Knowledge about man from the point of view of physical anthropometry is very useful for the purpose of ergonomics and design. Thus it is important that an anthropometric database for each nation is developed to ensure design of products and systems are compatible with the user population. In Malaysia, many researchers have conducted anthropometric studies on various groups of people, focused on a small sample size and used for specific designs. Unfortunately, the measurements are not representatives of the population. The work has been individually based, confined to certain group of researchers in various universities and there is no concerted effort towards developing a national anthropometric database.This paper discusses some of the anthropometry work conducted in Malaysia, the problems and challenges in developing the national database, the importance of anthropometry and the roles that the government has to play in developing the database.
  19. Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Khairul Azhar Mat Daud, Ahmad Hafizi Abdul Nasir, Suriatini Ismail, Baba Md Deros
    MyJurnal
    Development of ergonomic sofa design is a design process that has the basic framework specification and type of
    material that is applied on the sofa design. This is due to human consumption that is closely related to ergonomic
    design of this specification which will affect human physical. To achieve this goal, a survey involving 30 respondents
    of sofa makers was conducted to get feedback regarding the sofa design specifications. Survey questions emphasize
    on the basic specifications and material dimensions of sofa materials used. The results of data analysis show that the
    size of basic dimensions and materials is essential in designing an ergonomic sofa. The survey is very important to
    find out the basic specifications in the development of ergonomic design through perception of sofa maker.
  20. Farah Syawani Hussin, Juliana Jalaludin
    MyJurnal
    Waste and by-products form palm oil trees are versatile and can be used as biomass fuel, but the processes of producing electricity by using low pressure boilers are causing air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine the association between PM10 and PM2.5 exposure with respiratory symptoms and lung function among children living near to palm oil mill. A cross- Sectional comparative study was carried out among school children at Dengkil and Kerling. Questionnaires adopted from ATS-DLD-78-C were distributed to the respondents’ parents. PM10 and PM2.5 was measured. Lung function of the respondents was evaluated by using Chest Graph Spirometer; results were compared with standards of lung function, by ATS (1991). There was a significant difference for Mean±SD PM10 and PM2.5 in studied and comparative area, (p
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