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  1. Cohen A, Jeyaindran S, Kim JY, Park K, Sompradeekul S, Tambunan KL, et al.
    Thromb. Res., 2015 Aug;136(2):196-207.
    PMID: 26139085 DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2015.05.024
    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the principal preventable cause of in-hospital deaths. Prevalence of PE in Asians is uncertain but undoubtedly underestimated. Asians and Caucasians have similar non-genetic risk factors for PE, and there is mounting evidence that PE affects Asians much more commonly than previously supposed; incidence, especially among high-risk patients, may approach that in Caucasians. Furthermore, PE incidence in Asia is increasing, due to both increased ascertainment, and also population ageing and growing numbers of patients with predisposing risk factors. Despite being warranted, thromboprophylaxis for high-risk patients is not routine in Pacific Asian countries/regions. There also appears to be scope to implement venous thromboembolism (VTE) management guidelines more assiduously. Anticoagulants, primarily heparins and warfarin, have been the mainstays of VTE management for years; however, these agents have limitations that complicate routine use. The complexity of current guidelines has been another barrier to applying evidence-based recommendations in everyday practice. Updated management approaches have considerable potential to improve outcomes. New oral anticoagulants that are easier to administer, require no, or much less, monitoring or dose-adjustment and have a favourable risk/benefit profile compared with conventional modalities, may offer an alternative with the potential to simplify VTE management. However, more information is required on practical management and the occurrence and treatment of bleeding complications. Increasing recognition of the burden of PE and new therapeutic modalities are altering the VTE management landscape in Pacific Asia. Consequently, there is a need to further raise awareness and bridge gaps between the latest evidence and clinical practice.
  2. Rabbolini DJ, Morel-Kopp MC, Chen Q, Gabrielli S, Dunlop LC, Chew LP, et al.
    J. Thromb. Haemost., 2017 Nov;15(11):2245-2258.
    PMID: 28880435 DOI: 10.1111/jth.13843
    Essentials The phenotypes of different growth factor-independent 1B (GFI1B) variants are not established. GFI1B variants produce heterogeneous clinical phenotypes dependent on the site of mutation. Mutation of the first non-DNA-binding zinc-finger causes a mild platelet and clinical phenotype. GFI1B regulates the CD34 promoter; platelet CD34 expression is an indicator of GFI1B mutation.

    SUMMARY: Background Mutation of the growth factor-independent 1B (GFI1B) fifth DNA-binding zinc-finger domain causes macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule deficiency leading to clinical bleeding. The phenotypes associated with GFI1B variants disrupting non-DNA-binding zinc-fingers remain uncharacterized. Objectives To determine the functional and phenotypic consequences of GFI1B variants disrupting non-DNA-binding zinc-finger domains. Methods The GFI1B C168F variant and a novel GFI1B c.2520 + 1_2520 + 8delGTGGGCAC splice variant were identified in four unrelated families. Phenotypic features, DNA-binding properties and transcriptional effects were determined and compared with those in individuals with a GFI1B H294 fs mutation of the fifth DNA-binding zinc-finger. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived megakaryocytes were generated to facilitate disease modeling. Results The DNA-binding GFI1B variant C168F, which is predicted to disrupt the first non-DNA-binding zinc-finger domain, is associated with macrothrombocytopenia without α-granule deficiency or bleeding symptoms. A GFI1B splice variant, c.2520 + 1_2520 + 8delGTGGGCAC, which generates a short GFI1B isoform that lacks non-DNA-binding zinc-fingers 1 and 2, is associated with increased platelet CD34 expression only, without quantitative or morphologic platelet abnormalities. GFI1B represses the CD34 promoter, and this repression is attenuated by different GFI1B zinc-finger mutations, suggesting that deregulation of CD34 expression occurs at a direct transcriptional level. Patient-specific iPSC-derived megakaryocytes phenocopy these observations. Conclusions Disruption of GFI1B non-DNA-binding zinc-finger 1 is associated with mild to moderate thrombocytopenia without α-granule deficiency or bleeding symptomatology, indicating that the site of GFI1B mutation has important phenotypic implications. Platelet CD34 expression appears to be a common feature of perturbed GFI1B function, and may have diagnostic utility.

  3. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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