Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Hani AF, Kumar D, Malik AS, Walter N, Razak R, Kiflie A
    Acad Radiol, 2015 Jan;22(1):93-104.
    PMID: 25481518 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2014.08.008
    Quantitative assessment of knee articular cartilage (AC) morphology using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging requires an accurate segmentation and 3D reconstruction. However, automatic AC segmentation and 3D reconstruction from hydrogen-based MR images alone is challenging because of inhomogeneous intensities, shape irregularity, and low contrast existing in the cartilage region. Thus, the objective of this research was to provide an insight into morphologic assessment of AC using multilevel data processing of multinuclear ((23)Na and (1)H) MR knee images.
  2. Wong SC, Nawawi O, Ramli N, Abd Kadir KA
    Acad Radiol, 2012 Jun;19(6):701-7.
    PMID: 22578227 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2012.02.012
    The aim of this study was to compare conventional two-dimensional (2D) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with three-dimensional (3D) rotational DSA in the investigation of intracranial aneurysm in terms of detection, size measurement, neck diameter, neck delineation, and relationship with surrounding vessels. A further aim was to compare radiation dose, contrast volume, and procedural time between the two protocols.
  3. Seow P, Narayanan V, Romelean RJ, Wong JHD, Win MT, Chandran H, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2020 02;27(2):180-187.
    PMID: 31155487 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2019.04.015
    RATIONALE AND PURPOSE: Our study evaluated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging in- and opposed-phase (IOP) derived lipid fraction as a novel prognostic biomarker of survival outcome in glioma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 46 histologically proven glioma (WHO grades II-IV) patients using standard 3T magnetic resonance imaging brain tumor protocol and IOP sequence. Lipid fraction was derived from the IOP sequence signal-loss ratio. The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region of glioma was analyzed, using a three-group analysis approach based on volume under surface of receiver-operating characteristics to stratify the prognostic factors into three groups of low, medium, and high lipid fraction. The survival outcome was evaluated, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.

    RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the three groups (low, medium, and high lipid fraction groups) stratified by the optimal cut-off point for overall survival (OS) (p ≤ 0.01) and time to progression (p ≤ 0.01) for solid nonenhancing region. The group with high lipid fraction had five times higher risk of poor survival and earlier time to progression compared to the low lipid fraction group. The OS plot stratified by lipid fraction also had a strong correlation with OS plot stratified by WHO grade (R = 0.61, p < 0.01), implying association to underlying histopathological changes.

    CONCLUSION: The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region showed potential for prognostication of glioma. This method will be a useful adjunct in imaging protocol for treatment stratification and as a prognostic tool in glioma patients.

  4. Piersson AD, Mohamad M, Rajab F, Suppiah S
    Acad Radiol, 2021 10;28(10):1447-1463.
    PMID: 32651050 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2020.06.006
    BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that neurochemical changes measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) occur at different phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which these neurochemical changes are associated with validated AD biomarkers and/or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 is yet to be established.

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review analyzed the available evidence on (1) neurochemical changes; and (2) the relations between brain metabolite and validated cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and/or APOE in AD.

    METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and gray literature were systematically screened for studies deemed fit for the purpose of the current systematic review.

    RESULTS: Twenty four articles met the inclusion criteria. Decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), NAA/(creatine) Cr, and NAA/(myo-inositol) ml, and increased ml, ml/Cr, Cho (choline)/Cr, and ml/NAA were found in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. Increased ml is associated with increased tau levels, reduced NAA/Cr is associated with increased tau. ml/Cr is negatively correlated with Aβ42, and ml/Cr is positively correlated with t-tau. NAA and glutathione levels are reduced in APOE ε4 carriers. APOE ε4 exerts no modulatory effect on NAA/Cr. There is interaction between APOE ε4, Aβ42, and ml/Cr.

    CONCLUSION: NAA, ml, NAA/Cr, NAA/ml and ml/Cr may be potentially useful biomarkers that may highlight functional changes in the clinical stages of AD. The combinations of ml and tau, NAA/Cr and Aβ42, and NAA/Cr and tau may support the diagnostic process of differentiating MCI/AD from healthy individuals. Large, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the effect of APOE ε4 on brain metabolites.

  5. Ng WL, Omar N, Ab Mumin N, Ramli Hamid MT, Vijayananthan A, Rahmat K
    Acad Radiol, 2022 Jan;29 Suppl 1:S69-S78.
    PMID: 33926793 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2021.03.018
    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography (SWE) in differentiating between benign and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis in breast carcinoma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast lesions and axillae of 107 patients were assessed using B-mode ultrasound and SWE. Histopathology was the diagnostic gold standard.

    RESULTS: In metastatic axillary lymph nodes, qualitative SWE using color patterns had the highest area under curve (AUC) value, followed by B-mode Ultrasound (cortical thickening >3 mm) and quantitative SWE using Emax of 15.2 kPa (AUC of 81.3%, 70.1%, and 61.2%, respectively). Qualitative SWE exhibited better diagnostic performance than the other two parameters, with sensitivity of 96.0% and specificity of 56.1%. Combination of B-mode Ultrasound (using cortical thickness of >3 mm as cut-off point) and qualitative SWE (Color patterns of 2 to 4) showed sensitivity of 71.6%, specificity of 95%, PPV of 96%, NPV of 66.7%, and accuracy of 80.4%.

    CONCLUSION: Qualitative SWE assessment exhibited higher accuracy compared to quantitative values. Qualitative SWE as an adjunct to B-mode ultrasound can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of metastatic ALN in breast cancer.

  6. Ab Mumin N, Ramli Hamid MT, Wong JHD, Rahmat K, Ng KH
    Acad Radiol, 2022 Jan;29 Suppl 1:S89-S106.
    PMID: 34481705 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2021.07.017
    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality in detecting breast cancer. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the role of human extracted MRI phenotypes in classifying molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    METHODS: We performed a literature search of published articles on the application of MRI phenotypic features in invasive breast cancer molecular subtype classifications by radiologists' interpretation on Medline Complete, Pubmed, and Google scholar from 1st January 2000 to 31st March 2021. Of the 1453 literature identified, 42 fulfilled the inclusion criteria.

    RESULTS: All studies were case-controlled, retrospective study and research-based. The majority of the studies assessed the MRI features using American College of Radiology- Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BIRADS) classification and using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) kinetic features, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values, and T2 sequence. Most studies divided invasive breast cancer into 4 main subtypes, luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple-negative (TN) cancers, and used 2 readers. We present a summary of the radiologists' extracted breast MRI phenotypical features and their correlating breast cancer subtypes classifications. The characteristic features are morphology, enhancement kinetics, and T2 signal intensity. We found that the TN subtype has the most distinctive MRI features compared to the other subtypes and luminal A and B have many similar features.

    CONCLUSION: The MRI features which are predictive of each subtype are the morphology, internal enhancement features, and T2 signal intensity, predominantly between TN and the rest. Radiologists' visual interpretation of some of MRI features may offer insight into the respective invasive breast cancer molecular subtype. However, current evidence are still limited to "suggestive" features instead of a diagnostic standard.  Further research is recommended to explore this potential application, for example, by augmentation of radiologists' visual interpretation by artificial intelligence.

  7. Seow P, Hernowo AT, Narayanan V, Wong JHD, Bahuri NFA, Cham CY, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2021 12;28(12):1721-1732.
    PMID: 33023809 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2020.09.007
    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Gliomatous tumors are known to affect neural fiber integrity, either by displacement or destruction. The aim of this study is to investigate the integrity and distribution of the white matter tracts within and around the glioma regions using probabilistic fiber tracking.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two glioma patients were subjected to MRI using a standard tumor protocol with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The tumor and peritumor regions were delineated using snake model with reference to structural and diffusion MRI. A preprocessing pipeline of the structural MRI image, DTI data, and tumor regions was implemented. Tractography was performed to delineate the white matter (WM) tracts in the selected tumor regions via probabilistic fiber tracking. DTI indices were investigated through comparative mapping of WM tracts and tumor regions in low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG).

    RESULTS: Significant differences were seen in the planar tensor (Cp) in peritumor regions; mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and pure isotropic diffusion in solid-enhancing tumor regions; and fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, pure anisotropic diffusion (q), total magnitude of diffusion tensor (L), relative anisotropy, Cp and spherical tensor (Cs) in solid nonenhancing tumor regions for affected WM tracts. In most cases of HGG, the WM tracts were not completely destroyed, but found intact inside the tumor.

    DISCUSSION: Probabilistic fiber tracking revealed the existence and distribution of WM tracts inside tumor core for both LGG and HGG groups. There were more DTI indices in the solid nonenhancing tumor region, which showed significant differences between LGG and HGG.

  8. Nattabi HA, Sharif NM, Yahya N, Ahmad R, Mohamad M, Zaki FM, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2017 Oct 18.
    PMID: 29054676 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2017.09.002
    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: This study is a dedicated 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) review aimed at systematically eliciting up-to-date evidence of its clinical value in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of 2D-SWE for thyroid malignancy risk stratification published until December 2016. The retrieved titles and abstracts were screened and evaluated according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy included in Systematic Review 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Extracted 2D-SWE diagnostic performance data were meta-analyzed to assess the summary sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

    RESULTS: After stepwise review, 14 studies in which 2D-SWE was used to evaluate 2851 thyroid nodules (1092 malignant, 1759 benign) from 2139 patients were selected for the current study. Study quality on QUADAS-2 assessment was moderate to high. The summary sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 2D-SWE for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.69), 0.78 (CI: 0.76-0.80), and 0.851 (Q* = 0.85), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and positive likelihood ratio were 12.73 (CI: 8.80-18.43), 0.31 (CI: 0.22-0.44), and 3.87 (CI: 2.83-5.29), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Diagnostic performance of quantitative 2D-SWE for malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules is suboptimal with mediocre sensitivity and specificity, contrary to earlier reports of excellence.

  9. Veeramuthu V, Seow P, Narayanan V, Wong JHD, Tan LK, Hernowo AT, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2018 09;25(9):1167-1177.
    PMID: 29449141 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2018.01.005
    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique that allows for reliable assessment of microscopic changes in brain cytoarchitecture, neuronal injuries, and neurochemical changes resultant from traumatic insults. We aimed to evaluate the acute alteration of neurometabolites in complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients in comparison to control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight subjects (23 complicated mTBI [cmTBI] patients, 12 uncomplicated mTBI [umTBI] patients, and 13 controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan with additional single voxel spectroscopy sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging scans for patients were done at an average of 10 hours (standard deviation 4.26) post injury. The single voxel spectroscopy adjacent to side of injury and noninjury regions were analysed to obtain absolute concentrations and ratio relative to creatine of the neurometabolites. One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare neurometabolite concentrations of the three groups, and a correlation study was done between the neurometabolite concentration and Glasgow Coma Scale.

    RESULTS: Significant difference was found in ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr + PCr) (χ2(2) = 0.22, P 

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