Displaying all 4 publications

  1. Aizzat O, Yap SW, Sopiah H, Madiha MM, Hazreen M, Shailah A, et al.
    Adv Med Sci, 2010;55(2):281-8.
    PMID: 21147697 DOI: 10.2478/v10039-010-0046-z
    Chlorella vulgaris (CV), a fresh water alga has been reported to have hypoglycemic effects. However, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CV in diabetic animals have not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CV in inflammation and oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
  2. Musa M
    Adv Med Sci, 2020 Mar;65(1):163-169.
    PMID: 31972467 DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2019.12.001
    Besides malignant cells, the tumour microenvironment consists of various stromal cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and myofibroblasts. Accumulation of heterogeneous populations of stromal cells in solid tumours is associated with lower survival rates and cancer recurrence in patients. Certain limitations presented by conventional experimental designs and techniques in cancer research have led to poor understanding of the fundamental basis of cancer niche. Recent developments in single-cell techniques allow more in-depth studies of the tumour microenvironment. Analyses at the single-cell level enables the detection of rare cell types, characterization of intra-tumour cellular heterogeneity and analysis of the lineage output of malignant cells. This subsequently, provides valuable insights on better diagnostic methods and treatment avenues for cancer. This review explores the recent advancements and applications of single-cell technologies in cancer research pertaining to the study of stromal fibroblasts in the microenvironment of solid tumours.
  3. Saeidi H, Bakrin IH, Raju CS, Ismail P, Saraf M, Khairul-Asri MG
    Adv Med Sci, 2023 Sep;68(2):359-365.
    PMID: 37757663 DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2023.09.008
    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene defects have been identified in a significant proportion of metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC) and are associated with an increased risk of PC and more aggressive PC. Importantly, it has been well-documented that poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition in cells with HR deficiency (HRD) can cause cell death. This has been exploited for the targeted treatment of PC patients with HRD by PARP inhibitors. Moreover, it has been shown that platinum-based chemotherapy is more effective in mCRPC patients with HRR gene alterations. This review highlights the prognosis and therapeutic implications of HRR gene alterations in PC.
  4. Khalid K, Poh CL
    Adv Med Sci, 2023 Sep;68(2):213-226.
    PMID: 37364379 DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2023.05.003
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic exerted significant impacts on public health and global economy. Research efforts to develop vaccines at warp speed against SARS-CoV-2 led to novel mRNA, viral vectored, and inactivated vaccines being administered. The current COVID-19 vaccines incorporate the full S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain but rapidly emerging variants of concern (VOCs) have led to significant reductions in protective efficacies. There is an urgent need to develop next-generation vaccines which could effectively prevent COVID-19.

    METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were systematically reviewed for peer-reviewed papers up to January 2023.

    RESULTS: A promising solution to the problem of emerging variants is a DNA vaccine platform since it can be easily modified. Besides expressing whole protein antigens, DNA vaccines can also be constructed to include specific nucleotide genes encoding highly conserved and immunogenic epitopes from the S protein as well as from other structural/non-structural proteins to develop effective vaccines against VOCs. DNA vaccines are associated with low transfection efficiencies which could be enhanced by chemical, genetic, and molecular adjuvants as well as delivery systems.

    CONCLUSIONS: The DNA vaccine platform offers a promising solution to the design of effective vaccines. The challenge of limited immunogenicity in humans might be solved through the use of genetic modifications such as the addition of nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide gene, strong promoters, MARs, introns, TLR agonists, CD40L, and the development of appropriate delivery systems utilizing nanoparticles to increase uptake by APCs in enhancing the induction of potent immune responses.

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