Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis denotes both nasal and ocular manifestation of allergy, which may be solely treated with intranasal steroid. This study compares the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (NS) and fluticasone furoate NS in treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The secondary objective is to study the severity of baseline ocular symptoms in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Seventy-eight patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were assessed subjectively and objectively using twice-daily symptom scores for nasal (reflective total nasal symptom score [rTNSS] and instantaneous TNSS [iTNSS]) and ocular (reflective total ocular symptom score [rTOSS] and instantaneous TOSS [iTOSS]) symptoms, rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaires (RQOLQs), and acoustic rhinometry. All measurements were taken at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Sixty-three patients who were randomized into the mometasone furoate group (n = 36) and the fluticasone furoate group (n = 27) completed the study. Seventy-six percent of patients had mild ocular symptoms, 20.5% had moderate symptoms, and only 2.6% had severe symptoms at baseline based on the iTOSS; 65.1% had mild nasal symptoms and 3% had severe nasal symptoms. There was significant reduction in the symptom scores after 1 week (p < 0.05). Both groups had significant improvement in RQOLQ scores after 1 month, which further improved at 2 months (p < 0.05). The nasal dimensions also improved in both groups (p < 0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Both mometasone furoate and fluticasone furoate are effective as single-modality treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients manifest mild ocular symptoms that may be solely treated with intranasal steroids.
Nasal polyposis (NP) has a great impact on quality of life (QOL) and its management involves a combination of medical therapy and surgery. To the authors' knowledge, no publication has extensively examined NP after optimal medical treatment based on subjective evaluations. The aim of this prospective study was designed to evaluate the QOL in NP patients after (1) a short course of oral steroids, (2) initial 3-month course of macrolide, and (3) long-term treatment with intranasal steroids. A total of 55 patients with grades I and II NP were consecutively treated with oral prednisolone at 25 mg in a single dose for 2 weeks, macrolide at 250 mg daily for the first 3 months, and long-term intranasal steroids. Patients were followed up and evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months for QOL measure. At baseline, patients with grade I and grade II NP showed significantly worse QOL scores on all Rhinosinusitis Disability Index domains, particularly for physical function (4.59 ± 1.41) and were significantly higher in social function (3.16 ± 1.17). At 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, patients showed a significant improvement in all impaired QOL domains compared with baseline after optimal medical therapy (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the optimal medical treatment to improve QOL incorporates medical polypectomy with a short course of oral steroids in addition to macrolide and this can be maintained by long-term intranasal steroid therapy.
BACKGROUND: To report an unusual case of compressive optic neuropathy secondary to a large onodi air cell.
METHOD: Case report.
RESULTS: A 50 year-old gentlemen presented to the eye clinic with left eye painless loss of vision for one day. Visual acuity was counting finger in the left eye with a positive relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD). Dilated left fundus examination revealed a pale optic disc. A computed tomography of orbit and brain showed a large left sphenoid sinus with onodi-cell-like projection on the left superior margin of left optic canal impinging on the left optic nerve. He was referred to the otorhinolaryngology team and subsequently underwent left optic nerve decompression. Post-operatively, his left visual acuity improved to 6/60 with reversal of RAPD.
CONCLUSION: There are many causes of optic neuropathy and compressive optic neuropathy due to large onodi air cell is uncommon. Acute unilateral loss of vision heralds from a multitude of sinister causes and junior residents should be vigilant that onodi air cell pneumotisation could be one of them.
Giant pituitary adenomas are clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, and the clinical presentation is usually secondary to compression of the neighboring structures. Visual impairment and visual field defect are the most common preoperative symptoms, followed by headache. Generalized seizures may occur in giant pituitary adenomas when there is involvement of frontal lobes or medial temporal lobes. We present a case of a unilateral nasal mass with generalized seizures in a 55-year-old woman without prior episode of seizure and any predisposing factors. Imaging showed a sinonasal tumor with intracranial extension and histopathological examination confirmed a corticotroph adenoma. On seeing a patient with a unilateral nasal mass extending down from the roof of nasal cavity, olfactory neuroblastoma, or meningo-encephalocoele readily comes to mind. To avoid misdiagnosis and delay in treatment, imaging and, if possible, a biopsy should be considered. Giant pituitary adenoma although not common should be thought of as one of the differential diagnosis.
Surgery for sinuses has evolved with the advancement of instruments and modification in techniques. Endoscopes have expanded the surgical roles for lesions in the nose and para-nasal sinuses with reduced rate of complications and cosmetic side effects. Nevertheless sinus surgery in pediatrics patients has its own challenges. Pre-operative imaging is of paramount important especially when embarking on skull base procedures. The differences between adult and pediatric anatomy need to be further studied.