Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Morad Z, Choong HL, Tungsanga K, Suhardjono
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2015 May;65(5):799-805.
    PMID: 25736214 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.031
    The provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing economies is limited by lack of financial and other resources. There are no national reimbursement policies for RRT in many countries in Asia. The Southeast Asia countries of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia have adopted a strategy of encouraging public-private partnerships to increase the RRT rates in their respective countries. The private organizations include both for-profit and philanthropic bodies. The latter raise funds from ordinary citizens, corporations, and faith-based groups, as well as receive subsidies from the government to support RRT for patients in need. The kidney foundations of these countries play a leadership role in this public-private partnership. Many of the private organizations that support RRT are providers of treatment in addition to offering financial assistance to patients, with hemodialysis being the most frequently supported modality. Public-private partnership in funding RRT is sustainable over the long term with proper organization and facilitated by support from the government.
  2. Segasothy M, Swaminathan M, Kong NC, Bennett WM
    Am J Kidney Dis, 1995 Jan;25(1):63-6.
    PMID: 7810535
    This report describes a patient with acute renal failure that resulted from the ingestion of djenkol beans. Features of acute djenkolism include nausea, vomiting, bilateral loin pain, gross hematuria, and oliguria. The blood urea level was 16.2 mmol/L and the serum creatinine was 460 mumol/L. Phase contrast microscopy of the urinary sediment indicated that the hematuria was nonglomerular. Ultrasound of the kidneys showed slightly enlarged kidneys with no features of obstruction. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis similar to the single animal study reported in the literature. With conservative therapy, which included rehydration with normal saline and alkalinization of the urine with sodium bicarbonate, the acute renal failure resolved. Based on its chemistry, djenkol bean-associated acute renal failure may be analogous to acute uric acid nephropathy.
  3. Segasothy M, Samad SA, Zulfigar A, Bennett WM
    Am J Kidney Dis, 1994 Jul;24(1):17-24.
    PMID: 8023820
    The risk of renal papillary necrosis and renal dysfunction due to the chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is unknown. In a prospective study of 259 heavy analgesic users seen in a general medical hospital over an 11-year-period beginning in January 1982, 69 new cases of analgesic nephropathy with renal papillary necrosis were confirmed by intravenous urogram (26.6%), ultrasonography (30.4%), and/or computed tomography (43%). Twenty-nine of these patients (42%) had consumed excessive quantities of NSAIDs alone; an additional nine patients (13%) had consumed NSAIDs predominantly in combinations with paracetamol, aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and/or traditional herbal medications. Of those patients who consumed NSAIDs alone, 17 had consumed only a single type of NSAID and the remaining 12 had consumed multiple types of NSAIDs. The amount of NSAIDs administered ranged from 1,000 to 26,600 capsules or tablets over a 2- to 25-year period. Renal impairment (serum creatinine, 126 to 778 mumol/L) was noted in 26 of these 38 patients (64.8%). The reasons given for consuming NSAIDs include gouty arthritis (18 patients), osteoarthritis (seven patients), rheumatoid arthritis (six patients), chronic headache (three patients), gouty arthritis plus chronic headache (three patients), and chronic backache (one patient). All patients were prescribed these drugs and were followed medically. The occurrence of analgesic nephropathy was predominantly in males (male to female ratio, 1.9:1). Most of the patients did not have the characteristic psychological profile attributed previously to analgesic abuse nephropathy. Associated addictive habits, such as the use of psychotropic drugs and sleeping tablets, purgative abuse, and alcoholism, were absent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  4. Borzych-Duzalka D, Shroff R, Ariceta G, Yap YC, Paglialonga F, Xu H, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2019 08;74(2):193-202.
    PMID: 31010601 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.02.014
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have been recommended as the preferred vascular access for pediatric patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), but data comparing AVFs with other access types are scant. We studied vascular access choice, placement, complications, and outcomes in children.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

    SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 552 children and adolescents from 27 countries on maintenance HD followed up prospectively by the International Pediatric HD Network (IPHN) Registry between 2012 and 2017.

    PREDICTOR: Type of vascular access: AVF, central venous catheter (CVC), or arteriovenous graft.

    OUTCOME: Infectious and noninfectious vascular access complication rates, dialysis performance, biochemical and hematologic parameters, and clinical outcomes.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Univariate and multivariable linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models, and proportional hazards models; cumulative incidence functions.

    RESULTS: During 314 cumulative patient-years, 628 CVCs, 225 AVFs, and 17 arteriovenous grafts were placed. One-third of the children with an AVF required a temporary CVC until fistula maturation. Vascular access choice was associated with age and expectations for early transplantation. There was a 3-fold higher living related transplantation rate and lower median time to transplantation of 14 (IQR, 6-23) versus 20 (IQR, 14-36) months with CVCs compared with AVFs. Higher blood flow rates and Kt/Vurea were achieved with AVFs than with CVCs. Infectious complications were reported only with CVCs (1.3/1,000 catheter-days) and required vascular access replacement in 47%. CVC dysfunction rates were 2.5/1,000 catheter-days compared to 1.2/1,000 fistula-days. CVCs required 82% more revisions and almost 3-fold more vascular access replacements to a different site than AVFs (P<0.001).

    LIMITATIONS: Clinical rather than population-based data.

    CONCLUSIONS: CVCs are the predominant vascular access choice in children receiving HD within the IPHN. Age-related anatomical limitations and expected early living related transplantation were associated with CVC use. CVCs were associated with poorer dialysis efficacy, higher complication rates, and more frequent need for vascular access replacement. Such findings call for a re-evaluation of pediatric CVC use and practices.

  5. Albert C, Zapf A, Haase M, Röver C, Pickering JW, Albert A, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2020 12;76(6):826-841.e1.
    PMID: 32679151 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.015
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of measures of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in urine or plasma obtained on clinical laboratory platforms for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) and AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-D) has not been fully evaluated. We sought to quantitatively summarize published data to evaluate the value of urinary and plasma NGAL for kidney risk prediction.

    STUDY DESIGN: Literature-based meta-analysis and individual-study-data meta-analysis of diagnostic studies following PRISMA-IPD guidelines.

    SETTING & STUDY POPULATIONS: Studies of adults investigating AKI, severe AKI, and AKI-D in the setting of cardiac surgery, intensive care, or emergency department care using either urinary or plasma NGAL measured on clinical laboratory platforms.

    SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and congress abstracts ever published through February 2020 reporting diagnostic test studies of NGAL measured on clinical laboratory platforms to predict AKI.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Individual-study-data meta-analysis was accomplished by giving authors data specifications tailored to their studies and requesting standardized patient-level data analysis.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Individual-study-data meta-analysis used a bivariate time-to-event model for interval-censored data from which discriminative ability (AUC) was characterized. NGAL cutoff concentrations at 95% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and optimal sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Models incorporated as confounders the clinical setting and use versus nonuse of urine output as a criterion for AKI. A literature-based meta-analysis was also performed for all published studies including those for which the authors were unable to provide individual-study data analyses.

    RESULTS: We included 52 observational studies involving 13,040 patients. We analyzed 30 data sets for the individual-study-data meta-analysis. For AKI, severe AKI, and AKI-D, numbers of events were 837, 304, and 103 for analyses of urinary NGAL, respectively; these values were 705, 271, and 178 for analyses of plasma NGAL. Discriminative performance was similar in both meta-analyses. Individual-study-data meta-analysis AUCs for urinary NGAL were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.76) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.79-0.81) for severe AKI and AKI-D, respectively; for plasma NGAL, the corresponding AUCs were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.79-0.81) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84-0.86). Cutoff concentrations at 95% specificity for urinary NGAL were>580ng/mL with 27% sensitivity for severe AKI and>589ng/mL with 24% sensitivity for AKI-D. Corresponding cutoffs for plasma NGAL were>364ng/mL with 44% sensitivity and>546ng/mL with 26% sensitivity, respectively.

    LIMITATIONS: Practice variability in initiation of dialysis. Imperfect harmonization of data across studies.

    CONCLUSIONS: Urinary and plasma NGAL concentrations may identify patients at high risk for AKI in clinical research and practice. The cutoff concentrations reported in this study require prospective evaluation.

  6. Ploos van Amstel S, Noordzij M, Borzych-Duzalka D, Chesnaye NC, Xu H, Rees L, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2021 09;78(3):380-390.
    PMID: 33549627 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.11.031
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Research on pediatric kidney replacement therapy (KRT) has primarily focused on Europe and North America. In this study, we describe the mortality risk of children treated with maintenance peritoneal dialysis (MPD) in different parts of the world and characterize the associated demographic and macroeconomic factors.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

    SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients younger than 19 years at inclusion into the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network registry, who initiated MPD between 1996 and 2017.

    EXPOSURE: Region as primary exposure (Asia, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin America, North America, and Oceania). Other demographic, clinical, and macroeconomic (4 income groups based on gross national income) factors also were studied.

    OUTCOME: All-cause MPD mortality.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Patients were observed for 3 years, and the mortality rates in different regions and income groups were calculated. Cause-specific hazards models with random effects were fit to calculate the proportional change in variance for factors that could explain variation in mortality rates.

    RESULTS: A total of 2,956 patients with a median age of 7.8 years at the start of KRT were included. After 3 years, the overall probability of death was 5%, ranging from 2% in North America to 9% in Eastern Europe. Mortality rates were higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Income category explained 50.1% of the variance in mortality risk between regions. Other explanatory factors included peritoneal dialysis modality at start (22.5%) and body mass index (11.1%).

    LIMITATIONS: The interpretation of interregional survival differences as found in this study may be hampered by selection bias.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the overall 3-year patient survival on pediatric MPD is high, and that country income is associated with patient survival.

  7. Tang SCW, Yu X, Chen HC, Kashihara N, Park HC, Liew A, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2020 05;75(5):772-781.
    PMID: 31699518 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.08.005
    Asia is the largest and most populated continent in the world, with a high burden of kidney failure. In this Policy Forum article, we explore dialysis care and dialysis funding in 17 countries in Asia, describing conditions in both developed and developing nations across the region. In 13 of the 17 countries surveyed, diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. Due to great variation in gross domestic product per capita across Asian countries, disparities in the provision of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) exist both within and between countries. A number of Asian nations have satisfactory access to KRT and have comprehensive KRT registries to help inform practices, but some do not, particularly among low- and low-to-middle-income countries. Given these differences, we describe the economic status, burden of kidney failure, and cost of KRT across the different modalities to both governments and patients and how changes in health policy over time affect outcomes. Emerging trends suggest that more affluent nations and those with universal health care or access to insurance have much higher prevalent dialysis and transplantation rates, while in less affluent nations, dialysis access may be limited and when available, provided less frequently than optimal. These trends are also reflected by an association between nephrologist prevalence and individual nations' incomes and a disparity in the number of nephrologists per million population and per thousand KRT patients.
  8. Viecelli AK, O'Lone E, Sautenet B, Craig JC, Tong A, Chemla E, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2018 03;71(3):382-391.
    PMID: 29203125 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.09.018
    BACKGROUND: Many randomized controlled trials have been performed with the goal of improving outcomes related to hemodialysis vascular access. If the reported outcomes are relevant and measured consistently to allow comparison of interventions across trials, such trials can inform decision making. This study aimed to assess the scope and consistency of vascular access outcomes reported in contemporary hemodialysis trials.

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.

    SETTING & POPULATION: Adults requiring maintenance hemodialysis.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomized controlled trials and trial protocols reporting vascular access outcomes identified from ClinicalTrials.gov, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register from January 2011 to June 2016.

    INTERVENTIONS: Any hemodialysis-related intervention.

    OUTCOMES: The frequency and characteristics of vascular access outcome measures were analyzed and classified.

    RESULTS: From 168 relevant trials, 1,426 access-related outcome measures were extracted and classified into 23 different outcomes. The 3 most common outcomes were function (136 [81%] trials), infection (63 [38%]), and maturation (31 [18%]). Function was measured in 489 different ways, but most frequently reported as "mean access blood flow (mL/min)" (37 [27%] trials) and "number of thromboses" (30 [22%]). Infection was assessed in 136 different ways, with "number of access-related infections" being the most common measure. Maturation was assessed in 44 different ways at 15 different time points and most commonly characterized by vein diameter and blood flow. Patient-reported outcomes, including pain (19 [11%]) and quality of life (5 [3%]), were reported infrequently. Only a minority of trials used previously standardized outcome definitions.

    LIMITATIONS: Restricted sampling frame for feasibility and focus on contemporary trials.

    CONCLUSIONS: The reporting of access outcomes in hemodialysis trials is very heterogeneous, with limited patient-reported outcomes and infrequent use of standardized outcome measures. Efforts to standardize outcome reporting for vascular access are critical to optimizing the comparability, reliability, and value of trial evidence to improve outcomes for patients requiring hemodialysis.

  9. Viecelli AK, Tong A, O'Lone E, Ju A, Hanson CS, Sautenet B, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2018 05;71(5):690-700.
    PMID: 29478866 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.12.003
    Vascular access outcomes in hemodialysis are critically important for patients and clinicians, but frequently are neither patient relevant nor measured consistently in randomized trials. A Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop was convened to discuss the development of a core outcome measure for vascular access. 13 patients/caregivers and 46 professionals (clinicians, policy makers, industry representatives, and researchers) attended. Participants advocated for vascular access function to be a core outcome based on the broad applicability of function regardless of access type, involvement of a multidisciplinary team in achieving a functioning access, and the impact of access function on quality of life, survival, and other access-related outcomes. A core outcome measure for vascular access required demonstrable feasibility for implementation across different clinical and trial settings. Participants advocated for a practical and flexible outcome measure with a simple actionable definition. Integrating patients' values and preferences was warranted to enhance the relevance of the measure. Proposed outcome measures for function included "uninterrupted use of the access without the need for interventions" and "ability to receive prescribed dialysis," but not "access blood flow," which was deemed too expensive and unreliable. These recommendations will inform the definition and implementation of a core outcome measure for vascular access function in hemodialysis trials.
  10. Borges FK, Devereaux PJ, Cuerden M, Sontrop JM, Bhandari M, Guerra-Farfán E, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2022 Nov;80(5):686-689.
    PMID: 35346742 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2022.01.431
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