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  1. Katelaris CH, Lai CK, Rhee CS, Lee SH, Yun WD, Lim-Varona L, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2011 Sep-Oct;25 Suppl 1:S3-15.
    PMID: 22185687 DOI: 10.2500/ajra.2011.25.3674
    The Allergies in Asia-Pacific Survey describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) across Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The Allergies in Asia-Pacific Survey was undertaken to further clarify the prevalence of physician-diagnosed nasal allergies (NAs), impact on quality-of-life (QOL), existing treatment paradigms and gaps, and NA medications currently used in treatment.
  2. Waran V, Menon R, Pancharatnam D, Rathinam AK, Balakrishnan YK, Tung TS, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2012 Sep-Oct;26(5):e132-6.
    PMID: 23168144 DOI: 10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3808
    Surgical navigation systems have been used increasingly in guiding complex ear, nose, and throat surgery. Although these are helpful, they are only beneficial intraoperatively; thus, the novice surgeon will not have the preoperative training or exposure that can be vital in complex procedures. In addition, there is a lack of reliable models to give surgeons hands-on training in performing such procedures.
  3. Saricilar EC, Hamizan A, Alvarado R, Rimmer J, Sewell W, Tatersall J, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2018 Jul;32(4):244-251.
    PMID: 29785855 DOI: 10.1177/1945892418777668
    Background Rhinitis is a highly prevalent yet often misdiagnosed condition. Patients who have local allergic rhinitis are regularly mislabeled as having a nonallergic etiology. Thus, a highly accurate, reproducible, and noninvasive assessment, which can be performed quickly and with minimal discomfort to the patient, is required. Objective The aim of this research was to identify the efficiency of various nasal brushes as tools for harvest and collection of epithelial proteins and its suitability for identification of rhinitis. Methods Nasal epithelial mucosa samples were taken from patients undergoing turbinate surgery using a cytology brush, a dental brush, and a nasal curette in random order. After washing in phosphate-buffered saline, the suspended cells were sonicated. Total protein content was assessed for all samples by bicinchoninic acid assay measured using a Nanodrop machine. Identification of nasal-specific immunoglobulin E (spIgE) was then assessed using immunoassay and compared to the patient's allergic status from epicutaneous and serum testing. The lower threshold limit for the spIgE in nasal brushings was determined using the results of serum spIgE tests as the reference. The diagnostic accuracy of this new established cutoff value was determined. Results The cytology brush was found to be the optimal tool for maximal nasal mucosa protein collection followed by dental brush and nasal curette (0.75 ± 0.45 mg/mL vs 0.43 ± 0.24 mg/mL vs 0.071 ± 0.55 mg/mL, respectively; P 
  4. Ho J, Hamizan AW, Alvarado R, Rimmer J, Sewell WA, Harvey RJ
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2018 Jul;32(4):252-257.
    PMID: 29862828 DOI: 10.1177/1945892418779451
    Background Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (eCRS) is linked with skewed T-helper 2 or immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses, with differing diagnosis, prognosis, and management to non-eCRS. Objective The association between biomarkers and eCRS was investigated to assess the predictors of eCRS. Methods A cross-sectional study of adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery was conducted. eCRS was defined by histopathological assessment showing >10 eosinophils/high-power field on sinus mucosal biopsy. Blood tests were performed preoperatively and assessed for a full blood count including eosinophils and a white cell count (WCC) as well as biochemical markers of inflammation and atopy including Immunoglobulin E (IgE), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and ImmunoCAP testing for serum-specific IgE. Comparisons between eCRS and non-eCRS patients were performed. Results 345 patients (48.1% female, age 48.72 ± 15.06 years) were recruited, with 206 (59.7%) identified as eCRS, 41% with asthma and 47% CRS with nasal polyps. eCRS patients were more likely to have asthma ( P 0.24 × 109/L), eosinophil ratio (>4.27% of total WCC), and lower ESR when compared with non-eCRS.
  5. Saniasiaya J, Abdullah B, Husain S, Wang Y, Wan Mohammad Z
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2017 Sep 01;31(5):328-333.
    PMID: 28859711 DOI: 10.2500/ajra.2017.31.4464
    BACKGROUND: Epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction is common in the pediatric age group. The mainstay treatment among these young patients has been conservative. Once epiphora becomes recalcitrant, however, an external or an endonasal approach is considered.

    OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) entails creating an opening from the lacrimal sac directly into the nasal cavity to counteract nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness and the safety of primary EDCR to treat pediatric nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    METHOD: A literature search was conducted by using a number of medical literature data bases for the period from 1995 to 2016. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: epiphora, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, laser-assisted endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, children, congenital, acquired, presaccal obstruction, and postsaccal obstruction. In addition, a few articles were identified based on the experience and information provided by the senior authors (B.A., S.H., D.Y.W.). The search was conducted over a 1-month period (January 2017). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed when possible.

    RESULTS: Only 10 original clinical research articles were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. All the studies were at level of evidence III: nonrandomized and noncomparative prospective or retrospective case series. Altogether, 313 patients with ages that ranged from 4 months to 18 years were enrolled. A total of 352 EDCRs were performed that were either single sided (n = 313) or bilateral (n = 39). The most common causes of the obstruction were classified as congenital, followed by idiopathic, and then acquired. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of the patient groups and variability of the methods used to measure outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Analysis of the results indicated that EDCR was an effective, safe therapeutic approach to treating nasolacrimal duct obstruction in pediatric patients. It should be considered as an alternative procedure to external dacryocystorhinostomy after a failed conservative treatment.

  6. Hamizan AW, Rimmer J, Alvarado R, Sewell WA, Tatersall J, Barham HP, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2019 Mar;33(2):178-183.
    PMID: 30656948 DOI: 10.1177/1945892418825224
    BACKGROUND: Specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) within the nasal airway is likely to be the most ideal marker of allergic status, but little is known of the normative values in asymptomatic patients and those with rhinitis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE in asymptomatic and rhinitic patients.

    METHODS: A diagnostic cross-sectional study was undertaken, involving patients who underwent inferior turbinate surgery with or without other surgical interventions. Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy was performed during surgery and was assessed for allergen sIgE (dust mite, grass [temperate or subtropical], and animal epithelium) using an automated immunoassay. Tissue sIgE was assessed among asymptomatic patients and those with nasal symptoms. Data were presented as median (interquartile range). A receiver operating curve was used to predict the diagnostic utility of turbinate tissue sIgE in determining allergic rhinitis.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (41.89 ± 14.65 years, 36.9% females) were included. The median tissue sIgE concentration among the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients was 0.09 (0.08-0.10) kUA/L and tissue sIgE > 0.10 kUA/L was determined as a positive threshold. Inferior turbinate tissue sIgE was shown to be a predictive test for allergic rhinitis (area under curve: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.90) with 90% sensitivity and 89% negative predictive value.

    CONCLUSION: Inferior turbinate tissue biopsy sIgE is a sensitive tool to predict allergic rhinitis. The threshold value of 0.1 kUA/L corresponded well with the asymptomatic nonatopic group of patients. This method detects sIgE in the nasal mucosa and may be a useful test for allergic rhinitis in future research.

  7. Hamizan AW, Azer M, Alvarado R, Earls P, Barham HP, Tattersall J, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2019 Sep;33(5):524-530.
    PMID: 31106562 DOI: 10.1177/1945892419850750
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