Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Jaganathan SK, Balaji A, Vellayappan MV, Asokan MK, Subramanian AP, John AA, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2015;15(1):48-56.
    PMID: 25052987
    Recent statistics revealed that cancer is one among the main reasons for death throughout the world. Several treatments are available but still there is no cure when it is detected at late stages. One of the treatment modes for cancer is chemotherapy which utilizes anticancer drugs in order to eradicate the cancer cells by apoptosis. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death through which body maintains homeostasis or kills cancer cells by utilizing its cell machinery. Recent researches have concluded that dietary agents have a putative role in instituting apoptosis of cancer cells. Honey, one of the victuals rich in antioxidants, has a long-standing exposure to humans and its role in cancer prevention and treatment is a topic of current interest. Various researchers have been experimenting honey against different cancers and provided valuable insights about the apoptosis induced by the honey. This review will highlight the recent findings of apoptotic mechanism involved in different cancer cells. Further it also reports antitumor activity of honey in some animal models. Hence it is high-time to initiate more preclinical trials as well as clinical experiments which would further add to the knowledge of anticancer nature of honey and also endorse honey as a potential candidate in the war against cancer.
  2. Abu N, Ali NM, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Aziz MY, Alitheen NB
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2014 Jun;14(5):750-5.
    PMID: 24164045
    The Noni fruit, or scientifically known as Morinda citrifolia can be found in various parts of the world, especially in the pacific region. It is a small evergreen bushy-like tree originated from the Rubiaceae family. The plant has been used by polynesians as a medicinal herb for more than 2000 years. A substantial amount of phytochemicals can be found in the roots of this plant. Among all, damnacanthal has been found to be the most interesting, versatile and potent compound. Damnacanthal or chemically known as,3- hydroxy-1-methoxyanthraquinone-2-caboxaldehyde (C16H10O5), appears as pale yellow crystals with a melting point of 210-211 °C. This compound is of particular interest due to its striking pharmacological properties. Damnacanthal was shown to inhibit the oncogene Ras, p56lck tyrosine kinase, NF-KB pathway and induce apoptosis in vitro. This review aims to discuss the biological properties of damnacanthal, specifically on its anti-cancer activity that has been reported.
  3. Yoon YK, Oon CE
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2016;16(8):1003-1016.
    PMID: 26961318 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160310141622
    The role of sirtuins in age-related diseases is an area of rapidly expanding investigation. Sirtuins are NAD+ -dependent class III histone deacetylases (HDACs) that share extensive homologies with the yeast HDAC Sir2. Class I and class II HDACs inhibitors have been identified as potential anticancer agents and are in clinical studies, but much less is known about class III HDAC inhibitors. However, inhibitors of sirtuins are currently being targeted as potential therapeutic agents for disease such as cancer, neurodegenerative disease and other disorders as sirtuins are discovered to regulate numerous downstream enzymes. Given the link between sirtuins and cancer, understanding the functionality of these enzymes may ultimately have significant impact in cancer prevention or cancer treatment. This review gives an updated overview regarding the regulation of sirtuin enzymes, their implications in cancer, various sirtuin inhibitor scaffolds and their insights in drug design.
  4. Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2015;15(7):905-15.
    PMID: 26179368
    Flavokawain A is a chalcone that can be found in the kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) extract. The kava-kava plant has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The state of the immune system, and the inflammatory process play vital roles in the progression of cancer. The immunomodulatary effects and the anti-inflammatory effects of flavokawain A in a breast cancer murine model have not been studied yet. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the basic mechanism as to how flavokawain A regulates and enhance the immune system as well as impeding the inflammatory process in breast cancer-challenged mice. Based on our study, it is interesting to note that flavokawain A increased the T cell population; both Th1 cells and CTLs, aside from the natural killer cells. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were also elevated in the serum of flavokawain A-treated mice. Apart from that, flavokawain A also decreased the weight and volume of the tumor, and managed to induce apoptosis in them. In terms of inflammation, flavokawain A-treated mice had reduced level of major pro-inflammatory mediators; NO, iNOS, NF-KB, ICAM and COX-2. Overall, flavokawain A has the potential to not only enhance antitumor immunity, but also prevents the inflammatory process in a cancer-prone microenvironment.
  5. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Seyed MA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2015;15(6):681-93.
    PMID: 25783963
    The evaluation of crude drugs of natural origin as sources of new effective anticancer agents continues to be important due to the lack of effective anticancer drugs currently used in practice which are generally accompanied with adverse effects at different levels of severity. The aim of this concise review is to gather existing literature on anticancer potential of extracts and compounds isolated from Celastraceae species. This review covers six genera (Maytenus, Tripterygium, Hippocratea, Gymnosporia, Celastrus and Austroplenckia) belonging to this family and their 33 isolates. Studies carried out by using different cell lines have shown remarkable indication of anticancer activity, however, only a restricted number of studies have been reported using in vivo tumor models. Some of the compounds, such as triptolide, celastrol and demethylzeylasteral from T. wilfordii, have been extensively studied on their mechanisms of action due to their potent activity on various cancer cell lines. Such promising lead compounds should generate considerable interest among scientists to improve their therapeutic potential with fewer side effects by molecular modification.
  6. Muhammad SNH, Yaacob NS, Safuwan NAM, Fauzi AN
    PMID: 33906591 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210427104804
    BACKGROUND: Survival and progression of cancer cells are highly dependent on aerobic glycolysis. Strobilanthes crispus has been shown to have promising anticancer effects on breast cancer cells. The involvement of the glycolysis pathway in producing these effects is unconfirmed, thus further investigation is required to elucidate this phenomenon.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of S. crispus active fraction (F3) and its bioactive components on glycolysis in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).

    METHODS: This study utilizes F3, lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol to be administered in MDA-MB-231 cells for measurement of antiglycolytic activities through cell poliferation, glucose uptake, and lactate concentration assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay of MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with F3 and its bioactive components lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The IC50 value in each compound was determined by MTT assay to be used in subsequent assays. The determination of glucose uptake activity and lactate concentration were quantified using fluorescence spectrophotometry.

    RESULTS: Antiproliferative activities were observed for F3 and its bioactive components, with IC50 values of 100 µg/mL (F3), 20 µM (lutein), 25 µM (β-sitosterol), and 90 μM (stigmasterol) in MDA-MB-231 cells at 48 h. The percentage of glucose uptake and lactate concentration in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with F3, lutein, or β sitosterol were significantly lower than those observed in the untreated cells in a time-dependent manner. However, treatment with stigmasterol decreased the concentration of lactate without affecting the glucose uptake in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    CONCLUSION: The antiglycolytic activities of F3 on MDA-MB-231 cells are attributed to its bioactive components.

  7. Hakima F, Salfi R, Bhikshapathi D, Khan A
    PMID: 34030622 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210524164351
    BACKGROUND: According to the global cancer report of 2019, the burden of cancer will exceed more than 18 million becoming one of the major causes of global mortality rate. There is a pressing need to establish novel drug candidates for cancer treatment, though many anticancer agents are available in the market owing to their adverse effects. In recent years, quinazoline and its derivatives have been considered as a novel class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents that show promising activity against different tumors.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of the novel class of quinazoline tethered acetamide derivatives against six different cancer cell lines.

    METHOD: A novel series of various substituted quinazolinone acetamides were synthesized through a feasible scheme. The synthetic scheme involves the conversion of benzoxazinone (from anthranilic acid and benzoyl chloride) intermediate to 3-amino quinazoline-4-one which is further converted to the final amide by tethering with the propionyl chloride employing Schotten-Baumann Reaction conditions. All the synthesized derivatives characterized by IR, 1HNMR and MASS spectral methods and anti-cancer activity evaluated by employing MTT assay for six cancer cell lines and one normal human cell line.

    RESULTS: All the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-cancer activity against six cancer cell lines, including A 549 (lung), DU 145 (prostate), HT 29 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), SiHA (cervical), B16F10 (mouse skin melanoma) and one normal human fibroblast cell lines. All the compounds displayed a decent cytotoxicity profile when compared with the standard drug, doxorubicin. Among the synthesized compounds (5a to 5n) tested, two compounds, 5f and 5g have demonstrated excellent cytotoxicity against SiHA and MCF-7 cancer cell lines.

    CONCLUSION: Comparatively, most of the compounds displayed decent cytotoxicity potential relative to the standard drug, doxorubicin. Further investigations are needed to establish the detailed mechanism of action of the developed novel quinazolinone acetamides.

  8. Arulnathan SB, Leong KH, Ariffin A, Kareem HS, Cheah KKH
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2020;20(9):1072-1086.
    PMID: 32188392 DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200318100051
    BACKGROUND: Oxadiazoles, triazoles, and their respective precursors have been shown to exhibit various pharmacological properties, namely antitumour activities. Cytotoxic activity was reported for these compounds in various cancer cell lines.

    AIM AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim at investigating the mechanism of apoptosis by N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4- (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy)benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbothioamide, a triazole precursor, henceforth termed compound P7a, in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. We first screen a series of analogues containing (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy) phenyl moiety in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) to select the most cytotoxic compound and demonstrate a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Then, we unravel the mechanism of apoptosis of P7a in MCF-7 as well as its ability to cause cell cycle arrest.

    METHODS: Synthesis was performed as previously described by Kareem and co-workers. Cytotoxicity of analogues containing (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy)phenyl moiety against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was evaluated using the MTS assay. Flow cytometric analyses was done using Annexin V/PI staining, JC-1 staining and ROS assay. The activity of caspases using a chemoluminescence assay and western blot analysis was conducted to study the apoptotic pathway induced by the compound in MCF-7 cells. Lastly, cell cycle analysis was conducted using flow cytometry.

    RESULTS: Upon 48 hours of treatment, compound P7a inhibited the proliferation of human breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 178.92 ± 12.51μM and 33.75 ± 1.20μM for MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, respectively. Additionally, compound P7a showed selectivity towards the cancer cell line, MCF-7 compared to the normal breast cell line, hTERT-HME1, an advantage against current anticancer drugs (tamoxifen and vinblastine). Flow cytometric analyses using different assays indicated that compound P7a significantly increased the proportion of apoptotic cells, increased mitochondria membrane permeabilisation and caused generation of ROS in MCF-7. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that cell proliferation was arrested at the G1 phase in the MCF-7 cell line. Furthermore, upon treatment, the MCF-7 cell line showed increased activity of caspase-3/7, and caspase-9. Lastly, the western blot analysis showed the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins along with up-regulation of caspase-7 and caspase-9, indicating that an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was induced.

    CONCLUSION: The results suggest that compound P7a could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  9. Jeyamogan S, Khan NA, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2020;20(13):1558-1570.
    PMID: 32364082 DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200504103056
    BACKGROUND: Cancer contributes to significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in treatment and supportive care. There is a need for the identification of effective anticancer agents. Reptiles such as tortoise, python, and water monitor lizards are exposed to heavy metals, tolerate high levels of radiation, feed on rotten/germ-infested feed, thrive in unsanitary habitat and yet have prolonged lifespans. Such species are rarely reported to develop cancer, suggesting the presence of anticancer molecules/mechanisms.

    METHODS: Here, we tested effects from sera of Asian water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator), python (Malayopython reticulatus) and tortoise (Cuora kamaroma amboinensis) against cancer cells. Sera were collected and cytotoxicity assays were performed using prostate cancer cells (PC3), Henrietta Lacks cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7), as well as human keratinized skin cells (Hacat), by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator for cell death. Growth inhibition assays were performed to determine the effects on cancer cell proliferation. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was performed for molecular identification.

    RESULTS: The findings revealed that reptilian sera, but not bovine serum, abolished viability of Hela, PC3 and MCF7 cells. Samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which detected 57 molecules from V. salvator, 81 molecules from Malayopython reticulatus and 33 molecules from C. kamaroma amboinensis and putatively identified 9 molecules from V. salvator, 20 molecules from Malayopython reticulatus and 9 molecules from C. kamaroma amboinensis when matched against METLIN database. Based on peptide amino acid composition, binary profile, dipeptide composition and pseudo-amino acid composition, 123 potential Anticancer Peptides (ACPs) were identified from 883 peptides from V. salvator, 306 potential ACPs from 1074 peptides from Malayopython reticulatus and 235 potential ACPs from 885 peptides from C. kamaroma amboinensis.

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, for the first time, we reported comprehensive analyses of selected reptiles' sera using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of potentially novel anticancer agents. We hope that the discovery of molecules from these animals will pave the way for the rational development of new anticancer agents.

  10. Abuelizz HA, Anouar EH, Marzouk M, Hasan MH, Saleh SR, Ahudhaif A, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2020;20(14):1714-1721.
    PMID: 32593283 DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200627212128
    BACKGROUND: The use of tyrosinase has confirmed to be the best means of recognizing safe, effective, and potent tyrosinase inhibitors for whitening skin. Twenty-four 2-phenoxy(thiomethyl)pyridotriazolopyrimidines were synthesized and characterized in our previous studies.

    OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed to evaluate their cytotoxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (pulmonary adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and WRL 68 (embryonic liver) cell lines.

    METHODS: MTT assay was employed to investigate the cytotoxicity, and a tyrosinase inhibitor screening kit was used to evaluate the Tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitory activity of the targets.

    RESULTS: The tested compounds exhibited no considerable cytotoxicity, and nine of them were selected for a tyrosinase inhibitory test. Compounds 2b, 2m, and 5a showed good inhibitory percentages against TYR compared to that of kojic acid (reference substance). Molecular docking was performed to rationalize the Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) of the target pyridotriazolopyrimidines and analyze the binding between the docked-selected compounds and the amino acid residues in the active site of tyrosinase.

    CONCLUSION: The target pyridotriazolopyrimidines were identified as a new class of tyrosinase inhibitors.

  11. Yap ZH, Kong WY, Azeez AR, Fang CM, Ngai SC
    PMID: 34102995 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210608103251
    BACKGROUND: High relapse and metastasis progression in breast cancer patients have prompted the need to explore alternative treatments. Epigenetic therapy has emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy due to the reversibility of epigenome structures.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the anti-cancer effects of epigenetic drugs scriptaid and zebularine in human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.

    METHODS: First, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of scriptaid, zebularine and the combination of both drugs on human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells was determined. Next, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were treated with scriptaid, zebularine and the combination of both. After treatments, the anti-cancer effects were evaluated via cell migration assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptotic studies, which included histochemical staining and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the apoptotic genes.

    RESULTS: Both epigenetic drugs inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with 2 nM scriptaid, 8 µM zebularine and combination of 2 nM scriptaid and 2 µM zebularine. Both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells exhibited a reduction in cell migration after the treatments. In particular, MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a significant reduction in cell migration (p < 0.05) after the treatments of zebularine and the combination of scriptaid and zebularine. Besides, cell cycle analysis demonstrated that scriptaid and the combination of both drugs could induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, histochemical staining allowed the observation of apoptotic features, such as nuclear chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear chromatin fragmentation and cytoplasmic extension, in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after the treatments. Further apoptotic studies revealed that the upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were found in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with zebularine and MCF-7 cells treated with all drug regimens.

    CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings suggest that scriptaid and zebularine are potential anti-cancer drugs, either single or in combination, for the therapy of breast cancer. Further investigations of the gene regulatory pathways directed by scriptaid and zebularine are definitely warranted in the future.

  12. Lee ZY, Leong CH, Lim KUL, Wong CCS, Pongtheerawan P, Arikrishnan SA, et al.
    PMID: 34315396 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210726132543
    BACKGROUND: Copper complex has been gaining much attention in anticancer research as targeted agent since cancer cells uptake more copper than non-cancerous cells. Our group has synthesised a ternary copper complex which is composed of 1,10-phenanthroline and tyrosine [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20. These two payloads are designed to cleave DNA and inhibit protein degradation system (proteasome) concurrently in cancer cells, making this copper complex a dual-target compound.

    OBJECTIVE: Current study was carried out to investigate the mode of cell death and role of autophagy induced by [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    METHODS: Growth inhibition of [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 towards MDA-MB-231 and human non-cancerous MCF10A breast cells was determined by MTT assay. Annexin-V-FITC/PI and cell cycle analysis were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-3 and LC3 were determined using western blot analysis. The cells were then co-treated with hydroxychloroquine to ascertain the role of autophagy induced by [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20.

    RESULTS: [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 inhibited the growth of cancer cells dose-dependently with less toxicity towards MCF10A cells. Additionally, [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest towards MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells possibly via regulation of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3 and capase-7. The expression of LC3II was upregulated in both cancer cell lines upon treatment with [Cu(phen)(L-tyr) Cl].3H20, indicating the induction of autophagy. Co-treatment with autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine significantly enhanced growth inhibition of both cell lines, suggesting that the autophagy induced by [Cu(phen)(L-tyr) Cl].3H20 in both breast cancer cells was promoting cell survival.

    CONCLUSION: [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 holds great potential to be developed for breast cancer treatment.

  13. Arikrishnan S, Loh JS, Teo XW, Bin Norizan F, Low ML, Lee SH, et al.
    PMID: 34238173 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210708100019
    BACKGROUND: The lack of specificity, severe side effects, and development of drug resistance have largely limited the use of platinum-based compounds in cancer treatment. Therefore, copper complexes have emerged as potential alternatives to platinum-based compounds.

    OBJECTIVE: Ternary copper (II) complex incorporated with 1-10-phenanthroline and L-tyrosine was investigated for its anti-cancer effects in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.

    METHODS: Cytotoxic effects of ternary copper (II) complex in HT-29 cells were evaluated using MTT assay, Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis induction was studied by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining and mitochondrial membrane potential analysis (JC-10 staining) using flow cytometry. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by DCFH-DA assay. The expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic signalling pathway (p53, caspases, and PARP-1) was evaluated by western blot analysis.

    RESULTS: Ternary copper (II) complex reduced the cell viability of HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.8 ± 0.04 µM at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Morphological evaluation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis confirmed induction of apoptosis that was further supported by cleavage and activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP-1. Mutant p53 was also downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. No LDH release, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, and ROS production were observed.

    CONCLUSION: Ternary copper (II) complex holds great potential to be developed for colorectal cancer treatment.

  14. Baraya YS, Wong KK, Yaacob NS
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017;17(6):770-783.
    PMID: 27539316 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160817111242
    Breast cancer has continued to cause high cancer death rates among women worldwide. The use of plants' natural products in breast cancer treatment has received more attention in recent years due to their potentially wider safety margin and the potential to complement conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Plantbased products have demonstrated anticancer potential through different biological pathways including modulation of the immune system. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal plants have been shown to mitigate breast cancer cell growth. Different immune cell types participate in this process especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, and cytokines including chemokines and tumor necrosis factor-α. Medicinal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra, Uncaria tomentosa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng, Prunus armenaica (apricot), Allium sativum, Arctium lappa and Curcuma longa were reported to hold strong potential in breast cancer treatment in various parts of the world. Interestingly, research findings have shown that these plants possess bioactive immunomodulators as their main constituents producing the anticancer effects. These immunomodulatory compounds include ajoene, arctigenin, β-carotene, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ginsan, glabridin and quinic acid. In this review, we discussed the ability of these eight immunomodulators in regulating the immune system potentially applicable in breast cancer treatment via anti-inflammatory (curcumin, arctigenin, glabridin and ajoene) and lymphocytes activation (β-carotene, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, quinic acid and ginsan) properties, as well as future research direction in their use for breast cancer treatment.
  15. Ahsan MJ, Choupra A, Sharma RK, Jadav SS, Hassan MZ, Bakht MA, et al.
    PMID: 28425854 DOI: 10.2174/1871520617666170419124702
    We report herein, the synthesis of two new series of oxadiazole analogues, and their cytotoxicity evaluation. The oxadiazole analogues (5a-h and 12a-h) were structurally related to the heterocyclic (1,3,4- oxadiazole) linked aryl core of IMC-038525 (tubulin polymerization inhibitor), NSC 776715, and NSC 776716, with further modification by incorporating methylene linker. The title compounds (5a-h and 12a-h) were synthesized in good yields, and were characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity evaluation was carried out according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI US) Protocol against NCI-60 human cell lines derived from nine different panels. 2-(5-{[(4-Chlorophenyl)amino]methyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl)phenol (5f) showed maximum cytotoxicity among the first series oxadiazoles (5a-h), while 2-[(2,4- dichlorophenoxy)methyl]-5-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (12c) showed maximum cytotoxicity among the second series oxadiazoles (12a-h), with the mean percen growth inhibitions (GIs) of 71.56 and 72.68 respectively at 10 μM drug concentrations. Both the compounds (5f and 12c) showed superior cytotoxicity than clinically prevalent anticancer drugs, Imatinib and Gefitinib in one dose assay. The compound 12c was further screened in five dose assay (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM), and the results was found to be promising, with GI50 values varies between 1.61 and >100 μM, with comparatively higher selectivity towards the renal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the compounds, 5f and 12c inhibited the polymerization of tubulin with, an IC50 of 2.8 and 2.2 μM, respectively.
  16. Sinniah SK, Tan KW, Ng SW, Sim KS
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017;17(5):741-753.
    PMID: 27671302 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160926110929
    BACKGROUND: Thiosemicarbazone (TSC) is a Schiff base that has been receiving considerable attention owing to its promising biological implication and remarkable pharmacological properties. The most promising drug candidate of this class would be Triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) which has entered phase II clinical trials as a potent anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent.

    OBJECTIVE: The current research aimed to synthesize several Schiff base ligands from (3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) methyltriphenylphosphonium (T). Additionally, the current research aimed to study the growth inhibitory effect of triphenylphosphonium containing thiosemicarbazone derivatives on PC-3 cells by deciphering the mechanisms involved in cell death.

    METHOD: The compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods (infrared spectra, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray crystallography) and the results were in conformity with the structure of the targeted compounds. Growth inhibitory effect of the compounds were performed against six human cell lines.

    RESULTS: DM(tsc)T displayed most potent activity against PC-3 cells with IC50 value of 2.64 ± 0.33 μM, surpassing that of the positive control cisplatin (5.47 ± 0.06 μM). There were marked morphological changes observed in DM(tsc)T treated cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Treatment with DM(tsc)T showed that the cell cycle is arrested in the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss was observed in cells treated with DM(tsc)T, indicating the apoptosis could be due to mitochondria mediated pathway.

    CONCLUSION: This study indicates that DM(tsc)T would serve as a lead scaffold for rational anticancer agent development.

  17. Hassan LEA, Iqbal MA, Dahham SS, Tabana YM, Ahamed MBK, Majid AMSA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017;17(4):590-598.
    PMID: 27671298 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160926113711
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division caused by dysregulation of cell proliferation. Therefore, agents that impair cancer cell proliferation could have potential therapeutic value. Higher plants are considered to be a good source of anticancer agents, and several clinically tested chemotherapeutic agents have been isolated from plants or derived from constituents of plant origin.

    METHODS: In the present study, a prenylated flavone (isoglabratephrin) was isolated from aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea using a bioassay-guided technique. Chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and LC-MC), elemental analysis and confirmed by using single crystal X-ray analysis. The antiproliferative effect of isoglabratephrin was tested using three human cancer cell lines (prostate (PC3), pancreatic (PANC-1), and colon (HCT-116) and one normal cell line (human fibroblast).

    RESULTS: Isoglabratephrin displayed selective inhibitory activity against proliferation of PC3 and PANC-1 cells with median inhibitory concentration values of 20.4 and 26.6 μg/ml, respectively. Isoglabratephrin demonstrated proapoptotic features, as it induced chromatin dissolution, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation. It also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cancer cells.

    CONCLUSION: Isoglabratephrin could be a new lead to treat human prostate (PC3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) malignancies.

  18. Jeyamogan S, Khan NA, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2019;19(18):2251-2268.
    PMID: 31660845 DOI: 10.2174/1871520619666191011161314
    BACKGROUND: Species of crocodiles and cockroaches can withstand high radiation, reside in unsanitary conditions, thrive on germ-infested feed, and are exposed to heavy metals, yet they are not reported to develop cancer. It has been postulated that such species have mechanisms to defend themselves against developing cancer. Here, selected species have been tested for potential cytotoxicity against selected cancer cell lines.

    METHODS: In this study, various species of vertebrates and invertebrates were procured including Columba livia, Gallus gallus domesticus, Varanus salvator, Cuora kamamora amboinensis, Reticulatus malayanus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Rattus rattus, American bullfrog, Donax sp., Polymesoda coaxans, Tenebrio molitor, Lumbricus terrestris, Blatta lateralis, Grammostola rosea, and Penaeus monodon. Species were dissected and their organ lysates/sera/haemolymph were prepared. Cytotoxicity assays were performed using Prostate Cancer cells (PC3), Henrietta Lacks cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) as well as human keratinized skin cells (Hacat), by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator for cell death. Growth inhibition assays were performed to determine the effects on cancer cell proliferation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed for molecular identification.

    RESULTS: The results revealed that body lysates of Polymesoda coaxans demonstrated more than 99% growth inhibition of all cancer cell lines tested but not on normal Hacat cells. More importantly, the serum of M. reticulatus abolished growth and produced cytotoxicity. Hence these samples were subjected to Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which detected 81 small molecules and putatively identified 20 molecules when matched against the METLIN database. Out of 1094 peptides, 21 peptides were identified, while 1074 peptides were categorized as novel peptides. Based on properties such as peptide amino acid composition, binary profile, dipeptide composition and pseudo-amino acid composition, 306 potential peptides were identified.

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, here for the first time, we report a comprehensive analysis of sera exhibiting cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines tested and identified several molecules using LC-MS/MS.

  19. Khairul WM, Hashim F, Mohammed M, Shah NSMN, Johari SATT, Rahamathullah R, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2021;21(13):1738-1750.
    PMID: 33176667 DOI: 10.2174/1871520620999201110190709
    INTRODUCTION: In this contribution, a series of alkoxy substituted chalcones were successfully designed, synthesized, spectroscopically characterized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity potential in inhibiting the growth of MCF-7 cells.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to investigate the influence between electron density in conjugated π-systems and biological activities, different withdrawing substituents, namely Nitro (NO2), Cyano (C≡N) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) were introduced in the chalcone-based molecular system.

    METHODS: All the derivatives were then tested on MCF-7 cell line using the fluorescence microscopy-based cytotoxicity analyses.

    RESULTS: The preliminary findings showed that both -NO2 and -CF3 substituents revealed their potential to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 with IC;50 values of 14.75 and 13.75 μg/ml, respectively. In addition, the morphological changes of MCF-7 cells were observed in response to alkoxy substituted chalcone treatment through an induction of apoptosis pathway with cell blebbing, phosphatidylserine exposure and autophagic activity with acidification of lysosomal structure. Intermolecular interaction based on in silico investigation on nitro, trifluoromethyl and cyano based chalcones exhibited several types of interactions with tumor necrosis factor receptor (PDB: 1EXT) protein and high hydrogen bond in the molecule-receptor interaction have given significant impact towards their toxicity on MCF-7 cells.

    CONCLUSION: Significantly, these types of chalcones exhibited ideal and high potential to be further developed as anti-cancer agents.

  20. Adnan M, Rasul A, Shah MA, Hussain G, Asrar M, Riaz A, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2022;22(1):30-39.
    PMID: 33874875 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210419095829
    The identification and development of radioprotective agents have emerged as a subject matter of research during recent years due to the growing usage of ionizing radiation in different areas of human life. Previous work on synthetic radioprotectors has achieved limited progress because of the numerous issues associated with toxicity. Compounds extracted from plants have the potential to serve as lead candidates for developing ideal radioprotectors due to their low cost, safety, and selectivity. Polyphenols are the most abundant and commonly dispersed group of biologically active molecules possessing a broad range of pharmacological activities. Polyphenols have displayed efficacy for radioprotection during various investigations and can be administered at high doses with lesser toxicity. Detoxification of free radicals, modulating inflammatory responses, DNA repair, stimulation of hematopoietic recovery, and immune functions are the main mechanisms for radiation protection with polyphenols. Epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, apigenin, caffeic acid phenylethylester, and silibinin provide cytoprotection together with the suppression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines owing to their free radical scavenging, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, and rutin's radioprotective properties are regulated primarily by the direct or indirect decline in cellular stress. Thus, polyphenols may serve as potential candidates for radioprotection in the near future; however, extensive investigations are still required to better understand their protection mechanisms.
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