Displaying all 2 publications

  1. Daood U, Yiu CKY
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):206-216.
    PMID: 30509480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transdentinal cytotoxicity and macrophage phenotype response to a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant.

    METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.

  2. Daood U, Burrow MF, Yiu CKY
    Clin Oral Investig, 2020 Feb;24(2):649-661.
    PMID: 31115692 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02928-7
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate effect of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant on cariogenic biofilm.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single- (Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus acidophilus), dual- (Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus Acidophilus), and multi-species (Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis) biofilms were grown on acid-etched dentine discs. Biofilms were incubated (120 min/37 °C) and allowed to grow for 3 days anaerobically. Discs (no treatment) served as control (group 1). Groups II, III, IV, and V were then treated with 2% chlorhexidine, and 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS (20 s). Discs were returned to well plates with 300 μL of bacterial suspension and placed in anaerobic incubator at 37 °C and biofilms redeveloped for 4 days. Confocal microscopy, Raman, CFU, and MTT assay were performed.

    RESULTS: Raman peaks show shifts at 1450 cm-1, 1453 cm-1, 1457 cm-1, 1460 cm-1, and 1462 cm-1 for control, 2% CHX, 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS groups in multi-species biofilms. There was reduction of 484 cm-1 band in 10% QAS group. CLSM revealed densely clustered green colonies in control group and red confluent QAS-treated biofilms with significantly lower log CFU for single/dual species. Metabolic activities of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased with increasing QAS exposure time.

    CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium silanes possess antimicrobial activities and inhibit growth of cariogenic biofilms.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Available data demonstrated use of QAS as potential antibacterial cavity disinfectant in adhesive dentistry. Experimental QAS can effectively eliminate caries-forming bacteria, when used inside a prepared cavity, and can definitely overcome problems associated with present available cavity disinfectants.

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