Indoor air quality is an essential aspect for occupational health including in a densely populated university. This study aimed to assess the indoor airborne microorganisms via biochemical and molecular approaches in five enclosed workplaces, and their resistance towards six commonly used antibiotics. Cfu/dm2/h for five enclosed workplaces was determined using settle plate technique with 1/1/1 scheme and Gram staining was performed for all pure strains isolated. Two strains with the highest count and with different morphologies were identified using biochemical test as well as 16S rRNA amplification and direct sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentration for antibiotics was carried out for these two strains. In this study, 27 microbial strains with different morphologies were obtained from all workplaces and 2 strains with the highest count were strain J in café and strain M in library, which were identified as Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus cohnii, respectively. Both of them were highly susceptible to ampicillin and tetracycline. With resistance up to 0.78 µg/mL; B. cereus was less sensitive to kanamycin and neomycin whereas S. cohnii was less sensitive to streptomycin. In conclusion, antibiotics resistant B. cereus and S. cohnii were two of the microorganisms showing the most abundance in the café and library of a Malaysian public university, respectively. This study may serve as the baseline for the prescriptions of antibiotics to airborne microbial related infections especially to the community in the university who seek for medical treatments; particularly for respiratory and digestive infections which often associated with indoor microenvironment.
Despite being effective in promoting healthy dietary behaviour, smartphone apps are scarcely available for our local communities and the majority of nutritional-related information is based on western food selections. Our new innovation aims to provide specific educational advice about recommended food intake, types, nutritional qualities and weight issues for cancer patients and survivors who suffer appetite problems and nutritional deficits. The Cancer Dietary (CanDiTM) app was developed as a convenient, flexible and attractively engaging smartphone app containing healthy tips which are uniquely tailored to the local food choices, preferences and ingredients. This helps customise users’ dietary needs besides permitting constant information up-dating. Features are broadly categorised into Healthy Eating Guide (advice from healthy eating to eating problems, weight loss prevention and increasing proteins and calories intake) and Malaysian Recipes For Cancer Patients (focusing on common Malaysian dishes, ingredients, treatment-based recipes and special diets). An additional Symptom Diary allows user’s personal profile to be recorded and stored virtually online. Its feasibility and acceptability were further tested among 30 cancer patients, family caregivers and dieticians recruited from a public hospital in Terengganu, Malaysia. Very good feasibility (> 80%) and excellent acceptability (> 90%) were reported regarding its ease of operation, suitability of language used, attractiveness, knowledge enhancement and perceived usefulness. With this scientific yet creative innovation, routine dietary habits related to cancer conditions could be easily facilitated for both patients/survivors as well as family caregivers for their independent and healthy living.
The large population of human congestion in Makkah during Hajj would promote contagious diseases. Thus, the pilgrims require health care services that are efficient, effective, and high quality. The aim of this study is to determine the type of health-related problems among Malaysian pilgrims and to identify the health care services required by them during Hajj in Makkah. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which involved 379 Malaysian pilgrims in 2013/14234H. The survey was conducted after the pilgrims completed their Hajj ritual. A total of 400 sets of questionnaires were distributed at Abraj Janadriyah Hotel, which was occupied by more than 3000 Malaysian pilgrims. The response rate for this survey was 93%. Male respondents were constituted of 49.6% and female respondents were 50.4% with the mean age 52 years old. The underlying disease among Malaysian pilgrims during Hajj was respiratory disease (77.5%). The demands for health personnel (36.1%) and quality medication (34.7%) are among the important healthcare services required by the Malaysian pilgrims in Makkah. Respiratory disease is a common disease experienced by Malaysian pilgrims in Makkah. A certain types of services such as health personnel and quality medicine are strongly demanded by the Malaysian pilgrims to overcome their health problem during Hajj. This research provides a fundamental input to the health care providers, and also benefited the Hajj management authority to improve the quality of hajj management in future.
Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country with an osteoporosis prevalence of 24.1% in 2005. Only few study reported on osteoporosis awareness. Aim of this study was to investigate the awareness and knowledge regarding osteoporosis among persons attending orthopaedic clinic at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 368 participants (male and female) aged 20 years old or older, was assessed using the Osteoporosis Questionnaire (OPQ). The mean total OPQ score was 1.7 (SD ± 3.08; range -5 to 9; maximum possible score 20). Subjects with family history of osteoporosis and high education level were found to have significantly higher OPQ scores (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) with respect to different age groups, gender, ethnicities, and menopausal status. The main source of osteoporosis knowledge was magazine/newspaper (45.9%). An overall low score indicates that new strategies to increase awareness of osteoporosis among the public is urgently required.
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of BSE among female non-medical students in UKM, Bangi. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered and validated questionnaire among 364 students. The results showed that only 37.1% performs BSE and 45% of the students have good knowledge. Age, marital status, using internet and pamphlets as source of information, personal, and family history of BC, were significantly associated with knowledge level of students. Practice of BSE was significantly associated with knowledge level. From multivariate analysis, BSE was more likely to be done among students with family history, students who using internet and pamphlet as sources of information, also among students with good knowledge. As conclusions, the practice of BSE is inadequate among the respondents in spite of most of them had heard about BSE. The results suggest the need of providing continuing educational programs to increase the knowledge level on BSE which in turn will have a positive effect on students to practice and motivate to perform BSE.
Clinical coding creates a rich database that can be used for administrative functions including planning for health service programmes and preparing budget of hospitals with appropriate use of disease and procedure classification system. Clinical coding errors may occur in the diagnoses or procedure codes. The errors can be happen at any of the digits use in the classification codes. Errors in clinical coding can give a huge implication on hospital’s income if the coding system is used for reimbursement. This study aims to determine incidence of clinical coding errors among 464 patient’s medical records (PMR). An independent senior coder was appointed to review the selected PMRs and the clinical codes. Post-audit evaluation shows that 89.4%(415/464) of the records contained at least one coding error in the assignment of diagnosis or procedure codes. Error in secondary diagnosis code was the highest comprising 81.3% (377/464) of the records. Coding errors were particularly found in O&G discipline comprising 94.8% (110/116) of the selected records. These errors caused a potential loss of RM 666,461 for the hospital. The highest pre-and post audit variance of potential income was RM 568,403 for paediatric discipline. The hospital should carry out regular monitoring of quality of clinical coding in order to prevent loss of income in the future when the reimbursement of services is linked to coding of diagnosis and procedures.
The effects of children’s exposure on high concentration of airborne pollutants at schools often associated with increased rate of absenteeism, low productivities and learning performances, and development of respiratory problems. Recent studies have found that the presence of occupants in the classroom seems to give major effect towards the elevation of concentration of airborne pollutants in indoors. In order to evaluate and further understand on the significance of occupancy factor on IAQ, this study has been designed to determine and compare the level of selected physical (particulate matter (PM)) and chemical (carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature) IAQ parameters and biological contaminants via colony forming unit (CFUm-3 ) for bacteria and fungi inside the selected classrooms during occupied and non-occupied period (first objective). The second objective is to describe the possible sources of airborne pollutants inside the classrooms at the selected primary schools around Kuantan, Pahang. Assessments of physical and chemical IAQ were done by using instruments known as DustMate Environmental Dust Detector and VelociCalc® MultiFunction Ventilation Meter 9565.The data were recorded every 30 minutes for 8 hours during schooldays and weekend at the selected sampling point in the classrooms. For microbial sampling, Surface Air System Indoor Air Quality (SAS IAQ) was used to capture the bacteria and fungi. The data obtained were compared with the established standard reference known as the Industrial Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality (2010) constructed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia. This study has found that some of the IAQ parameters in the selected classrooms were exceeding the established standards during occupied period in schooldays compared to non-occupied period during weekend. Findings of this study provide the insights for future research including the site selection of school, arrangement of the classrooms and numbers of students per class.
This review aims to profile the disease of thalassemia in Malaysia and to identify the challenges that have kept Malaysia from effectively reducing the birth rate of thalassemia patients. The success of thalassemia prevention programs in some countries have shown that more than 90% of the reduction of cases were achieved by using retrospective screening method (prenatal, premarital, retrospective counselling). However, in Malaysia any impact of the prevention program is yet to be visible, and a reduction in new births of thalassemia patients remains to be seen. The number of patients in the national thalassemia registry (www.mytalasemia.net.my) is increasing over the years from 3588 in 2008 to 4990 in 2010 and to 6624 in 2015. The provision of quality care and disease management imposes a huge economic burden on national health resources, which is why an effective prevention program is urgently needed. For Malaysia to reduce the burden of new thalassemia cases, it is vital to address gaps and limitations of the existing preventive strategies. The screening program has to be integrated into existing primary healthcare settings, promoted to every party including the higher ministry bodies and designed to adapt to the highly diverse local religious and cultural backgrounds. Through continuous support by the government, health care providers and the general public, there is hope that prevention and control of this disease may be achieved in the future.
Research examining whether psychological eating style is related to healthy or unhealthy eating patterns is required to explain the mechanisms underlying non-communicable diseases and obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether eating style predicts the nature of food consumption. This was a cross-sectional study of 588 adults (males = 231 and females = 357). Eating style (i.e. restrained, emotional, external eating) was measured using the short version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The nature of food consumption was assessed using self-reports of consumption of fruits and vegetables, sweet foods, junk food, and snacks.The results revealed that restrained eating was higher in females and overweight participants. External eating,a higher frequency of snacking,and a higher frequency of junk food consumptionwere more prevalent among the younger participants. Consistent with previous Western studies, emotional eating was found to be the main predictor of consumption of less healthful foods (sweet foods, junk food, and snacks), whereas external eatingpredicted the intake of sweet foods. The intake of fruits and vegetableswas associated with restrained eating. In light of the significant associations between eating style and the nature of food consumption, acknowledging individuals’ eating styleshas implications for tailoring effective nutritional programs that address obesity and the chronic disease epidemic.
Land filling is the most common disposal method in most parts of the world and landfill site has always been the final destination in solid waste management hierarchy. Thus, the selection of landfill site is always an essential part in the management of solid waste. Selecting an appropriate site for landfill minimizes any unwarranted ecological and socio-economic effects. Hence, landfill site selection requires a detailed analysis of the area that must be able to meet the local authority requirement and criteria. The present study presents a feasibility assessment of landfill establishment for Khomeynishahr city in Isfahan, applying a multi criteria evaluation (MCE) method using GIS technique. Information layers related to topography, soil, water table, sensitive habitats, land use and geology maps were prepared and superposed using Boolean logic in GIS environment. Essential analysis and regulation, criteria and site selection assessment showed that because of many limitations khomeynishahr city doesn’t have adequate conditions for landfill site establishment. Khomeynishahr city has a dense population and limited area and is not suitable for landfill establishment. In this case consideration of adjacent cities and finding a common landfill site between two or more cities could be a viable solution of solving this problem.
The objective of this study is to explore physician’s perception toward clinical pharmacy services and role of clinical pharmacists in governmental hospitals at Al-Qassim region. An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted. Results: 150 males and 39 females participated giving 75.5% (189 of 250) response rate. Physicians perceptions were found to be high (equal or more than 90% of frequency) in some clinical pharmacy services such as patients’ education and counselling, monitoring of patients’ responses to drug therapy including toxicity/side effects and provision of drug information to healthcare professionals. The physicians showed low perception (less than 76%) in the taking of patients’ medication history on admission, by clinical pharmacists. Conclusion: Physicians’ perception toward clinical pharmacy services and the role of clinical pharmacists was not found to be completely favourable. The reason of this mixed responses and to the accommodating feelings of clinical pharmacy services in clinical setting appear to relate to the state of infrastructure and environments of hospitals. The infrastructure and environments of hospitals need to be updated for an improved accommodation clinical pharmacy services.
Khat leaves chewing/use, which imparts amphetamine like effects on the user, is widely practiced in parts of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and among the diaspora communities from these regions. Basic clinical and epidemiological studies from different settings have reported associations of acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and cardiomyopathy, with khat chewing /use. This review aims to analyse the current evidence of the impact that khat, or its active constituent, cathinone, has on the cardiovascular system (CVS), particularly in two parameters, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Subsequently, the possible mechanism of actions of how khat impacts these cardiovascular parameters is discussed, and different studies’ findings are summarised appropriately. The analysis of literature suggests that khat could influence HR and BP by most likely causing tachycardia and hypertension and the impacts might be dose-dependent and time-dependent. However, most of the studies involved different species and study designs, and had different limitations. Additionally, the underlying mechanisms of khat effects on these CVS parameters remain unclear. Therefore, more studies are needed to further support the current evidence of the impacts that khat has on the CVS parameters of HR and BP.
A balanced dietary intake plays an important role in the prognosis of breast cancer and is one of the modifiable factors in preventing cancer recurrence. This study aims to determine the dietary intake among breast cancer survivors in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 125 breast cancer survivors, aged 37 to 72 years, with mean duration of survivorship of 6.1 ± 3.9 years were recruited from two main referral hospitals in Terengganu and Kelantan. Majority of the respondents were Malay (94.4%) with a mean BMI of 27.7 ± 5.07 kg/m², and were diagnosed with stage II cancer (66.0%). Dietary intake was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results show that the mean daily intake of energy was 1764 ± 378 kcal/day, protein was 72.38 ± 33.6 g/day (16.5% of energy), carbohydrate was 243.0 ± 62.2 g/day (55% of energy) and fat was 55.8 ± 15.6 g/day (28% of energy). Overall, breast cancer survivors in this study had an adequate daily intake of vitamins and minerals according to Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) except for dietary fibre (10.6 ± 4.2 g/day), monounsaturated fatty acids (20.7 ± 5.7 g/day), polyunsaturated fatty acids (8.0 ± 2.2 g/day), calcium (561.0 ± 257.1 mg/day), iron (18.3 ± 7.2 mg/day) and potassium (1813.4 ± 531.1 mg/day) which was lower than the recommendation. Meanwhile, intake of sodium (2592 ± 1697 mg/day), protein (80.4 ± 33.6 g/day), saturated fatty acids (26.9 ± 14.2 g/day), vitamin B2 (1.9 ± 1.1 mg/day) and vitamin C (151.1 ± 149.3 mg/day) exceeded the recommendation by 135.0%, 139.0%, 166.9%, 154.6% and 152.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary intake between cancer survivors who were diagnosed in the past five years and those who were diagnosed more than five years ago (p>0.05) except for fat (p<0.001), saturated fatty acid (p=0.006), monounsaturated fatty acid (p=0.005) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (p=0.003). As a conclusion, breast cancer survivors in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia had an adequate intake of most nutrients except for dietary fibre, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, calcium, iron and potassium which was below the recommendation and sodium, protein, saturated fatty acids, vitamin B2, vitamin C which was above the recommendation. The intakes between long-term and short-term survivors were also comparable showing sustained dietary intake throughout survivorship.
The main objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with blood cholesterol level among staff in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The study was a cross-sectional. One-hundred staff between 23 and 59 years of age were recruited in this study using convenient sampling at USM Health Campus. A questionnaire which includes sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and red meat intake was used in the study. Anthropometric and biochemical assessment were measured. Blood cholesterol level was divided into two categories which were known as healthy range (<5.2mmol/L) and slight risk/high risk range (≥5.2mmol/L). The gender distribution of respondents for this study comprised of 40 male and 60 female. The age group (18 to 39) years and (40 to 59) years had a total of 40.3% and 63.2% of slightly risk or high risk blood cholesterol respectively; with the significant association between age group and blood cholesterol level (χ²=4.916,p=0.027). Besides, normal BMI group had 66.7% of respondents achieved healthy blood cholesterol level whereas underweight, overweight and obese group had 39.7% achieved healthy blood cholesterol with the significant association between BMI and blood cholesterol level (χ²=7.112,p=0.008). Moreover, daily or weekly intake of red meat showed that 65.0% of total respondents had a healthier blood cholesterol level compared to 51.0% of monthly, rarely, or none red meat intake group which achieved healthy blood cholesterol level. The result also showed a significant association between red meat intake and blood cholesterol (χ²=5.229, p=0.022), which indicating less red meat consumption is linked to high level of blood cholesterol level. Therefore, further investigation and future studies are needed to gain a clearer understanding of the association between these variables and blood cholesterol level.
Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with adverse effects. However, NSAIDs are among the most popular pain killers and easily available over the counter. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NSAIDs use in Malaysian adults and among those with chronic diseases such as arthritis, kidney disease, hypertension, heart disease and asthma. It also examined the factors associated with NSAIDs use. Data from the National Health Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2011, a nation-wide survey was analysed. A total of 18231 respondents aged 18 years and above responded to this module. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between NSAIDs use and associated factors. The overall prevalence of NSAIDs use among Malaysian adults was 14.2% (95%CI 13.3-15.1). Of the respondents, 4.2% (95%CI 3.8-4.7) took NSAIDs once daily. NSAIDs use was highly associated with those who were ever-told to have arthritis (aOR: 3.03; 95%CI 2.60-3.52) and have difficulty of performing daily activities or work (aOR: 2.06; 95%CI 1.86-2.28). Those who were ever-told to have kidney disease (aOR: 2.36; 95%CI 1.74-3.20), ever-told to have asthma (aOR: 1.36; 95%CI 1.17-1.58), ever-told to have heart disease (aOR: 1.34; 95%CI 1.08-1.65), known hypertension (aOR: 1.22; 95%CI 1.08-1.37) also were associated with NSAIDs use. By socio-demographic profiles, NSAIDs use was positively associated with those who have government benefit scheme or private health insurance (aOR: 1.44; 95%CI 1.31-1.58), higher education level (aOR: 1.35; 95%CI 1.20-1.51), higher household income (aOR: 1.26; 95%CI 1.11-1.44, aOR: 1.12; 95%CI 1.02-1.24), currently working (aOR: 1.25; 95%CI 1.13-1.39) and female (aOR: 1.17; 95%CI 1.07-1.28). NSAIDs use was less likely among those aged 60 years and above (aOR: 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.97), Chinese (aOR: 0.41; 95% CI 0.36-0.47) and ‘Others’ ethnicity (aOR: 0.82; 95% CI 0.67-0.99) compared to Malay ethnicity. NSAIDs use is prevalent in Malaysian adults and associated with co-morbidities and higher socio-demographic status, thus appropriate awareness should be promoted and highlighted in the community.
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
Prevention of needle stick injuries (NSI) remained a challenge to the health care workers throughout the world. In Malaysia, efforts to prevent NSI among health care workers has been one ofthe emphases as these injuries may cause serious and potential fatal infections such as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. This retrospective cohort study was done to determine factors related to prevalence of NSI among health care workers in government health facilities in Negeri Sembilan that were reported from 2001 until 2003. There were 101 cases of NSI reported affecting various categories of health staff and also paramedical trainees and medical students. The NSI occurs mostly in females (72.35%), age 30 years or less (73.2%), and trainees of medical or paramedical courses (45.4%). Other characteristics found are as follows: cases had attended SP courses (60.4%) , had less than 5 years in service (78.1%) and mostly never had NSI before (93.1%), However 84.2% of N SI among the respondents that have good and very good knowledge levels on NSI prevention. It is recommended that follow-up or audit on the practice of the Standard Precautions (SP) should be implemented following the training of staff. It is also important that medical trainees or paramedical students be adequately trained on SP before entering the clinical environment.
Pre-pregnancy Clinic (PPC) services is one the plausible efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. However, various issues still need to be addressed for improvement of the services. Considering this view, an attempt was made to explore the barriers, strength and weakness of current practice of pre-pregnancy clinic services in Sarawak, since the programme has been implemented in this state from the year 2011. This cross-sectional study was conducted at nine selected health care facilities throughout Sarawak. A multistage sampling procedure was adapted to select the health care facilities. An unstructured open-ended questionnaire was administered to get the in-depth perceived views and current practice of pre-pregnancy clinic services. A total of 322 health care providers from nine selected health care facilities gave their feedback. In the present paper, a qualitative analysis was done for the openended questions to get in-depth views of barriers, strength and weakness of pre-pregnancy clinic services. The results of the study were narrated in textual form and a thematic analysis was done manually. The identified themes for perceived barriers to the provision of pre-pregnancy care were perception, attitude and acceptance of PPC services, socio-economic issues, services and client factors. The perceived weaknesses of the services are listed under two main themes: working environment and service factors, while, the strength of services produced three thematic areas which are preparation for pregnancy, prevention of mortality and morbidity and comprehensive services. Though prepregnancy services are beneficial for society wellbeing, various issues still need to be considered for the improvement of the quality of services. Lack of awareness, no ministerial guidelines or Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and knowledge pertaining to the services were few of the main areas which need to be pondered upon. Promotional activities and campaigns should be geared up ensuring availability the services to the general population.
Accidental poisoning in children is a preventable condition. It is a problem mainly in children aged 1 to 4 years. This is a descriptive study of accidental poisoning in children below 12 years old admitted to Hospital Seremban from October 15, 1994 to October 14, 1995. A major cause of household accidental poisoning was kerosene ingestion (25%) followed by ingestion of medications (22%), liniment methyl salicylate (12 %), mothballs (12%) and hypochlorinate solution (9%). There was a higher incidence of poisoning in males (50.8%), among Indians (41.2%) and in children from lower social classes (67%). A greater proportion of the accident occurred when the child was taken care by the parents (53 %) and in the house (80%). Most of the poison was ingested from its original package (81%). The immediate action taken was sending the child to the hospital (75%) without carrying out other actions such as washing the child’s mouth. The delay of sending the child to hospital was due to husband not at home (57%). Most of the cases (72.1 %) were discharged well within 1-2 days following admission.
The maternal health status of Orang Asli women in Malaysia was noted to be lower as compared to other groups of population in the country. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on antenatal care, which is a vital component of maternal health among the Orang Asli women in three Orang Asli villages in Jempol District, Negeri Sembilan. All women aged between 15 to 49 years old who had at least one antenatal experience were interviewed using a structured, pretested questionnaire. A total of 104 women were interviewed. Among them, 92.3% admitted attending antenatal clinic during their previous pregnancies while only 48.1% came early for their first check-up. About 70% of the women had history of home delivery and 44.2% had experienced at least one high risk pregnancy before. Study revealed that 44.2% (95% CI, 34.7 – 53.7%) of the women have good knowledge regarding antenatal care while 53.8% (95% CI, 44.3 – 63.1%) of them noted to have positive attitude regarding antenatal care. However, result showed that the level of knowledge regarding the importance of early antenatal care, screening test and complications of diabetes and hypertension in pregnancy were poor. In conclusion, the rate of home delivery and late antenatal booking was still high among the Orang Asli women and it is significantly associated with their attitude regarding antenatal care. These findings can be used to plan a customized health intervention program aiming to improve the maternal health practices and eventually improve the health status of the Orang Asli women
Study site: Orang Asli village, Jempol, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
HIV/AIDS is a global issue and the fourth biggest killer worldwide. Report from Ministry Of Health Malaysia showed factory workers are among the social group that are mostly infected (10.4%). A cross~sectional study was carried out to determine the socio-demographic factor and its relationship with knowledge, attitude and HIV-related risk behavior among factory workers in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and MaIacca. This study involved 3300 factory workers selected randomly and were given self-guided questionnaire. With response rate about 95.4% (3148), the level of knowledge was high (97.3%) and the attitude was positive (81 %). However there was still an amount of fear towards HIV/AlDS patient. Logistic regression showed significant difference (p<0.05) between level of knowledge and ethnic group, income and level of education and between attitude and income and level of knowledge. About 27.7% of respondents smoked cigarette. 4.2% involved with drugs of which 0.7% administered intravenously, 2.3% were homosexuals, 2.5% were bisexuals and 3.1% were hererosexuals. HIV/AIDS prevention and control intervention should take into consideration the local socio-cultural factors and commitment from the top level management in the factory·