Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries. Among the strains examined, 36 RAPD-types were found when amplified with primers OPA8 and OPA10. The analysis shows the majority of V. parahaemolyticus isolates originated from seafood were branched into four major clusters at 18.2%, 20.7% 34% and 3.4% similarity levels. This suggests that there is potential for a single strain to be distributed widely within a population and there also potential for multiple contaminating strains of different clonal lineages to be present within the same population. Optimum temperature (37ºC) was the highest and stable formation of biofilm. The total percentage of biofilm formation at 37ºC was 33.33% for each of weak, moderate and strong biofilm producers. Room temperature produces 61.1% of weak biofilm producer, while 13. 89% for moderate biofilm producers and produce 25% of strong biofilm. While a total of 91.67% weak biofilm producers at 4ºC and 8:33% for room temperature and no growth of strong biofilm. Upon analysis, strong biofilm was tracked from the largest group at 37°C and room temperature which produce 27.27% of strong biofilm producer respectively. Interestingly, they are derived from cockles.
Molecular typing methods have been widely applied for many purposes. In this study, such methods were adopted as DNA fingerprinting tools to determine the origin and divergence of virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains found in local seafood. Although not all strain carry virulent tdh and trh gene, increasing prevalence demands an effective fingerprinting scheme which can constantly monitor and trace the sources of such emerging food pathogens. By using ERIC-, RAPD-, and BOX-PCR methods, 33 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from local Malaysia bloody clam (Anadara granosa) and Lala (Orbicularia orbiculata) with confirmed presence of tdh and trh gene were characterised, followed by determination of clonal relatedness among virulent strains using cluster analysis and discriminatory index. This study also involved application of Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS) Method which significantly improved the specificity of strain isolation. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Mathematical Averaging (UPGMA) and Dice Coefficient shown clustering according to isolation food source, IMS level and haemolysin gene possessed. Nevertheless, different DNA fingerprinting methods generated different clustering at different similarity cut-off percentage, regardless as individual or as composite dendrograms. ERIC- and RAPD-PCR composite fingerprinting relatively shown the highest discriminatory index at following similarity cutoff percentage: 0.68 at 50%; 0.83 at 65%; and 0.93 at 75%. Discriminatory power increased with similarity cut-off percentage. However, result also suggested that BOX-PCR might be an effective fingerprinting tool, as it generated three clusters with no single-colony isolate at 70% similarity cut-off. This study not only achieved its objective to determine clonal relatedness among virulent strains from local seafood via characterisation, but also speculated the best possible combination of molecular typing methods to effectively do so.
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the most important members of Klebsiella genus in Enterobacteriacae family, which is responsible for pneumonia (the destructive lung inflammation disease). Vegetables are known as source of contamination with K. pneumonia. Raw vegetables are usually consumed in salads and other dishes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of K. pneumoniae in raw vegetables marketed in Malaysia. Two hundred commonly used salad vegetables (lettuces, parsley, cucumber, tomato and carrot) from hypermarkets and wet markets were investigated for presence of K. pneumoniae using Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR). K. pneumoniae was found to be significantly more frequent (100%) and (82.5%) in lettuce and cucumbers, respectively. K. pneumoniae contamination was lowest in carrot samples (30%). All samples were contaminated with K. pneumoniae ranging from
Salmonella has been reported to be presence both in raw and processed foods worldwide. In this study, the prevalence, quantification and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from raw vegetables or locally known as ulam such as asiatic pennywort (Centella asiatica (L) Urb), water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC), long bean (Vigna sinensis EndL), and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC) obtained from retail markets in Selangor, Malaysia were carried out. From 96 samples tested, the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 97.9%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 54.2% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 82.3% respectively. Samples were contaminated with Salmonella ranging from < 3 to 2400 MPN/g. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from the raw vegetables (ulam) were found to exhibit high resistance against ampicillin (100%), erythromycin (100%), amoxicillin/clavunic acid (81.3%), cephalothin (75%), streptomycin (50%) and ciprofloxacin (50%). All Salmonella isolates showed multi drug resistant (MDR) profile with each isolate being resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of Salmonella isolates ranged from 0.27 to 0.55 for Salmonella Enteritidis and 0.27 to 0.82 for Salmonella Typhimurium. The presence of Salmonella on raw vegetables (ulam) and high antibiotic resistance isolates indicated that raw vegetables could be contaminated and thus imposes possible health risk to local consumers.
This study aims to determine the presence of extended-spectrum (ESBL) in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from raw vegetables by genotypic and phenotypic method. Fifty-three K. pneumoniae isolates that were obtained by plating method were confirmed by PCR. Isolates obtained were screened for their resistance to selected antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for ESBL detection is basically to confirm production of ESBL, in this study two types of antibiotics used which were amoxycillin/clavulanic Acid (AMC, 30 µg) and ceftazidime (CAZ, 30 µg), The resistance were 5/53 (9.4%) and 1/53 (1.9%), respectively. However, it was interesting to observe that none of the K. pneumoniae isolates demonstrated the presence of any of the bla genes by using genotypic method except blaTEM gene has been detected in two isolates out of 53 isolates of K. pneumoniae in this research.
Foodborne diseases are mainly caused by bacterial contamination which can lead to severe diarrhea. This study aimed to detect the presence of Shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157, Escherichia coli non-O157 and virulence gene in raw vegetables. The samples were purchased from wet market and hypermarket in Selangor. The detections were carried out by using the combination methods of Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPNPCR). A total of 37(18.5%) samples were found to be contaminated by STEC. Out of these 37 isolates, four (10.8%) of the isolates were E. coli O157 while 33(89.2%) were E. coli nonO157. However, there was no E. coli O157:H7 detected in all the samples. The occurrence of Shiga toxin-Producing E. coli in edible raw vegetables samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in vegetables. Therefore, more studies are required to remove this pathogen from vegetables.