Modern Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers cannot be imagined without high-performance (Transmit/Receive) T/R switch. Available T/R switches suffer mainly due to the lack of good trade-off among the performance parameters, where high isolation and low insertion loss are very essential. In this study, a T/R switch with high isolation and low insertion loss performance has been designed by using Silterra 0.13µm CMOS process for 2.4GHz ISM band RF transceivers. Transistor aspect ratio optimization, proper gate bias resistance, resistive body floating and active inductor-based parallel resonance techniques have been implemented to achieve better trade-off. The proposed T/R switch exhibits 0.85dB insertion loss and 45.17dB isolation in both transmit and receive modes. Moreover, it shows very competitive values of power handling capability (P1dB) and linearity (IIP3) which are 11.35dBm and 19.60dBm, respectively. Due to avoiding bulky inductor and capacitor, the proposed active inductor-based T/R switch became highly compact occupying only 0.003mm2 of silicon space; which will further trim down the total cost of the transceiver. Therefore, the proposed active inductor-based T/R switch in 0.13µm CMOS process will be highly useful for the electronic industries where low-power, high-performance and compactness of devices are the crucial concerns.
The primary aim of this study is to examine the effects of a backrest: using a prototype of a lumbar support presented in author's earlier study on the discomfort rating of the body parts of motorcyclist.
Current two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic marker measurements are inherent with intra- and inter-observer variability limitations. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of conventional 2D ultrasonic marker measurements and proposed programmable interactive three-dimensional (3D) marker evaluation. This is essentially important to analyze that the measurement on 3D volumetric measurement possesses higher impact and reproducibility vis-à-vis 2D measurement. Twenty three cases of prenatal ultrasound examination were obtained from collaborating hospital after Ethical Committee's approval. The measured 2D ultrasonic marker is Nuchal Translucency or commonly abbreviated as NT. Descriptive analysis of both 2D and 3D ultrasound measurement were calculated. Three trial measurements were taken for each method. Both data were tested with One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test and results indicate that markers measurements were distributed normally with significant parametric values at 0.621 and 0.596 respectively. Computed mean and standard deviation for both measurement methods are 1.4495 ± 0.46490 (2D) and 1.3561 ± 0.50994 (3D). ANOVA test shows that computerized 3D measurements were found to be insignificantly different from the mean of conventional 2D at the significance level of 0.05. With Pearson's correlation coefficient value or R = 0.861, the result proves strong positive linear correlation between 2D and 3D ultrasonic measurements. Reproducibility and accuracy of 3D ultrasound in NT measurement was significantly increased compared with 2D B-mode ultrasound prenatal assessment. 3D reconstructed imaging has higher clinical values compare to 2D ultrasound images with less diagnostics information.
The significance of Science Framework (SF) to date is receiving more acceptances all over the world to address agricultural sustainability. The professional views, however, advocate that the SF known as Mega Science Framework (MSF) in the transitional economies is not converging effectively in many ways for the agricultural sustainability. Specially, MSF in transitional economies is mostly incapable to identify barriers in agricultural research, inadequate to frame policy gaps with the goal of strategizing the desired sustainability in agricultural technology and innovation, inconsistent in finding to identify the inequities, and incompleteness to rebuild decisions. Therefore, this study critically evaluates the components of MSF in transitional economies and appraises the significance, dispute and illegitimate issue to achieve successful sustainable development. A sound and an effective MSF can be developed when there is an inter-linkage within principal components such as of (a) national priorities, (b) specific research on agricultural sustainability, (c) adequate agricultural research and innovation, and (d) alternative policy alteration. This maiden piece of research which is first its kind has been conducted in order to outline the policy direction to have an effective science framework for agricultural sustainability.
Wood extractives from heartwood of Callophylum inophyllum (bintangor) were obtained by shaker method and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten compounds were identified by ethanol (EtOH) solvents, fourteen by methanol (MeOH) and only nine by petroleum ether (PETETHR). Major compounds were contributed by monoterpenes (75.11%, 53.75%) when extracted with EtOH and PETETHR solvents. The anti-termitic assay of the wood extracts was also investigated against Coptotermes curvignathus. The level of concentration for anti-termite activity may be an indication of the dose application of the wood extracts for new development of termiticide.
Demand for medical implants is rising day by day as the world becomes the place for more diseased and older people. Accordingly, in this research, metallocene polyethylene (mPE), a commonly used polymer was treated with UV rays for improving its biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the formation of crests and troughs, which depicts the improvement of surface roughness of mPE substrates caused by UV etching. Accordingly, the contact angle measurements revealed that the wettability of mPE-2.5 J/cm2 (68.09º) and mPE-5 J/cm2 (57.93º) samples were found to be increased compared to untreated mPE (86.84º) indicating better hydrophilicity. Further, the UV treated surface exhibited enhanced blood compatibility as determined in APTT (untreated mPE- 55.3 ± 2.5 s, mPE-2.5 J/cm2 - 76.7 ± 4.1 s and mPE-5 J/cm2 - 112.3 ± 2 s) and PT (untreated mPE - 24.7 ± 1.5 s, mPE- 2.5 J/cm2 - 34.3 ± 1.1 s and mPE-5 J/cm2 - 43 ± 2 s) assay. Moreover, the treated mPE-2.5 J/cm2 (4.88%) and mPE-5 J/cm2 (1.79%) showed decreased hemolytic percentage compared to untreated mPE (15.40%) indicating better safety to red blood cells. Interestingly, the changes in physicochemical properties of mPE are directly proportional to the dosage of the UV rays. UV modified mPE surfaces were found to be more compatible as identified through MTT assay, photomicrograph and SEM images of the seeded 3T3 cell population. Hence UV-modified surface of mPE may be successfully exploited for medical implants.
In this work, the physicochemical and blood compatibility properties of prepared PU/Bio oil nanocomposites were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies revealed the reduction of mean fiber diameter (709 ± 211 nm) compared to the pristine PU (969 nm ± 217 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis exposed the characteristic peaks of pristine PU. Composite peak intensities were decreased insinuating the interaction of the bio oilTM with the PU. Contact angle analysis portrayed the hydrophobic nature of the fabricated patch compared to pristine PU. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) depicted the better thermal stability of the novel nanocomposite patch and its different thermal behavior in contrast with the pristine PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed the increase in the surface roughness of the composite patch. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) signified the novel nanocomposite patch ability in reducing the thrombogenicity and promoting the anticoagulant nature. Finally the hemolytic percentage of the fabricated composite was in the acceptable range revealing its safety and compatibility with the red blood cells. To reinstate, the fabricated patch renders promising physicochemical and blood compatible nature making it a new putative candidate for wound healing application.
The effects of four different types of bleaching agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite and oxalic acid) mixed together with 2% boron-based preservative (Celbor SP) were studied on green sawn rubberwood. Two concentration levels (1% and 2%) of were used. Whitish values (W) and colour changes (ΔE) of sawn rubberwood were assessed before and after chemical treatment using a colour meter. Preliminary observation indicated that timber treated with 1% and 2% hydrogen peroxide produced better and more homogeneous colour properties. Hydrogen peroxide treated timber gave higher whitish values (6.23 and 9.91 for 1% and 2% solution, respectively) and lower colour changes (8.49 and 5.51 for 1% and 2% solution, respectively) when compared to the other three chemicals. Evaluation on the effects of bleaching (hydrogen peroxide with a higher level of concentration) on physical, mechanical and biological properties of rubberwood also have been determined in this study.
The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) wound dressing incorporated with cobalt nitrate using electrospinning technique. The morphology analysis revealed that the developed composites exhibited reduced fiber and pore diameter than the pristine PU. The electrospun membranes exhibited average porosity in the range of 67% - 71%. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) showed the presence of cobalt in the PU matrix. The interaction of cobalt nitrate with PU matrix was evident in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The contact angle results indicated the improved wettability of the prepared PU/cobalt nitrate composites (82° ± 2) than the pure PU (100° ± 1). The incorporation of cobalt nitrate into the PU matrix enhanced the surface roughness and mechanical strength as evident in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile test analysis. The blood compatibility assays revealed the anticoagulant nature of the prepared composites by displaying prolonged blood clotting time than the PU control. Further, the developed composite exhibited less toxicity nature as revealed in the hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies. It was observed that the PU wound dressing added with cobalt nitrate fibers exhibited enhanced physicochemical, better blood compatibility parameters and enhanced fibroblast proliferation rates which may serve as a potential candidate for wound dressings.
Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
Tissue engineering holds as a prominent technique to repair or replace the damaged human parts to recreate its native function. In this research, a novel scaffold based on polyurethane (PU) comprising megni oil was electrospun for tissue engineering applications. The obtained polyurethane blended with megni oil nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the blood compatibility of the fabricated nanocomposites evaluated through activated prothrombin time (APTT), partial thromboplastin time (PT) and hemolysis assay to determine the anticoagulant nature. The morphological results showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber size (789 ± 143.106 nm) than the pristine control (890 ± 116.91 nm). The interaction between PU and megni oil was identified by the hydrogen bond formation evident in the FTIR. The incorporation of megni oil in the PU decreased the wettability behavior (113.3° ± 1.528) and improved the surface roughness (646 nm). Preliminary evaluation of blood compatibility assessments was carried out using APTT, PT and hemolysis assay revealed the enhanced antithrombogenicity nature of the fabricated nanocomposites than the PU. Hence, we conclude that the fabricated new nanocomposite membrane with desirable characteristics which might find potential application in the tissue engineering applications.