Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Ricos MG, Hodgson BL, Pippucci T, Saidin A, Ong YS, Heron SE, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2016 Jan;79(1):120-31.
    PMID: 26505888 DOI: 10.1002/ana.24547
    Focal epilepsies are the most common form observed and have not generally been considered to be genetic in origin. Recently, we identified mutations in DEPDC5 as a cause of familial focal epilepsy. In this study, we investigated whether mutations in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulators, NPRL2 and NPRL3, also contribute to cases of focal epilepsy.
  2. Tan CT, Goh KJ, Wong KT, Sarji SA, Chua KB, Chew NK, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2002 Jun;51(6):703-8.
    PMID: 12112075
    An outbreak of infection with the Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus, occurred among pig farmers between September 1998 and June 1999 in Malaysia, involving 265 patients with 105 fatalities. This is a follow-up study 24 months after the outbreak. Twelve survivors (7.5%) of acute encephalitis had recurrent neurological disease (relapsed encephalitis). Of those who initially had acute nonencephalitic or asymptomatic infection, 10 patients (3.4%) had late-onset encephalitis. The mean interval between the first neurological episode and the time of initial infection was 8.4 months. Three patients had a second neurological episode. The onset of the relapsed or late-onset encephalitis was usually acute. Common clinical features were fever, headache, seizures, and focal neurological signs. Four of the 22 relapsed and late-onset encephalitis patients (18%) died. Magnetic resonance imaging typically showed patchy areas of confluent cortical lesions. Serial single-photon emission computed tomography showed the evolution of focal hyperperfusion to hypoperfusion in the corresponding areas. Necropsy of 2 patients showed changes of focal encephalitis with positive immunolocalization for Nipah virus antigens but no evidence of perivenous demyelination. We concluded that a unique relapsing and remitting encephalitis or late-onset encephalitis may result as a complication of persistent Nipah virus infection in the central nervous system.
  3. Chong HT, Kamarulzaman A, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Thayaparan T, Kunjapan SR, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2001 Jun;49(6):810-3.
    PMID: 11409437
    Nipah virus, a newly identified paramyxovirus caused a severe outbreak of encephalitis in Malaysia with high fatalities. We report an open-label trial of ribavirin in 140 patients, with 54 patients who were managed prior to the availability of ribavirin or refused treatment as control. There were 45 deaths (32%) in the ribavirin arm; 29 deaths (54%) occurred in the control arm. This represents a 36% reduction in mortality (p = 0.011). There was no associated serious side effect. This study suggests that ribavirin is able to reduce the mortality of acute Nipah encephalitis.
  4. Nakashima M, Kato M, Aoto K, Shiina M, Belal H, Mukaida S, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2018 04;83(4):794-806.
    PMID: 29534297 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25208
    OBJECTIVE: The cytoplasmic fragile X mental retardation 1 interacting proteins 2 (CYFIP2) is a component of the WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) regulatory complex, which is involved in actin dynamics. An obvious association of CYFIP2 variants with human neurological disorders has never been reported. Here, we identified de novo hotspot CYFIP2 variants in neurodevelopmental disorders and explore the possible involvement of the CYFIP2 mutants in the WAVE signaling pathway.

    METHODS: We performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 210 families and case-only WES in 489 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies. The functional effect of CYFIP2 variants on WAVE signaling was evaluated by computational structural analysis and in vitro transfection experiments.

    RESULTS: We identified three de novo CYFIP2 variants at the Arg87 residue in 4 unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Structural analysis indicated that the Arg87 residue is buried at an interface between CYFIP2 and WAVE1, and the Arg87 variant may disrupt hydrogen bonding, leading to structural instability and aberrant activation of the WAVE regulatory complex. All mutant CYFIP2 showed comparatively weaker interactions to the VCA domain than wild-type CYFIP2. Immunofluorescence revealed that ectopic speckled accumulation of actin and CYFIP2 was significantly increased in cells transfected with mutant CYFIP2.

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that de novo Arg87 variants in CYFIP2 have gain-of-function effects on the WAVE signaling pathway and are associated with severe neurological disorders. Ann Neurol 2018;83:794-806.

  5. Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Hooi PS, Goh KJ, Chew NK, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2000 Nov;48(5):802-5.
    PMID: 11079547
    During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, stored cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 84 patients (27 fatal and 57 nonfatal cases) were cultured for the virus. The virus was isolated from 17 fatal cases and 1 nonfatal case. There were significant associations between CSF virus isolation and mortality as well as clinical features associated with poor prognosis. In addition, there was a positive linear correlation of CSF virus isolation with age. There was no significant association between CSF virus isolation and the character of the CSF, presence of Nipah-specific antibody in the serum or CSF, duration of illness before collection of samples, or sex or ethnicity of the patients. This study suggests that high viral replication in the central nervous system may be an important factor for high mortality.
  6. Lee KE, Umapathi T, Tan CB, Tjia HT, Chua TS, Oh HM, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 1999 Sep;46(3):428-32.
    PMID: 10482278 DOI: 10.1002/1531-8249(199909)46:3<428::AID-ANA23>3.0.C
    A novel Hendra-like paramyxovirus named Nipah virus (NiV) was the cause of an outbreak among workers from one abattoir who had contact with pigs. Two patients had only respiratory symptoms, while 9 patients had encephalitis, 7 of whom are described in this report. Neurological involvement was diverse and multifocal, including aseptic meningitis, diffuse encephalitis, and focal brainstem involvement. Cerebellar signs were relatively common. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain showed scattered lesions. IgM antibodies against Hendra virus (HeV) were present in the serum of all patients. Two patients recovered completely. Five had residual deficits 8 weeks later.
  7. Maas RR, Iwanicka-Pronicka K, Kalkan Ucar S, Alhaddad B, AlSayed M, Al-Owain MA, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2017 Dec;82(6):1004-1015.
    PMID: 29205472 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25110
    OBJECTIVE: 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria, dystonia-deafness, hepatopathy, encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome (MEGDHEL) syndrome is caused by biallelic variants in SERAC1.

    METHODS: This multicenter study addressed the course of disease for each organ system. Metabolic, neuroradiological, and genetic findings are reported.

    RESULTS: Sixty-seven individuals (39 previously unreported) from 59 families were included (age range = 5 days-33.4 years, median age = 9 years). A total of 41 different SERAC1 variants were identified, including 20 that have not been reported before. With the exception of 2 families with a milder phenotype, all affected individuals showed a strikingly homogeneous phenotype and time course. Severe, reversible neonatal liver dysfunction and hypoglycemia were seen in >40% of all cases. Starting at a median age of 6 months, muscular hypotonia (91%) was seen, followed by progressive spasticity (82%, median onset = 15 months) and dystonia (82%, 18 months). The majority of affected individuals never learned to walk (68%). Seventy-nine percent suffered hearing loss, 58% never learned to speak, and nearly all had significant intellectual disability (88%). Magnetic resonance imaging features were accordingly homogenous, with bilateral basal ganglia involvement (98%); the characteristic "putaminal eye" was seen in 53%. The urinary marker 3-methylglutaconic aciduria was present in virtually all patients (98%). Supportive treatment focused on spasticity and drooling, and was effective in the individuals treated; hearing aids or cochlear implants did not improve communication skills.

    INTERPRETATION: MEGDHEL syndrome is a progressive deafness-dystonia syndrome with frequent and reversible neonatal liver involvement and a strikingly homogenous course of disease. Ann Neurol 2017;82:1004-1015.

  8. Lim JA, Lee ST, Moon J, Jun JS, Kim TJ, Shin YW, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2019 03;85(3):352-358.
    PMID: 30675918 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25421
    OBJECTIVE: There is no scale for rating the severity of autoimmune encephalitis (AE). In this study, we aimed to develop a novel scale for rating severity in patients with diverse AE syndromes and to verify the reliability and validity of the developed scale.

    METHODS: The key items were generated by a panel of experts and selected according to content validity ratios. The developed scale was initially applied to 50 patients with AE (development cohort) to evaluate its acceptability, reproducibility, internal consistency, and construct validity. Then, the scale was applied to another independent cohort (validation cohort, n = 38).

    RESULTS: A new scale consisting of 9 items (seizure, memory dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, consciousness, language problems, dyskinesia/dystonia, gait instability and ataxia, brainstem dysfunction, and weakness) was developed. Each item was assigned a value of up to 3 points. The total score could therefore range from 0 to 27. We named the scale the Clinical Assessment Scale in Autoimmune Encephalitis (CASE). The new scale showed excellent interobserver (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.97) and intraobserver (ICC = 0.96) reliability for total scores, was highly correlated with modified Rankin scale (r = 0.86, p

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