OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons. Its repair is associated with donor-site morbidity and the degree of infection is inevitable when using alloplastic prosthesis with uncertain long-term durability. Thus, human adipose derived stem cells (HADSCs) can be an alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of HADSCs cultured with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interaction of auricular chondrocytes with HADSCs for new cartilage generation.
METHODS: Multi-lineages differentiation features of HADSCs were monitored by Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red, and Oil Red O staining for chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity, respectively. Further, HADSCs alone were culture in medium added with TGF-β3; and human auricular chondrocytes were interacted indirectly in the culture with and without TGF-βs for up to 21 days, respectively. Cell morphology and chondrogenesis were monitored by inverted microscope. For cell viability, Alamar Blue assay was used to measure the cell viability and the changes in gene expression of auricular chondrocyte markers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. For the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, HADSCs showed a feature of aggregation and formed a dense matrix of proteoglycans. Staining results from Alizirin Red and Oil Red O indicated the HADSCs also successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages after 21 days.
RESULTS: According to a previous study, HADSCs were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen. The results showed HADSCs test groups (cultured with TGF-β3) displayed chondrocytes-like cells morphology with typical lacunae structure compared to the control group without TGF-β3 after 2 weeks. Additionally, the HADSCs test groups increased in cell viability; an increase in expression of chondrocytes-specific genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, SOX 9 and elastin) compared to the control. This study found that human auricular chondrocytes cells and growth factor had a positive influence in inducing HADSCs chondrogenic effects, in terms of chondrogenic differentiate of feature, increase of cell viability, and up-regulated expression of chondrogenic genes.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the auditory outcome of paediatric bilateral cochlear implant in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study single centre analysis. Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP-II) scale and Speech, Spatial and Qualities (SSQ) of Hearing questionnaire were used.
RESULTS: Forty-six patients were recruited. Majority of the children (30.4%) rated 7 and 23.9% scored perfectly (9) based on the CAP-II Scale. The least performing children were rated 5 (average). Children that were implanted sequentially within 24 months showed median CAP-II scale of 7. No significant correlation seen between CAP-II and the duration interval, use and age of 1st CI (p > .05). The speech domain of SSQ-P scale showed median value of 8 indicating good speech understanding. The spatial hearing domain had median value of 7, quality of hearing domain had median of 8. Significant correlation seen in hearing in noise with the duration of use of CI (p
OBJECTIVE: To review surgical and audiological outcomes of COM patients that underwent CI.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients above 18 years old.
RESULTS: Ten patients with complete data were included. Patients were aged 24-69 years old. Tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy were performed before CI. Imaging was performed to rule out ossifications. Eight patients underwent a standard canal wall up with either cochleostomy or round window approach. One patient had additional canalplasty and tympanoplasty and another one had blind sac procedure respectively. Analysis of the hearing aided level with CI and hearing aid showed significant benefit provided by the CI (Z = 2.803, p = .005).
DISCUSSION: Creating a dry and safe ear is important prior to CI. Definite hearing improvement is seen in all our cases that helped them to become independent again in their daily life. Hearing aid usage pre-CI might not be important as the hearing aids may continue to cause discharging ears and the benefits of hearing aids in severe to profound hearing loss are very minimal.
CONCLUSIONS: Cochlear implant is safe and effective in COM patients.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of type of visual image and gender on subjective visual horizontal (SVH) perception among healthy adults.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this comparative study, 50 healthy young adults were enrolled. While in an upright body position, they were required to report their perception of horizontality for two types of visual images (solid line and arrow pattern) using a computerized SVH device.
RESULTS: The arrow pattern produced significantly bigger SVH angles than the solid line (p < .001). In contrast, no significant influence of gender was found on SVH results (p = .743), Based on the statistical outcomes, the preliminary normative data for SVH were established.
CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The arrow pattern (a more complex visual image) produced bigger SVH deviations than the simple solid line image. In contrast, the horizontality perception does not appear to be affected by gender. The preliminary normative SVH data gathered from the present study can be beneficial for clinical and future research applications.