The cytological features of a rare case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver are presented. The cytology smears showed singly dispersed polygonal and spindle cells as well as loose clusters of cells held together in myxoid material. Neoplastic cells were generally large with round, oval or lobulated nuclei. The cytoplasm was variable in amount with ill-defined borders. Occasional multinucleated cells were also present. Hyaline globules were present on sections of the cell block. Immunohistochemical studies performed showed positivity for vimentin, cytokeratin and alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the tumour cells.
Respiratory symptoms in children may be associated with underlying gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). We reviewed the case notes of 20 children who presented to us from June 1993 to June 1994 with respiratory symptoms and GOR. The patients consisted of 16 Malays, two Chinese and two Indians with equal number of males and females. Their age at diagnosis was less than one year in 17 patients. The earliest age at presentation was at the third day of life. All patients had major respiratory manifestations i.e. recurrent wheezing, recurrent cough and pneumonia. In addition, three patients had stridor and six patients had apparent life threatening episodes (ALTE). Fourteen patients required ventilation because of respiratory failure. Diagnosis of GOR was based on clinical grounds supported by barium oesophagogram in seven patients and ultrasound examination in 11 patients. Eight patients were fundoplicated because of ALTE and recurrent severe bronchospasm. On follow up, 14 patients had hyperactive airways requiring inhaled bronchodilator and steroid therapy.