Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Siar CH, Toh CG, Romanos GE, Ng KH
    Clin Oral Investig, 2015 Jul;19(6):1353-62.
    PMID: 25411082 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-014-1362-7
    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative qualitative and quantitative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth.
  2. Yazid FB, Gnanasegaran N, Kunasekaran W, Govindasamy V, Musa S
    Clin Oral Investig, 2014 Dec;18(9):2103-12.
    PMID: 24549764 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-014-1207-4
    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy (SCD) and inflamed pulp deciduous (SCDIP) tissues. The overall hypothesis is that SCDIP possess equal immune properties with SCD and could be used as an alternative tissue source in regenerative medicine.
  3. Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Mohamad H, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    Clin Oral Investig, 2010 Oct;14(5):491-8.
    PMID: 19806371 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-009-0342-9
    The aim of the present study is to investigate nasal airway morphology in Asian adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using acoustic rhinometry (AR), principal components analysis (PCA), and 3-D finite-element analysis (FEA). One hundred eight adult Malays aged 18-65 years (mean ± SD, 33.2 ± 13.31) underwent clinical examination and limited channel polysomnography, providing 54 patients with OSA and 54 non-OSA controls. The mean minimal cross section area 1 (MCA1) and the mean minimal cross sectional area 2 (MCA2) were obtained from AR for all subjects and subjected to t tests. The OSA and control nasal airways were reconstructed in 3-D and subjected to PCA and FEA. The mean MCA1 and MCA2 using AR were found to be significantly smaller in the OSA group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Comparing the 3-D OSA and control nasal airways using PCA, the first two eigenvalues accounted for 94% of the total shape change, and statistical differences were found (p < 0.05). Similarly, comparing the nasal airways using FEA, the 3-D mean OSA nasal airway was significantly narrower in the OSA group compared to the control group. Specifically, decreases in size of approx. 10-22% were found in the nasal valve/head of inferior turbinate area. In conclusion, differences in nasal airway morphology are present when comparing patients with OSA to controls. These differences need to be recognized as they can improve our understanding of the etiological basis of obstructive sleep apnea and facilitate its subsequent management.
  4. Farea M, Husein A, Halim AS, Berahim Z, Nurul AA, Mokhtar KI, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Jul;20(6):1181-91.
    PMID: 26392396 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-015-1601-6
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of epithelial rests of Malassez cells (ERM) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on proliferation, cementogenic and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED).
  5. Akram Z, Safii SH, Vaithilingam RD, Baharuddin NA, Javed F, Vohra F
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Jun;20(5):903-14.
    PMID: 27005812 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-016-1793-4
    OBJECTIVE: There is a controversy over the influence of obesity on the periodontal treatment outcome in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in the management of CP among obese and non-obese patients.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "What is the efficacy, of NSPT with respect to clinical, radiographic, biochemical, microbiological, and patient-centered outcomes in obese as compared to non-obese chronic periodontitis patients?" Databases were searched from 1977 up to and including December 2014 using relevant key indexing terms. Unpublished data, experimental studies, letters to the editor, review articles, case reports, and commentaries were excluded. Meta-analysis of three studies was performed.
    RESULTS: Five clinical studies were included. The total number of patients ranged between 30 and 260 individuals. The mean age of patients was between 42.5 and 48.8 years. In three studies, the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)) in obese and non-obese patients following NSPT was comparable. Meta-analysis of PPD and CAL among obese and non-obese subjects showed comparable outcomes (PPD P = 0.91, I (2) 67.36 %; CAL P = 0.87, I (2) 77.16 %). However, in three studies, NSPT resulted in a significantly better clinical periodontal outcome among non-obese subjects than obese subjects. The difference in the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, leptin, adiponectin, and CRP) among obese and non-obese patients following treatment for CP was inconsistent.
    CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether NSPT has a significantly higher impact on the clinical periodontal outcomes in obese patients than in non-obese patients with chronic periodontitis, given that the number of selected studies was relatively low and the reported findings were inconsistent.
    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although the effect of obesity on the outcome of NSPT still remains unclear, nevertheless clinicians are prompted to manage obesity prior to and during periodontal treatment.
    KEYWORDS: Cytokines; Inflammatory markers; Obese; Overweight; Periodontal therapy; Periodontitis
  6. Nile CJ, Apatzidou DA, Awang RA, Riggio MP, Kinane DF, Lappin DF
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Dec;20(9):2529-2537.
    PMID: 26888221 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-016-1749-8
    OBJECTIVES: The serum IL-17A:IL-17E ratio has previously been demonstrated to be a clinical marker of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the serum IL-17A:IL-17E ratio.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty chronic periodontitis patients completed this study and received periodontal treatment comprising scaling and root planing plus ultrasonic debridement. Clinical data were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks (R1) after treatment completion (full-mouth or quadrant-scaling and root planing) and 25 weeks after baseline (R2). Serum samples were taken at each time point and cytokines concentrations determined by ELISA.

    RESULTS: Following treatment, statistically significant reductions were noted in clinical parameters. However, IL-17A and IL-17E concentrations were significantly greater than baseline values before- and after-adjusting for smoking. The IL-17A:IL-17E ratio was lower at R1 and R2. Serum IL-6 and TNF levels were significantly lower at R1 only. Also exclusively at R1, serum IL-17A and IL-17E correlated positively with clinical parameters, while the IL-17A:IL-17E ratio correlated negatively with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment.

    CONCLUSION: Increased serum IL-17E and a reduced IL-17A:IL-17E ratio may be indicative and/or a consequence of periodontal therapy. Therefore, the role of IL-17E in periodontal disease progression and the healing process is worthy of further investigation.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IL-17E may be a valuable biomarker to monitor the healing process following periodontal treatment as increased IL-17E levels and a reduced IL-17A:IL-17E ratio could reflect clinical improvements post-therapy. Therefore, monitoring serum IL-17E might be useful to identify individuals who require additional periodontal treatment.

  7. Jayaraman P, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Kunasekaran W, Vasanthan P, Musa S, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Jan;20(1):109-16.
    PMID: 26048030 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-015-1497-1
    Long-term culture system is used to prevent the impediment of insufficient cells and is good for low starting materials such as dental pulp or periodontal ligament. In general, although cell viability and functionality are the most common aspects taken into consideration in culturing cells for a long term, they may not truly represent the biological state of the cells. Hence, we explored the behaviour of another important aspect which is the immune properties in long-term cultured cells.
  8. Sawant S, Gokulan R, Dongre H, Vaidya M, Chaukar D, Prabhash K, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Jan;20(1):43-56.
    PMID: 25914047 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-015-1476-6
    In the present study, we have investigated the prognostic value of known stem cell-associated molecules such as Oct4, CD44 and c-Myc in patients with oral SCC who had received post-surgery radio- and/or chemotherapy.
  9. Salahshourifar I, Vincent-Chong VK, Chang HY, Ser HL, Ramanathan A, Kallarakkal TG, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2015 Dec;19(9):2273-83.
    PMID: 25846277 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-015-1467-7
    OBJECTIVES: This study includes the direct sequencing of cornulin (CRNN) gene to elucidate the possible mechanism of CRNN downregulation and explore the genetic imbalances at 1q21.3 across oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) samples.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In mutation screening of CRNN gene, gDNA from OSCC tissues were extracted, amplified, and followed by direct sequencing. OSCC samples were also subjected to fragment analysis on CRNN gene to investigate its microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate CRNN downregulation in OSCC samples.

    RESULTS: No pathogenic mutation was found in CRNN gene, while high frequency of allelic imbalances was found at 1q21.3 region. MSI was found more frequent (25.3 %) than LOH (9.3 %). Approximately 22.6 % of cases had high MSI which reflects higher probability of inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes. MSI showed significant association with no betel quid chewing (p = 0.003) and tongue subsite (p = 0.026). LOH was associated with ethnicity (p = 0.008) and advanced staging (p = 0.039). The LOH at 1q21.3 was identified to be as an independent prognostic marker in OSCC (HRR = 7.15 (95 % CI, 1.41-36.25), p = 0.018). Downregulation of CRNN was found among MSI-positive OSCCs and was associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.044).

    CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant correlation between LOH/MSI at 1q21.3 with clinical outcomes and that downregulation of CRNN gene could be considered as a prognostic marker of OSCC.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Insights of the downregulation mode of CRNN gene lays the basis of drug development on this gene as well as revealing its prognostic value.

  10. Nizam A, Naing L, Mokhtar N
    Clin Oral Investig, 2003 Dec;7(4):222-5.
    PMID: 14648258
    The aim of this study was to determine the age and sequence of eruption of permanent teeth, as well as gender differences, in children and adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. Cross-sectional data on permanent teeth eruption were collected by examining pre-school, primary and secondary school children of 5-17 years of age. The subjects were drawn by multistage random sampling from the school registers. There were 2,382 subjects in the sample, 1,062 boys and 1,320 girls. The data were subjected to probit regression analysis. The mean age of eruption of lower first molar was 6.0 (95%CI: 5.8, 6.2) years. The median age of eruption of each tooth was earlier in girls than in boys. Although the range of years during which the permanent teeth erupted was similar in both sexes, i.e. 6-12 years, the sequence of the tooth eruption differed. All mandibular teeth, with the exception of first and second premolars in both males and females, tended to erupt earlier than their maxillary counterparts. The findings seem to correspond to earlier studies done in the other parts of the world.
  11. Bindal P, Gnanasegaran N, Bindal U, Haque N, Ramasamy TS, Chai WL, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2019 Oct;23(10):3821-3831.
    PMID: 30687907 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02811-5
    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine the suitable concentrations of human platelet lysate (HPL) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for maintaining the in vitro proliferative and angiogenic potential of inflamed dental pulp stem cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflamed dental pulp-derived stem cells (iDPSCs) were treated with different concentrations of HPL and PRP (10% and 20%) followed by determination of viability using Alamar Blue assay. Expression of angiogenesis-, adhesion-, and inflammation-regulating genes was also analyzed using RT-qPCR array. Furthermore, expression of growth factors at protein level in the cell culture microenvironment was measured using multiplex assay.

    RESULTS: Viability of iDPSCs was significantly (p 

  12. Marimuthu D, Han KM, Mohamad MSF, Azman M
    Clin Oral Investig, 2021 May;25(5):3105-3115.
    PMID: 33175253 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03634-5
    OBJECTIVES: Xerostomia is a prevalent sequelae among nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) survivors; yet, effective treatment protocols have been elusive. This study was a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare the effects of saliva substitute mouthwash in nasopharyngeal cancer survivors with xerostomia, between two treatment arms, conducted in a tertiary center.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study measured the effects within 4 weeks in relation to summated xerostomia inventory (SXI) and unstimulated whole saliva (UWS). Patients randomized into the interventional arm were prescribed an immunologically active saliva substitute (IASS), while patients in the control arm were prescribed a non-immunologically active mouthwash as placebo.

    RESULTS: The study population consisted of 94 patients. There was a significant difference in SXI difference (p < 0.0001) and UWS difference (p < 0.0001) between control and interventional arms. No harmful side effects associated with the use of either mouthwash encountered throughout the study duration.

    CONCLUSION: IASS mouthwash significantly reduces subjective xerostomia scores measured using SXI and improves objective measurement of salivary flow using UWS among nasopharyngeal cancer survivors with xerostomia.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IASS is significantly more effective in improving subjective and objective xerostomia measurements compared to non-immunologically active mouthwash. Additionally, this treatment is very safe, with superior side effect profiles.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04491435.

  13. Yusof NAM, Noor E, Reduwan NH, Yusof MYPM
    Clin Oral Investig, 2021 Mar;25(3):923-932.
    PMID: 32535703 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03380-8
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), periapical radiograph, and intrasurgical linear measurements in the assessment of molars with furcation defects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This parallel, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) consisted of 22 periodontitis patients who had molar with advanced furcation involvement (FI). All patients followed the same inclusion criteria and were treated following the same protocol, except for radiographic evaluation (CBCT vs. periapical). This study proposed and evaluated five parameters that represent the extent and severity of furcation defects in molars teeth, including CEJ-BD (clinical attachment loss), BL-H (depth), BL-V (height), RT (root trunk), and FW (width).

    RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between CBCT and intrasurgical linear measurements for any clinical parameter (p > 0.05). However, there were statistically significant differences in BL-V measurements (p 

  14. Lee YH, Baharuddin NA, Chan SW, Rahman MT, Bartold PM, Sockalingam S, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2021 Mar;25(3):1441-1450.
    PMID: 32656595 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03452-9
    OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that citrullination and carbamylation occur in the inflamed periodontium and could be the plausible mechanisms for the generation of antigens involved in the development and progression of RA. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and location of citrullinated and carbamylated proteins in the gingival tissues and compare their abundance in periodontitis (PD) patients with or without RA.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gingival tissue samples of healthy (n = 5), PD with RA (n = 5) and PD without RA (n = 5) were collected. Specimens were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and sectioned at 4 μm. The tissue sections were analysed for the presence of citrullinated and carbamylated proteins by immunohistochemistry. Semi-quantitative analysis was performed to quantify and compare the protein abundance between groups.

    RESULTS: The number of cells containing citrullinated and carbamylated proteins with higher intensity was markedly increased in gingival tissues from PD with or without RA in comparison with healthy controls.

    CONCLUSION: Inflamed gingival tissue is a potential source of citrullinated and carbamylated proteins other than synovial tissues. The extent to which the local accumulation of these proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of RA needs further elucidation.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: If PD is a potential source of post-translationally modified proteins, untreated PD should not be taken lightly in the context of RA. Hence, addressing gingival inflammation should be viewed as an important preventive measure in the general population not only for the progression of periodontal disease but also reducing the risk of developing extra-oral comorbidities.

  15. Kamal A, Salman B, Ar NH, Samsudin AR
    Clin Oral Investig, 2021 Mar;25(3):1029-1033.
    PMID: 32562076 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03393-3
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of delivering low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of dry socket at University Dental Hospital Sharjah.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-five patients with dry socket were divided into two treatment groups. Group I dry socket patients (n = 30) received conventional treatment while group II patients (n = 15) were irradiated with LLLT at a setting of 200-mW, 6-J, continuous-wave mode using an R02 tipless handpiece (Fotona Er:YAG, Europe), on the buccal, lingual, and middle surfaces of the socket for 30 s from a delivery distance of 1 cm. Pain score and quantification of granulation tissue in the socket were recorded at 0, 4, and 7 days post-dry socket treatment.

    RESULTS: Results showed that the LLLT-irradiated group II sockets showed a much lower VAS pain score of 1-2 as early as day 4, and a richer amount of granulation tissue compared to the conventional treated group I socket. The amount and rate of granulation tissue formation in the dry socket are inversely proportional to the pain score showing significant clinical effectiveness of LLLT on promoting the healing of the dry socket, with improvement in symptoms (P = .001). Conventionally treated dry sockets take at least 7 days to match the effective healing of an LLLT-irradiated dry socket.

    CONCLUSION: LLLT irradiation influences biomodulation of dry socket healing by dampening inflammation, promoting vascularization, stimulating granulation, and controlling pain symptoms.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: LLLT may be an additional effective tool for managing dry sockets in general dental practice.

  16. Obade AY, Pandarathodiyil AK, Oo AL, Warnakulasuriya S, Ramanathan A
    Clin Oral Investig, 2021 Sep;25(9):5411-5419.
    PMID: 33629155 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-021-03849-0
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate ex vivo epithelial structure of benign disorders, dysplastic, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in comparison with the structure of normal marginal mucosa of oral biopsies. As a secondary objective, we examined the inter- and intra-observer variations of OCT measurements of two calibrated assessors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral biopsies (n = 44) were scanned using the swept source OCT (SSOCT) and grouped by pathology diagnosis to benign, dysplasia or carcinoma. Two trained and calibrated assessors scored on the five OCT variables: thickness of keratin layer (KL), epithelial layer (EL), homogeneity of lamina propria (LP), basement membrane integrity (BMI), and the degree of reflection of the epithelial layer (Ep Re). Chi-square tests and Fischer's exact method were used to compare the data.

    RESULTS: The OCT images showed breached BM status in all the OSCC samples (100%). Epithelial reflection was noted to be hyper-reflective in all the OSCC and oral dysplasia samples (100%). An increase in KL in 66.67% of the OSCC and 100% of the oral dysplasia samples was found. EL was increased in all the OSCC samples (100%) and 85.72% of the oral dysplasias. Kappa values showed that there was very good agreement (over 0.7) when scoring individual parameters between the two assessors.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed that the BM status was a key parameter in the detection of SCC and for differentiating SCC from oral dysplasia or benign disorders.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: OCT is a non-invasive and non-radioactive adjunct diagnostic tool that can provide immediate results on the structure of oral mucosa. The BM status measured ex vivo was a key parameter in the detection of SCC and for differentiating SCC from oral dysplasia or benign disorders.

  17. Al-Afifi N, Alabsi A, Kaid F, Bakri M, Ramanathan A
    Clin Oral Investig, 2019 May;23(5):2287-2301.
    PMID: 30291495 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-018-2685-6
    OBJECTIVES: In vivo study was performed to determine the chemopreventive efficacy of the DC resin methanol extract on a 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) oral cancer animal model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves administration of 4NQO solution for 8 weeks alone (cancer induction) or with Dracaena cinnabari (DC) extract at 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. DC extract administration started 1 week before exposure until 1 week after the carcinogen exposure was stopped. All rats were sacrificed after 22 weeks, and histological analysis was performed to assess any incidence of pathological changes. Immunohistochemical expressions of selected tumor marker antibodies were analyzed using an image analyzer computer system, and the expression of selected genes involved in apoptosis and proliferative mechanism related to oral cancer were evaluated using RT2-PCR.

    RESULTS: The incidence of OSCC decreased with the administration of DC extract at 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg compared to the induced cancer group. The developed tumor was also observed to be smaller when compared to the induced cancer group. The DC 1000 mg/kg group inhibits the expression of Cyclin D1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, and p53 proteins. It was observed that DC 1000 mg/kg induced apoptosis by upregulation of Bax and Casp3 genes and downregulation of Tp53, Bcl-2, Cox-2, Cyclin D1, and EGFR genes when compared to the induced cancer group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data indicated that systemic administration of the DC resin methanol extract has anticarcinogenic potency on oral carcinogenesis.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Chemoprevention with DC resin methanol extract may significantly reduce morbidity and possibly mortality from OSCC.

  18. Mallineni SK, Jayaraman J, Wong HM, King NM
    Clin Oral Investig, 2019 Jul;23(7):2987-2994.
    PMID: 30374829 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-018-2709-2
    OBJECTIVE: Development of human dentition has been used as a predictor for evaluating the growth and maturity of an individual. It is fairly identical in a specific population, but the effect of development on subjects with dental anomalies had not been fully explored, particularly on subjects with supernumerary teeth (ST). This study hence aims to evaluate the dental development of children with and without ST.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample size calculation was conducted and 320 radiographs of subjects with and without supernumerary teeth (ST) were obtained from the archives of a teaching hospital. The subjects in both groups were age and sex matched. All the subjects belong to southern Chinese ethnicity aged 2 to 14 years. The left-side dentition was scored, and dental age (DA) was estimated by obtaining scores from the southern Chinese dental reference dataset. Paired t test was used to calculate the difference between chronological age and dental age (CA-DA) for boys and girls with and without ST and further based on the number and position of ST.

    RESULTS: The difference between chronological age and dental age (CA-DA) was 0.10 years for boys and 0.19 years for girls with ST whilst 0.01 and 0.05 years for boys and girls without ST (p > 0.05). The boys with bilateral ST showed significant delay in dental development of 0.23 years (p 

  19. Othman SA, Saffai L, Wan Hassan WN
    Clin Oral Investig, 2020 Aug;24(8):2853-2866.
    PMID: 31754872 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-03150-1
    OBJECTIVES: To validate the accuracy and reproducibility of linear measurements of three-dimensional (3D) images and to compare the measurements with the direct anthropometry method on cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen linear facial measurements were derived from 16 standardized surface landmarks obtained from 37 cleft patients (20 males, 17 females; mean age 23.84 years, standard deviation ± 6.02). They were taken manually with calipers and were compared with the digitally calculated distance on the 3D images captured using the VECTRA-M5 360° Imaging System with pre-marked landmarks. Another pair of 19 linear measurements were computed on the 3D images 2 weeks apart for intra- and inter-observer agreements. Statistical analyses used were paired t test, the Bland-Altman analysis, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) index.

    RESULTS: Most of the linear measurements showed no statistically significant differences between the proposed method and direct anthropometry linear measurements. Nevertheless, bias of the 3D imaging system is present in the linear measurements of the nose width and the upper vermillion height. The measurements' mean biases were within 2 mm, but the 95% limit of agreement was more than 2 mm. Intra- and inter-observer measurements generally showed good reproducibility. Four inter-observer measurements, the upper and lower face heights, nose width, and pronasale to left alar base were clinically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: Measurements obtained from this 3D imaging system are valid and reproducible for evaluating CLP patients.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The system is suitable to be used in a clinical setting for cleft patients. However, training of the operator is strictly advisable.

  20. Daood U, Burrow MF, Yiu CKY
    Clin Oral Investig, 2020 Feb;24(2):649-661.
    PMID: 31115692 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02928-7
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate effect of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant on cariogenic biofilm.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single- (Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus acidophilus), dual- (Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus Acidophilus), and multi-species (Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis) biofilms were grown on acid-etched dentine discs. Biofilms were incubated (120 min/37 °C) and allowed to grow for 3 days anaerobically. Discs (no treatment) served as control (group 1). Groups II, III, IV, and V were then treated with 2% chlorhexidine, and 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS (20 s). Discs were returned to well plates with 300 μL of bacterial suspension and placed in anaerobic incubator at 37 °C and biofilms redeveloped for 4 days. Confocal microscopy, Raman, CFU, and MTT assay were performed.

    RESULTS: Raman peaks show shifts at 1450 cm-1, 1453 cm-1, 1457 cm-1, 1460 cm-1, and 1462 cm-1 for control, 2% CHX, 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS groups in multi-species biofilms. There was reduction of 484 cm-1 band in 10% QAS group. CLSM revealed densely clustered green colonies in control group and red confluent QAS-treated biofilms with significantly lower log CFU for single/dual species. Metabolic activities of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased with increasing QAS exposure time.

    CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium silanes possess antimicrobial activities and inhibit growth of cariogenic biofilms.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Available data demonstrated use of QAS as potential antibacterial cavity disinfectant in adhesive dentistry. Experimental QAS can effectively eliminate caries-forming bacteria, when used inside a prepared cavity, and can definitely overcome problems associated with present available cavity disinfectants.

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