Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 49 in total

  1. Khan MB, Lee XY, Nisar H, Ng CA, Yeap KH, Malik AS
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2015;823:227-48.
    PMID: 25381111 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10984-8_13
    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.
  2. Nisar H, Malik AS, Ullah R, Shim SO, Bawakid A, Khan MB, et al.
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2015;823:159-74.
    PMID: 25381107 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10984-8_9
    The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes.
  3. Riyadi S, Mustafa MM, Hussain A, Maskon O, Nor IF
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2011;696:461-9.
    PMID: 21431586 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7046-6_46
    Left ventricular motion estimation is very important for diagnosing cardiac abnormality. One of the popular techniques, optical flow technique, promises useful results for motion quantification. However, optical flow technique often failed to provide smooth vector field due to the complexity of cardiac motion and the presence of speckle noise. This chapter proposed a new filtering technique, called quasi-Gaussian discrete cosine transform (QGDCT)-based filter, to enhance the optical flow field for myocardial motion estimation. Even though Gaussian filter and DCT concept have been implemented in other previous researches, this filter introduces a different approach of Gaussian filter model based on high frequency properties of cosine function. The QGDCT is a customized quasi discrete Gaussian filter in which its coefficients are derived from a selected two-dimensional DCT. This filter was implemented before and after the computation of optical flow to reduce the speckle noise and to improve the flow field smoothness, respectively. The algorithm was first validated on synthetic echocardiography image that simulates a contracting myocardium motion. Subsequently, this method was also implemented on clinical echocardiography images. To evaluate the performance of the technique, several quantitative measurements such as magnitude error, angular error, and standard error of measurement are computed and analyzed. The final motion estimation results were in good agreement with the physician manual interpretation.
  4. Permanasari AE, Rambli DR, Dominic PD
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2011;696:171-9.
    PMID: 21431557 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7046-6_17
    The annual disease incident worldwide is desirable to be predicted for taking appropriate policy to prevent disease outbreak. This chapter considers the performance of different forecasting method to predict the future number of disease incidence, especially for seasonal disease. Six forecasting methods, namely linear regression, moving average, decomposition, Holt-Winter's, ARIMA, and artificial neural network (ANN), were used for disease forecasting on tuberculosis monthly data. The model derived met the requirement of time series with seasonality pattern and downward trend. The forecasting performance was compared using similar error measure in the base of the last 5 years forecast result. The findings indicate that ARIMA model was the most appropriate model since it obtained the less relatively error than the other model.
  5. Hema CR, Paulraj MP, Yaacob S, Adom AH, Nagarajan R
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2011;696:565-72.
    PMID: 21431597 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7046-6_57
    A brain machine interface (BMI) design for controlling the navigation of a power wheelchair is proposed. Real-time experiments with four able bodied subjects are carried out using the BMI-controlled wheelchair. The BMI is based on only two electrodes and operated by motor imagery of four states. A recurrent neural classifier is proposed for the classification of the four mental states. The real-time experiment results of four subjects are reported and problems emerging from asynchronous control are discussed.
  6. Sigit R, Mustafa MM, Hussain A, Maskon O, Nor IF
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2011;696:481-8.
    PMID: 21431588 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7046-6_48
    In this chapter, the computational biology of cardiac cavity images is proposed. The method uses collinear and triangle equation algorithms to detect and reconstruct the boundary of the cardiac cavity. The first step involves high boost filter to enhance the high frequency component without affecting the low frequency component. Second, the morphological and thresholding operators are applied to the image to eliminate noise and convert the image into a binary image. Next, the edge detection is performed using the negative Laplacian filter and followed by region filtering. Finally, the collinear and triangle equations are used to detect and reconstruct the more precise cavity boundary. Results obtained have proved that this technique is able to perform better segmentation and detection of the boundary of cardiac cavity from echocardiographic images.
  7. Asaduzzaman K, Reaz MB, Mohd-Yasin F, Sim KS, Hussain MS
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2010;680:593-9.
    PMID: 20865544 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5913-3_65
    Electroencephalogram (EEG) serves as an extremely valuable tool for clinicians and researchers to study the activity of the brain in a non-invasive manner. It has long been used for the diagnosis of various central nervous system disorders like seizures, epilepsy, and brain damage and for categorizing sleep stages in patients. The artifacts caused by various factors such as Electrooculogram (EOG), eye blink, and Electromyogram (EMG) in EEG signal increases the difficulty in analyzing them. Discrete wavelet transform has been applied in this research for removing noise from the EEG signal. The effectiveness of the noise removal is quantitatively measured using Root Mean Square (RMS) Difference. This paper reports on the effectiveness of wavelet transform applied to the EEG signal as a means of removing noise to retrieve important information related to both healthy and epileptic patients. Wavelet-based noise removal on the EEG signal of both healthy and epileptic subjects was performed using four discrete wavelet functions. With the appropriate choice of the wavelet function (WF), it is possible to remove noise effectively to analyze EEG significantly. Result of this study shows that WF Daubechies 8 (db8) provides the best noise removal from the raw EEG signal of healthy patients, while WF orthogonal Meyer does the same for epileptic patients. This algorithm is intended for FPGA implementation of portable biomedical equipments to detect different brain state in different circumstances.
  8. Moein S
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2010;680:109-16.
    PMID: 20865492 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5913-3_13
    In this paper, application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal noise removal has been investigated. First, 100 number of ECG signals are selected from Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database and Kalman filter is applied to remove their low pass noise. Then a suitable dataset based on denoised ECG signal is configured and used to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network to be trained. Finally, results and experiences are discussed and the effect of changing different parameters for MLP training is shown.
  9. Jamal F, Pit S, Kasni S, Yasin MS, Aton SB, Singh K
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 1997;418:35-7.
    PMID: 9331592
  10. Lee HM, Okuda KS, González FE, Patel V
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2019;1164:11-34.
    PMID: 31576537 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22254-3_2
    Of the ~129,079 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 72,987 associated deaths estimated for 2018, the majority will be geographically localized to South East Asia, and likely to show an upward trend annually. It is thought that disparities in dietary habits, lifestyle, and exposures to harmful environmental factors are likely the root cause of NPC incidence rates to differ geographically. Genetic differences due to ethnicity and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are likely contributing factors. Pertinently, NPC is associated with poor prognosis which is largely attributed to lack of awareness of the salient symptoms of NPC. These include nose hemorrhage and headaches and coupled with detection and the limited therapeutic options. Treatment options include radiotherapy or chemotherapy or combination of both. Surgical excision is generally the last option considered for advanced and metastatic disease, given the close proximity of nasopharynx to brain stem cell area, major blood vessels, and nerves. To improve outcome of NPC patients, novel cellular and in vivo systems are needed to allow an understanding of the underling molecular events causal for NPC pathogenesis and for identifying novel therapeutic targets and effective therapies. While challenges and gaps in current NPC research are noted, some advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapies targeting EBV NPCs are discussed in this chapter, which may offer improvements in outcome of NPC patients.
  11. Haque N, Widera D, Abu Kasim NH
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2019;1084:175-186.
    PMID: 30771186 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2018_299
    BACKGROUND: The response of stem cells to paracrine factors within the host's body plays an important role in the regeneration process after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and paracrine factor profile of stem cells from human extracted deciduous teeth (SHED) pre-cultivated in media supplemented with either foetal bovine serum (FBS) or pooled human serum (pHS) in the presence of individual human sera (iHS).

    METHODS: SHED (n = 3) from passage 4 were expanded in FBS (FBS-SHED) or pHS (pHS-SHED) supplemented media until passage 7. During expansion, the proliferation of SHED was determined. Cells at passage 7 were further expanded in human serum from four individual donors (iHS) for 120 h followed by assessment of cell viability and profiling of the secreted paracrine factors.

    RESULTS: Proliferation of SHED was significantly higher (p 

  12. Sha'ban M, Ahmad Radzi MA
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1249:97-114.
    PMID: 32602093 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_7
    Joint cartilage has been a significant focus on the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) since its inception in the 1980s. Represented by only one cell type, cartilage has been a simple tissue that is thought to be straightforward to deal with. After three decades, engineering cartilage has proven to be anything but easy. With the demographic shift in the distribution of world population towards ageing, it is expected that there is a growing need for more effective options for joint restoration and repair. Despite the increasing understanding of the factors governing cartilage development, there is still a lot to do to bridge the gap from bench to bedside. Dedicated methods to regenerate reliable articular cartilage that would be equivalent to the original tissue are still lacking. The use of cells, scaffolds and signalling factors has always been central to the TERM. However, without denying the importance of cells and signalling factors, the question posed in this chapter is whether the answer would come from the methods to use or not to use scaffold for cartilage TERM. This paper presents some efforts in TERM area and proposes a solution that will transpire from the ongoing attempts to understand certain aspects of cartilage development, degeneration and regeneration. While an ideal formulation for cartilage regeneration has yet to be resolved, it is felt that scaffold is still needed for cartilage TERM for years to come.
  13. Taib NA, Rahmat K
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1252:43-51.
    PMID: 32816261 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-41596-9_6
    Benign cystic or solid lumps frequently occur in the breasts of young women, and consequently can also be seen during pregnancy and lactation. Simple cysts do not increase the risk of malignancy. The current management is routine follow-up. Complex cysts are thick walled or contain a mass, and should be followed by a US-guided biopsy and then treated similar to any non-gravid, non-lactating patient.Galactoceles can be detected during the last trimester of pregnancy and during or after stopping lactation. Aspiration can be done to confirm the content. Co-existence of galactocele and malignancy is extremely rare, and the key is to follow up until it resolves.Fibroadenoma is the most frequent lesion found during pregnancy and lactation. Management is usually conservative after triple assessment. Surgery is usually not recommended in pregnant and lactating women unless rapid increase in size occurs or there is discordance in the triple assessment.Lactating adenomas are sometimes interpreted as a variant of fibroadenoma . They can naturally disappear at the end of pregnancy or lactation. Management is usually conservative, and an excisional biopsy is only mandated if it is rapidly enlarging or if there is discordance in the triple assessment.Gestational gigantomastia is a rare condition consisting of diffuse severe hypertrophy of both breasts during pregnancy . Mastectomy and reconstruction may rarely be required in such cases.
  14. Ahmad R, Kaus NHM, Hamid S
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1292:65-82.
    PMID: 30560443 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2018_302
    INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance has been a continuous challenge in cancer treatment. The use of nanotechnology in the development of new cancer drugs has potential. One of the extensively studied compounds is thymoquinone (TQ), and this work aims to compare two types of TQ-nanoformulation and its cytotoxicity toward resistant breast cancer cells.

    METHOD: TQ-nanoparticles were prepared and optimized by using two different formulations with different drugs to PLGA-PEG ratio (1:20 and 1:7) and different PLGA-PEG to Pluronic F68 ratio (10:1 and 2:1). The morphology and size were determined using TEM and DLS. Characterization of particles was done using UV-VIS, ATR-IR, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. The effects of drug, polymer, and surfactants were compared between the two formulations. Cytotoxicity assay was performed using MTS assay.

    RESULTS: TEM finding showed 96% of particles produced with 1:7 drug to PLGA-PEG were less than 90 nm in size and spherical in shape. This was confirmed with DLS which showed smaller particle size than those formed with 1:20 drug to PLGA-PEG ratio. Further analysis showed zeta potential was negatively charged which could facilitate cellular uptake as reported previously. In addition, PDI value was less than 0.1 in both formulations indicating monodispersed and less broad in size distribution. The absorption peak of PLGA-PEG-TQ-Nps was at 255 nm. The 1:7 drug to polymer formulation was selected for further analysis where the entrapment efficiency was 79.9% and in vitro drug release showed a maximum release of TQ of 50%. Cytotoxicity result showed IC50 of TQ-nanoparticle at 20.05 μM and free TQ was 8.25 μM.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that nanoparticle synthesized with 1:7 drug to PLGA-PEG ratio and 2:1 PLGA-PEG to Pluronic F68 formed nanoparticles with less than 100 nm and had spherical shape as confirmed with DLS. This could facilitate its transportation and absorption to reach its target. There was conserved TQ stability as exhibited slow release of this volatile oil. The TQ-nanoparticles showed selective cytotoxic effect toward UACC 732 cells compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  15. Saleem M, Ghazali MB, Wahab MAMA, Yusoff NM, Mahsin H, Seng CE, et al.
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1292:1-12.
    PMID: 29687286 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2018_147
    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are attributable to genetic susceptibility. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the best known genetic factors to date. The goal of this study was to determine the structure and distribution of haplotypes of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in early-onset breast cancer patients. We enrolled 70 patients diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer. A total of 21 SNPs (11 on BRCA1 and 10 on BRCA2) and 1 dinucleotide deletion on BRCA1 were genotyped using nested allele-specific PCR methods. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis was conducted, and haplotypes were deduced from the genotype data. Two tightly linked LD blocks were observed on each of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Variant-free haplotypes (TAT-AG for BRCA1 and ATA-AAT for BRCA2) were observed at a frequency of more than 50% on each gene along with variable frequencies of derived haplotypes. The variant 3'-subhaplotype CGC displayed strong LD with 5'-subhaplotypes GA, AA, and GG on BRCA1 gene. Haplotypes ATA-AGT, ATC-AAT, and ATA-AAC were the variant haplotypes frequent on BRCA2 gene. Although the clinical significance of these derived haplotypes has not yet been established, it is expected that some of these haplotypes, especially the less frequent subhaplotypes, eventually will be shown to be indicative of a predisposition to early-onset breast cancer.
  16. Onwe EE, Ghani FA, Abdullah M, Osman M, Zin RRM, Vivian AN, et al.
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1292:97-112.
    PMID: 32542457 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2020_521
    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a malignancy of epithelial origin in the large bowel. The elucidation of the biological functions of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), and deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) biomarkers including their roles in the pathophysiology of CRC - has led to their applications in diagnostic and chemo-pharmaceutics. We investigated whether PD-L1, TYMS, and DCC protein expression in CRC tumors are predictive biomarkers of treatment outcome for CRC patients. The expressions of PD-L1, TYMS, and DCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 91 paraffin-embedded samples from patients who underwent colectomy procedure in Hospital Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. There was high expression of DCC in most cases: 84.6% (77/91). PD-L1 showed low expression in 93.4% (86/91) of cases and high expression in 6.6% (5/91) of cases. Low and high expressions of TYMS were detected in 53.8% (49/91) and 46.2% (42/91) of the CRC cases, respectively. There was a significant association between the TYMS expression and gender (P 
  17. Zakaria N, Yahaya BH
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1292:83-95.
    PMID: 31916234 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2019_464
    INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in cancer therapy as vehicles to deliver therapeutic materials such as drugs, apoptosis inducers and cytokines due to their ability to migrate and home at the tumour site. Furthermore, MSCs have been genetically engineered to produce anticancer molecules such as TRAIL that can induce apoptosis of cancer cells. However, MSCs' presence in the tumour microenvironment has shown to be involved in promoting tumour growth and progression. Therefore, the roles of MSCs either promoting or suppressing tumorigenesis need to be investigated.

    METHODS: Human adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) and A549 cells are co-cultured together in indirect co-culture system using Transwell insert. Following co-culture, both cells were analysed in terms of growth rate, migration ability, apoptosis and gene expression for genes involved in migration and stemness characteristics.

    RESULTS: The result shows that Ad-MSCs promoted the growth of A549 cells when indirectly co-cultured for 48 and 72 h. Furthermore, Ad-MSCs significantly enhanced the migration rate of A549 cells. The increased in migration rate was in parallel with the significant increase of MMP9. There are no significant changes observed in the expression of TWIST2, CDH2 and CDH1, genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Ad-MSCs also protect A549 cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis and increase the survival of cancer cells.

    CONCLUSION: Secretion of soluble factors from Ad-MSCs has been shown to promote the growth and metastatic characteristics of A549 cancer cells. Therefore, the use of Ad-MSCs in cancer therapy needs to be carefully evaluated in the long-term aspect.

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