Osteoporosis is a global health problem both in the developed and developing countries. Patient education forms an important part in the management of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge about osteoporosis and its correlates among women aged ≥ 40 years attending an urban health centre in India and to identify their sources of information on osteoporosis. Knowledge about osteoporosis was assessed using the Osteoporosis Questionnaire (OPQ) in 243 women over 40 years of age, attending an urban health centre in the city of Mumbai located in the state of Maharashtra in western India. This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of eight months. The OPQ analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows Version 13.0. The scores were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation). The one sample-t test was used to study the differences in the mean scores between socio-demographic variables. The mean total OPQ score was 0.91 (SD ± 5; range -9 to 10; maximum possible score 20). There was a significant difference in the total OPQ scores by the level of education and family history of osteoporosis (p
Contact time was defined as the time spent by health personnel with a patient. The study was conducted for four months in 2007 to assess the contact time and to determine the appropriate contact time as perceived by patients attending clinics of various clinical disciplines as well as Out-Patient Departments and Emergency Departments at Ministry of Health Hospitals. This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on out-patients who came to the hospitals’ clinics for treatment. Information was gathered through self-administered questionnaires, distributed at twenty-one hospitals. The respondents were selected using stratified random sampling method. Out of 21,750 questionnaires distributed, 13,463 patients responded, a response rate of 61.9%. This study shows that the average contact time increases from small hospitals (8 minutes) to bigger hospitals (15 minutes). The contact time also varies between the clinics of various disciplines. Obstetrics and Gynecology (O&G) clinics and Pediatric clinics had the longest average contact time of 20 minutes and 15 minutes respectively. The percentage of patients who were satisfied with the contact time corresponded with the type of clinics and hospitals which had the longest contact time. Thus, it is suggested that clinics and hospitals, whenever possible try their best to follow the duration of contact time as perceived appropriate by the patients.
Study site: Out-Patient Departments and Emergency Departments at Ministry of Health Hospitals (21)
Family planning is one of the main pillars of safe motherhood initiatives. It is therefore a very crucial area that needs continuous strengthening and improvement in order to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality which will ultimately improve the general condition of women. Findings from the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Death (CEMD) Malaysia Report 2001 - 2005 revealed that up to 70% of the maternal deaths never practiced any form of family planning. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in Malaysia for the year 2004 was 51.7% compared to Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore which was 79%, 74% and 74% respectively. One neglected area that has never been emphasized seriously in the family planning programme in Malaysia is male participation, gender awareness and sharing of responsibility by both partners. In realizing this, efforts have been made to include men as target groups in the national family planning programme. This paper will highlight the importance of optimum gender relations and sharing of responsibility with special emphasis towards the role of husbands and male medical personnel in the effort to improve family planning activities. It will also discuss the efforts put by the Ministry of Health in order to create gender awareness and encourage male participation in family planning.
Health services are considered to be of good quality if customers’ expectations and perceptions are well balanced. Determinants confirming customers’ expectations will lead to satisfaction, while factors disconfirming it will result in customers’ dissatisfaction, reduced compliance to physicians’ treatment and deterioration in overall disease management. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out from September till October 2008 to determine population satisfaction with health services provided by the public health clinics in Selangor. A total of 3840 respondents from the urban Health Clinics (HCs) and 4768 respondents from rural HCs were selected applying multi-stage random sampling from 54 HCs in nine districts from Selangor. Self-administrated questionnaires formulated by adopting SERVQUAL method based on modified five dimensions plus four dimensions of Clinics Corporation were used . Results showed the proportion of satisfaction among the population towards services provided by the public HCs was high at 86.1%. From X2 bivariate analysis; satisfied respondents were significantly from Indian and Chinese ethnic community more than the Malays, more among the less educated, the older age category (more than 33 years old) and males’ were slightly more satisfied than females. Patients who visited HCs more than three times were more satisfied than one time visitors. Occupation, marital status and HCs urban-rural locality were not significantly associated with customers’ satisfaction level. All dimensions showed high satisfaction level especially on treatment outcome, except on health care workers (HCWs) caring and professionalism domains. Working as a team was slightly higher in the urban areas compared to rural area. Overall, the SERVQUAL score of all dimensions were higher among the urban respondents albeit not significant. Clients’ perceptions were generally higher than expectations reflecting the high satisfactions among clients at 86.1%. Much improvement needs to be put into training HCWs to be more caring and adapting a professional attitude towards clients. Clients’ satisfactions in the urban and rural HCs were almost equal and did not reflect a decrease of health services priority in the rural areas.
Increasing prevalence of chronic diseases is a major contributor for rapid rise in healthcare cost in developing countries since the last decade. It was estimated that around 54% of deaths in developing countries are due to chronic non-communicable diseases which is predicted to rise by 65% by 2030. Diabetes mellitus is among the most prevalent chronic diseases suffered by more than 180 million people worldwide. By 2030 it is estimated that around 400 million people in the world will be afflicted with diabetes. Annual deaths attributable to diabetes are probably as high as 3 million with more than 80% occur in developing countries. India, China and Indonesia are three countries in the Asian region with most number of people with diabetes. The total number of cases in these three countries is expected to increase more than double from 61 million in 2000 to 163 million in 2030. China and India will suffer cumulative GDP loss of 13.8% and 16.7% respectively, over the next ten year period. Assessing economic burden of diabetes is a challenging task for researchers because identification of direct and indirect cost of the disease is often complex since patients with diabetes also suffers from other complications and co-morbidities. In conclusion, the heavy economic burden of diabetes pose major challenges to health policy makers in developing countries to assess the current approach in managing this chronic disease. Serious efforts should be made on focusing and up-scaling activities on health promotion and prevention of diabetes so that to provide a more cost-effective solution to this condition with huge and increasing economic loss.
On 24th April 2009 the World Health Organisation (WHO) announced Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) alert phase 4 which was later raised to phase 6 on 11th June 2009. By 11th October 2009, 199 countries were affected with 399,232 laboratory confirmed cases resulting in 4735 death. In Pahang, the state and district operation rooms were activated on the 28th April and 5th May 2009 respectively to monitor surveillance, control and preventives measures carried out. This study was done to describe the situation of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Pahang from 28th April 2009 till 10th October 2009 in terms of laboratory confirmed cases and clusters reported, Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) surveillance, Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (sARI) surveillance and health education activities. During the period, 490 laboratory confirmed Influenza A (H1N1) cases were registered with 5 deaths. The age ranges from less than 1 year to 76 years with median of 16 years old. 207 ILI clusters were recorded, 139 (67.5%) were Influenza A (H1N1) clusters. For surveillance activity, 11,570 (2.2%) of outpatient attendances were ILI cases while 966 (2.0 %) of total admissions were sARI cases. There were 14,927 health education activities carried out during the period. The number of people affected by Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Pahang reached its peak in mid August 2009 and later showed a downward trend. ILI surveillance was a useful tool to detect Influenza A (H1N1) activity in Pahang.
Study site: Klinik kesihatan, outpatient clinics, hospitals, Pahang, Malaysia
Introduction: Anemia in pregnancy is still a public health problem in developing countries including Malaysia. Early screening of pregnant mothers who have risk factors of anemia could help identifying these potential anemic mothers and hence targeted for intervention.
Methodology: A cross sectional study IN 2008 was conducted among pregnant women who attended government health clinics in Johor Bahru district to assess the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy and factors associated with it using a structured questionnaire.
Result: Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy (Hb<11.0 g/dl) was 36.6% and majority in mild category (Hb 9-<11 g/dl). The associated factors of anemia in pregnancy were birth spacing, dietary intake with high iron content and iron pill consumption. Multivariate analyses revealed that iron pill intake was the most important factor influencing anemia in pregnancy.
Discussion and conclusion: Even though Johor Bahru is a big town with good health facilities, the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was quite high. Results were compared with previous studies. Emphasis on compliance to iron pills is very important in prevention and treating anemia in pregnancy
Key Words: anemia in pregnancy, birth spacing and iron pill intake
Study site: Four urban and two rural klinik kesihatan, Johor, Malaysia
Cat fleas were reported to attack human in RPR Batu Kawa, a housing area about 3 km from Kuching town, resulting in an outbreak. A total of 19 people (10 adults and 9 children) were attacked by fleas. They presented with red spots, slightly raised (swollen) and irritation of skin, mostly found on the ankles and legs. The first 4 cases were reported on 29 September 2007 and the last case was on 17 November 2007. The remaining 12 cases which represent the majority of cases reported on 4th October 2007. The study conducted based mainly on field investigation and flea sampling from animals on field at that moment to find out the causes of the disease spread. Flea samples from human and cats were found to be Ctenocephalides felis; which is the most prevalent species in the world. However, no fleas were found on dog, rabbit and rat. This is the first reported case in Kuching; the study was carried out to determine the cause and the epidemiological pattern of the disease. This is important, because cat flea might attack human especially if house owners fail to monitor their pets and practice proper sanitation method to avoid the presence of cat flea larvae at home.
Many studies on adolescent smoking have been conducted in Malaysia, but very limited information is available on smoking amongst lower secondary school male students (Forms 1 and 2). We present data from a baseline study in Kota Tinggi District, Johor on the psychosocial factors, stages of smoking acquisition and susceptibility to smoking initiation and their relationship to adolescent smoking. The study is the first wave of a 3-year longitudinal study which was conducted from March 2007 to May 2009, aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking among students in the lower secondary classes. A three stage stratified sampling was performed to obtain a sample. The Bogus Pipeline Method was employed to confirm smoking status. Prevalence of smoking was 35.5%. Smoking prevalence among students of schools located in the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) settlement areas (42.9%) was two-fold higher than in the rural and town schools combined (20.29%). Using the Fagerstrom scale, 90% of current smokers had lower addiction to nicotine. Smoking was associated with peer smoking [OR, 4.19 (95% CI, 2.57-6.82)], having a brother smoking [2.17 (1.31-3.61)], parental smoking [1.73 (1.17-2.80)] and locality where respondents attend school [1.94(1.11-3.39)]. The study indicates that, the prevalence of smoking was high in all areas especially FELDA settlement areas. Measures such as teaching of skills to resist social pressure to smoke, establishment of peer support groups and involvement of parents in anti-smoking programs are recommended to curb the high prevalence of smoking among lower secondary school students in Kota Tinggi.
This survey elucidated the perceptions and implementation 0f orthodontic Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) by all ortlmduntistc and dental officers in the Ministry of Health Mahysia (MOH). Two different set: uf xelf-administered questionnaires were targeted at first·year dental officers (FYDO), dental officcrx (DO) and administrative Senior Dental Officers (SDO) in one group and unhocluntists in another group. Only 30% responded from a total of 1,327 MOH dental officers, with no participation from three States. Majority (89%) of officers have heard of CPG: although some were unsure of their purpose and usage. About 69% have read orthodontic CPG; of whom 87% have read other MOH dental CPG:. About 78.6% found CPGs 'gaud to excellenf but 16,0% did not answer this question. Same comments received included: language was confusing, inadequate details and pictures, need improvement, irrelevant, need CPG: for other orthodontic problems, need more knowledge first and requests for mare copies. Only 27.7% used them often, 53% occasionally and 15% hardly follow CPG:. About 82% felt that they were encouraged to use CPGx in their workplace and the majority (86%) knew where they were kept especially SDC: and DO; About 90% in the orthndonzist group have received hard copies of orthodontic CPGs but the majority (76%) has not seen them on the website. Although all felt that CPG; were useful to officers and encouraged their use, only 62.5% have introduced CPGs to their officers. There was generally more awareness and usage of CPGS among SDOs compared with DOs and FY DO; The dissemination and availability of orthodontic CPG: is reasonably good. However, the implementation by mthodontists and administrative officers can be improved for better awareness, understanding and usage by dental officers, especially FYDOs.
Cancer of the cervix is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. Pap smear screening can detect precursors of cervical cancer. This paper attempts to determine the factors that influence the uptake of Pap smear screening. This was a cross sectional study with 112 Malay women recruited from a public university. A questionnaire enquiring sociademographic characteristics and health seeking behaviour based on the Health Belief Model was modified, translated and pre·tested. Testeretest reliability was also conducted. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 + 9.1 years. Majority was married and had at least secondary education. Only 62% of them had ever undergone Pap smear screening. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed women who were married or divorced (OR: 50.79, 95% C1: 4.33; 596.36), older age (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.22) or perceived higher benefits of Pap smear (OR; 4.80, 95% CI: 1.14; 20.15)
were more lilcely to have undergone Pap smear screening. Measures in reducing barriers and educating the public on the benefits of Pap smear are strongly recommended.
Whole-cell Pertussis (wcPertussis) vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids are effective in preventing clinical pertussis. The study aimed at determining the cost of managing fever and convulsions and cost of adverse events associated with wcPertussis. Parents who brought their children to health clinics and parents of children who were admitted for febrile convulsions were interviewed using structured questionnaire and the information were used to determine the cost of managing adverse events. Mean cost of managing mild fever per case was RM249, mean cost of managing high fever per case was RM1,036 and mean cost of managing convulsions was RM1,225. Total cost of managing adverse events was RM261 million for mild fever, RM66.7 million for high fever and RM1.3 million for convulsions. Costs of managing mild and high fever were less than the cost of managing convulsions. Total cost of managing mild fever was highest at RM261 million compared with RM66.7 million for high fever and RM1.3 million for convulsions. Thus, lower risk of adverse events actually contributed to higher costs of managing the adverse event.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2007 on stress and stress self management among the prisoners and wardens of a prison in Selangor. This study was conducted as part of an elective posting for second year medical students and the topic was chosen to add on to the body of knowledge on stress among prisoners and wardens. A self administered questionnaire was distributed by random sampling and the respondents consisted of 100 prisoners and 97 wardens. Majority of the prisoners did not have stress with reference to interpersonal factors such as conflict with cellmates, conflict with wardens and conflict with inmates, For interpersonal factors, majority of the prisoners experienced stress because they felt bored (78%), thought they had no bright future (63%) and they also had no visitors (61%). Stress resulted in physical effects, whereby 67% admitted that they experienced health problems and 64% experienced sleep disturbance. Emotional effects of stress experienced by the prisoners were sadness (67%), anxiousness (63%) and confusion (56%). The major spiritual effect was regret (84%) followed by feeling closer to God (78%) and feeling high spirited (59%). The major social effects experienced by
the prisoners were low self esteem (63%) and embarrassment (58%). Methods of stress self management were prayers and conduct of religious activities (87%), sharing problems with friends (78%), doing recreational activities (77%), sleeping (72%) , doing a hobby (68) and seeking help from doctors (57%). As for the wardens, with reference to interpersonal factors, high level of stress was experience with reference ta prisoners behavior (82.5%) and problems with higher authorities (83.5 %), For intrapersonal factors, sleep disturbances (64%), career problems (76.3%), financial problems (73.2%) and feeling bored (75.3%) highly contributed to stress. Wardens physical effects were 38.1% health problems and 29.9% sleep disturbances. For emotional effects, must of them were depressed (54.6%), anxious (67%), angry (63.9%), confused (64.9%), frustrated (59.8%), threatened (53.6%) and patriotic (51.5%). The spiritual effect were feeling closer to God (86.6%), feeling responsible for duties (82.5%), regret doing the job (74.2%), feeling high spirited (58.8%). For social effects, low self esteem is the highest effect experienced (68%). Wardens managed stress by praying and conducting religious activities (91.8%), recreational activities (88.7%), doing a hobby (85.6%), sleeping (74.2%), and sharing problems (68%).
A cost-utility analysis was performed desferrioxamine treatment in thalctssaemia patients at two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia in 2004. A hundred and twelve transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients were grouped according to the status of desferrioxamine; optimum and sulwptimum. Cost analysis was from a patient and hospital perspectives while Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) was the health outcome of choice. Incremental Cost·Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was also stipulated to show the difference in cost for an additional QALY if patient currently on suboptimum desferrioxamine to switch using optimum desferrioxamine. Results on cost analysis showed the mean cost of treatment for thalassaemia patients on optimum desferrioxamirie was higher than those on sub·optimum desferrioxamine; (RM14, 775.00+SDRM4,737.00 and RM10,780+RM3,655, respectively). QALYs were 19.186+6.591 and 9.859+5275 in the optimum and suboptirnum group, respectively. Costutility analysis showed the cost per QALYs in optimum desferrioxamine group was RM59,045.00 compared to RM44,665.00 in suboptimum desferrioxamine group. ICER of patients on sub-optimum desferrioxamine switching to optimum desferrioxarnine was only RM420.39. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust in the best and worst scenarios. In conclusion, although it is expensive for thalassaemia patients to use optimum desferrioxamine compared to sub-optimum desferrioxamine, the cost per QALYs gained was undoubtedly low.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine defect among children. Good diabetes management is important to give better health for both the children and the whole family. The goal of this study was to identify the level of mother involvement in children type·1 Diabetes Mellitus management, to identify factors related with mother involvement and to determine the relationships between mother
involvement and glycemic control. A cross·sectional study was carried out with 92 respondents selected by universal sampling from mothers who had diabetic children aged 5-15 years old and from medical visit appointment at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and Putrajaya Hospital (HP1). Data was obtained through medical record and self reporting questionnaire. The study shown that 58.6% mothers had high involvement and 41.4% mothers had low involvement. Mothers' education level had a significant (p=0.0Z) relationship with a level of mother involvement. Most mothers gave high involvement in diet management (64.1%) and blood glucose monitoring (52. 7%), however most mothers gave low involvement in exercise management (63.0%) and insulin injection (60.9%). Mothers involvement in four management tasks were not statistically significant (p>0,05) with glycemic control. Mothers involvement in children diabetic management was high. There was high mother involvement in children's insulin injection and dietary intake and low mother involvement in children`s blood glucose monitoring and exercise, This study abo showed that there was no significant relationship between level of mother involvement and glycemic control.
Home phototherapy treatment has been available in the Klang Valley (comprising Petaling ]aya, Kuala Lumpur; Shah Alam and Klang) since 2003. This study was conducted to create awareness of the existence of home phototherapy and its usage in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study using 1297 informed consent forms that parents had to read and sign prior to the commencement of home phototherapy. lt was found that the majority ofthe babies was males (41.2%), at or over 36 weelds gestation (97.2%), from areas in Selangor (57.4%), fully breastfed (53 %) and referred by doctors (98%). The mean age of the babies at initiation of lwme phototherapy was 6. 7 days. The mean bilirubin level at the start of home phototherapy was 243.8 umoVL and the mean bilirubin level at the end of home phototherapy 5 was 139.3 umoVL. The mean decrease in bilirubin level was 103.12 umoVL and the mean number of days of usage was 3.5 days which is a daily decrement of about 29 umoVL (29.46 + 13.8). Home phototherapy remains a viable clinical option for full term babies with physiological jaundice.
Cancer screening is an important part of any cancer control program and the success of any screening program is partly dependent on having large numbers of the high risk population availing themselves of the service. The purpose of this study was to assess the cancer screening behavior of fulbtime employed women staff of an institute of higher learning using the Health Belief Model (HBM) construct. The results showed that the rate of reported regular cancer screening behavior (Pap smear screening, breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening) were low. The rates for regular screening were 42.5% (Pap smear), 20.9% (BSE), 15.5% (CBE) and 9.4% (mammography). There were differences in the dimensions of the HBM between the women who reported regular screening and those that did not. The perceived barriers", "perceived benefits” and “motivation” dimensions were different in Pap smear screening, whereas the "confidence” dimension was different in BSE. Recommendations were made for a health education program targeting both women and men to increase uptake of cancer screening services by women.
Analysis of count event data such as mortality cases, were often modelled using Poisson regression model. Maximum likelihood procedures were used by using SAS software to estimate the model parameters of a Poisson regression model. However, the Negative Binomial distribution has been widely suggested as the alternative to the Poisson when there is proof of overdispersion phenomenon. We modelled the mortality cases as the dependent variable using Poisson and Negative Binomial regression and compare both of the models. The procedures were done in SAS by using the function PROC GENMOD. The results showed that the mortality data in Poisson regression exhibit large ratio values between deviance to degree of freedom which indicate model misspecification or overdispersion. This large ratio was found to be reduced in Negative Binomial regression. The Normal probability plot of Pearson residual confirmed that the Negative Binomial regression is a better model than Poisson regression in modelling the mortality data. The objective of this study is to compare the goodness of fit of Poisson regression model and Negative Binomial regression model in the application of air pollution epidemiologic time series study by using SAS software.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 stated that everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Equity, solidarity and social justice are understood as basic characteristics of universal access to social health protection founded on burden sharing, risk pooling, empowerment and participation. It is up to national governments and institutions to put these values into practice. The financing of social health protection can be through a mixture of taxation and contributions to public and mandated private insurance. Through risk pooling, these funds provide for equity, solidarity and affordability of services. According to International Labour Organization (ILO), ultimate objective in social health protection is to achieve universal social health protection coverage defined as effective access to affordable health care of adequate quality and financial protection. Social protection plays a vital part in reducing the vulnerability of the poor so that they can fruitfully access health and education services.
The Healthy City concept was taken by Malaysia in 1994 and Malacca State has initiated this project in late 1997 and launched in September 1998. The aim of the project is to had ways of achieving a better quality of urban life. The objective of this study was to assess the views and responses of Melaka Tengah community with regards to the existing facilities and services rendered in the district. The views will be incorporated into ideas for the policymakers and planners to develop Malacca into a healthy city. Three methods were used to collect the data. Questionnaires were given to the community of Melaka Tengah District. The respondents were selected by multistage sampling, Observation was carried out at selected public places to assess the community's practices and contribution, Ten focus group discussion were conducted consisting of health staff and public to discuss on environmental, social, physical and economic issues of Malacca. There were 3 sectors that had mean scores above 3.0 (the cut off level for being satisfed). They were health, housing and environment, ln terms of dissatisfaction, there were 4 sectors scoring below 3.0, These include domestic waste dnposal, road system, public transportation and recreational park. The community
expected the services to be improved especially in terms of cleanliness, They agreed to contribute in their own ways in developing the sectors discussed except for public transportation, wet market and food premises which were beyond their control. Observation showed that some of the community members exhibit bad behaviours that can contribute to an unhealthy city. The Melaka
Tengah community expected ejficient and quality services and they agreed to contribute in making Malacca into a Healthy City.