METHODS: A full factorial design (23) was applied to study the effects of mango-pineapple ratio (x1), immersion time in sugar solution (x2), and concentration of sugar solution (x3) in the production of mango-pineapple jelly spheres using frozen reverse spherification. The responses studied were the physicochemical properties (color, total soluble solids, and texture) and sensory evaluation of mango-pineapple jelly spheres.
RESULTS: Mango-pineapple ratio had a positive effect on a* and b* while having a negative effect L* value on the jelly sphere. Total soluble solids of jelly spheres were influenced by both immersion time in sugar solution and concentration of sugar solution. Immersion time in sugar solution had a positive effect on the peak force of the compression cycle and deformation at peak load while having a negative effect on the total soluble solid of jelly spheres. On the other hand, the concentration of sugar solution had a positive effect on the sensory evaluation in terms of flavor, texture, and overall acceptability. The desirability function approach was used to optimize the factors, and an overall desirability of 0.89 for all responses was achieved with 1.28:1 mango-pineapple ratio, 30 mins immersion time in sugar solution, and 22°Brix sugar solution. A proximate analysis of the optimized mango-pineapple jelly spheres had an energy content of 73.18 kcal/100 g and showed nutrient values of 81.11% moisture, 0.10% ash, 0.46% protein, 0% fat, 0.97% total dietary fiber, and 17.35% digestible carbohydrate.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of the optimal mango-pineapple jelly sphere allows food producers to produce a dessert that is low in calories, with a good appearance and consumer acceptability.
METHODS: 1.5% (w/v) chitosan films with Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil (0% to 6% (v/v)) were produced through homogenization, the casting of a film solution in a petri dish and convection drying. The edible film was evaluated in terms of its physical (color, thickness, water vapor permeability), mechanical (puncture strength, tensile strength, elongation at break) and chemical properties (antioxidant assay, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)).
RESULTS: With an increasing concentration of Chrysanthemum morifolium in the chitosan film, the test values of physical properties such as tensile strength, puncture force, and elongation at break declined significantly. However, the thickness, water permeability, and color profile (L*, a*, b*) values of the chitosan film increased. Similarly, the scavenging effect of antioxidant assay increased (from 4.97% to 18.63%) with a rise in Chrysanthemum morifolium concentration. 2%, 3%, and 4% of Chrysanthemum morifolium in the chitosan film showed a significant inhibition zone ranging from 2.67 mm to 3.82 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, a spoilage bacterium that is commonly found in chicken and beef products. The storage and pH tests showed that 4% of Chrysanthemum morifolium in the film maintained pH level (safe to consume), and the shelf life was extended from 3 days to 5 days of meat storage.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the incorporation of 4% (v/v) Chrysanthemum morifolium extract into 1.5% (w/v) chitosan film extends the storage duration of raw meat products noticeably by reducing Staphylococcus aureus activity. Therefore, it increases the quality of the edible film as an environmentally friendly food packaging material so that it can act as a substitute for the use of plastic bags. Future studies will be conducted on improving the tensile strength of the edible film to increase the feasibility of using it in the food industry. In addition, the microstructure and surface morphology of the edible film can be further determined.
METHODS: 5'-phosphodiesterase (5'-PDE) enzyme was characterized from adzuki beans, in which the optimum pH and temperature were determined. In addition, the stability of 5'-PDE was assessed at different pH and temperature. The effects of cations and EDTA were evaluated to characterize the 5'-PDE enzymes further.
RESULTS: The alkaline 5'-phosphodiesterase has an optimum pH of 8.5. This enzyme is also thermostable, with an optimum temperature of 80°C. The stability in terms of temperature and pH was also determined, and was found to be stable in the pH range of 7.0-8.5. This enzyme was found to retain more than 80% of its activity for 4 days at 60 and 65°C. In addition, the effects of 14 different metal ions, 4 types of detergents and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on 5'-PDE were studied. Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ and Li+ activated 5'-PDE while Na+, Zn2+, Ni+, Hg+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe2+, Al3+, Ba2+ and Co2+ were inhibitory. EDTA, Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were strong inhibitors of 5'-PDE, while Tween 80 and Tween 20 were slightly inhibitory. The effects of cations and EDTA suggest that 5'-PDE from adzuki beans is a metalloenzyme.
CONCLUSIONS: Although 5'-PDE from adzuki beans has a high temperature optimum of 80°C, the enzyme is more stable at 60°C, and different cations affected the activity of the enzyme differently.
METHODS: The blends were prepared in a volume ratio of 10:90, 20:80, 40:60, and 60:40 (RBO:SO). The changes in the oxidative parameters and fatty acid composition of the samples during heating at frying temperature (170°C) were determined using analytical and instrumental methods. Oxidative alteration was also monitored by recording FTIR spectra of oil samples.
RESULTS: The increase in oxidative parameters (free fatty acid, color, specific extinctions, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid value) was greater in pure SO as compared to RBO or blend oils during heating. This indicates that the SO samples incorporated with RBO have the least degradation, while pure SO has the highest. Blending resulted in a lower level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a higher level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). During heating, the relative content of PUFA decreased and that of SFA increased. However, the presence of RBO in SO slowed down the oxidative deterioration of PUFA. In FTIR, the peak intensities in SO were markedly changed in comparison with blend oils during heating. The reduction in the formation of oxidative products in SO during thermal treatment increased as the concentration of the RBO in SO increased; however, the levels of the protective effect of RBO did not increase steadily with an increase in its concentration.
CONCLUSIONS: During thermal treatment, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and formation of secondary oxidative products as evaluated by oxidative indices, fatty acids and IR absorbances were lower in blend oils compared to pure SO. In conclusion, RBO can significantly retard the process of lipid peroxidation in SO during heating at frying temperature.
METHODS: The parameters of spray-dried 'cempedak' fruit powder under study include inlet air temperature (140-180°C) and maltodextrin (DE 10) concentrations (5-15% w/w). Response surface methodology involving 14 runs was used to assess the effects of inlet temperature and maltodextrin on the powder flow properties and reconstitution properties of the spray-dried 'cempedak' powder.
RESULTS: Out of the tested responses, only bulk density, change in cake height ratio, and water solubility index had a high coefficient of determination value. Inlet air temperature was found to be the main parameter to affect the bulk density, caking and water solubility index, when compared to maltodextrin concentration. By setting minimization of caking and maximization of water solubility index as the main determinants, the optimal parameters of 160°C inlet temperature and 15% (w/w) maltodextrin DE10 were generated, with a desirability of 0.697.
CONCLUSIONS: The powder produced under optimal conditions (160°C and 15% w/w maltodextrin) had a low bulk density (480.01 kg/m3), low caking properties (0.17 change in cake height ratio), and a high solubility index (88.69). This indicates that the powder is stable to be stored (without caking) and will have good reconstitution when added to water.
METHODS: This study compares the effects of spray drying, freeze drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying, and convection oven drying on the physicochemical properties of Bintangor orange powder, including vitamin C and total carotenoid content. The physicochemical properties analyzed for the powders were color analysis, moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, wettability, flowability, water solubility index, and bulk density.
RESULTS: Our results showed that freeze dried and convection oven dried powders retained their color so that the powder was the same as the original puree. All powders used in this showed an acceptable moisture content level, with a range of 2.11–2.31%. Spray dried and drum dried powders had the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. Moreover, spray dried powders showed the lowest value in hygroscopicity and bulk density and took the shortest time to wet the powder. The highest solubility and flowability properties were 12.99%, 0.39 g/mL, 18.39 s, 96.08%, and 19.17°, respectively. However, the freeze drying method retained the highest value for both nutritional pigments of vitamin C and total carotenoid content, 18.31 mg/g and 91.32 μg/g, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Freeze drying is the most suitable drying method with favorable powder properties compared to spray drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying and convection oven drying.
METHODS: The kedondong powder was dried using five methods: convection oven drying, vacuum drying, spray drying, drum drying and freeze drying. The physical properties, flowability and DPPH radical scavenging ability of dried kedondong powder were examined.
RESULTS: Spray-dried powder provided the significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest process yield, which was 54.93%. All the powder produced had a low moisture content (3.03 to 5.66%) and water activity (0.19–0.37). Visually, whitish and fine powders were observed on spray-dried and freeze-dried samples, while convection oven-dried and vacuum-dried powder appeared yellowish and coarse. The pH of the reconstituted powders varied from 2.71 to 2.83, where drum-dried powder was the most acidic. Spray-dried powder showed the highest wettability and shortest dissolution time, which was 172.65 s and 10.55 s, respectively. With the exception of drum-dried powder, all the dried powders were classified as non-caking powders. The bulk and tapped density of the powders ranged from 0.32 to 0.70 g/mL and 0.38 to 0.86 g/mL, respectively. Vacuum-dried powder had very good flowability, convection oven-dried and drum-dried powder had good flowability, while spray-dried and drum-dried powder had fair flowability. Antioxidant assay showed that freeze-dried powder exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 701.29 μg/mL).
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that spray-dried kedondong powder has great potential in the food industry due to its high process yield and better powder quality. Meanwhile, freeze drying best preserved the antioxidant properties of the powder, which could potentially be used as a functional ingredient as a result. This study is important for the fruit processing industry as it offers an alternative for the farmer to produce kedondong fruit powder because the fruit has a short shelf life. Converting the fruit into powder can diversify the resulting produce into different applications, such as fruit juice, beverages, jam and other food products.
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