OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of S. crispus active fraction (F3) and its bioactive components on glycolysis in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).
METHODS: This study utilizes F3, lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol to be administered in MDA-MB-231 cells for measurement of antiglycolytic activities through cell poliferation, glucose uptake, and lactate concentration assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay of MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with F3 and its bioactive components lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The IC50 value in each compound was determined by MTT assay to be used in subsequent assays. The determination of glucose uptake activity and lactate concentration were quantified using fluorescence spectrophotometry.
RESULTS: Antiproliferative activities were observed for F3 and its bioactive components, with IC50 values of 100 µg/mL (F3), 20 µM (lutein), 25 µM (β-sitosterol), and 90 μM (stigmasterol) in MDA-MB-231 cells at 48 h. The percentage of glucose uptake and lactate concentration in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with F3, lutein, or β sitosterol were significantly lower than those observed in the untreated cells in a time-dependent manner. However, treatment with stigmasterol decreased the concentration of lactate without affecting the glucose uptake in MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSION: The antiglycolytic activities of F3 on MDA-MB-231 cells are attributed to its bioactive components.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of the novel class of quinazoline tethered acetamide derivatives against six different cancer cell lines.
METHOD: A novel series of various substituted quinazolinone acetamides were synthesized through a feasible scheme. The synthetic scheme involves the conversion of benzoxazinone (from anthranilic acid and benzoyl chloride) intermediate to 3-amino quinazoline-4-one which is further converted to the final amide by tethering with the propionyl chloride employing Schotten-Baumann Reaction conditions. All the synthesized derivatives characterized by IR, 1HNMR and MASS spectral methods and anti-cancer activity evaluated by employing MTT assay for six cancer cell lines and one normal human cell line.
RESULTS: All the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-cancer activity against six cancer cell lines, including A 549 (lung), DU 145 (prostate), HT 29 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), SiHA (cervical), B16F10 (mouse skin melanoma) and one normal human fibroblast cell lines. All the compounds displayed a decent cytotoxicity profile when compared with the standard drug, doxorubicin. Among the synthesized compounds (5a to 5n) tested, two compounds, 5f and 5g have demonstrated excellent cytotoxicity against SiHA and MCF-7 cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Comparatively, most of the compounds displayed decent cytotoxicity potential relative to the standard drug, doxorubicin. Further investigations are needed to establish the detailed mechanism of action of the developed novel quinazolinone acetamides.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim at investigating the mechanism of apoptosis by N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4- (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy)benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbothioamide, a triazole precursor, henceforth termed compound P7a, in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. We first screen a series of analogues containing (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy) phenyl moiety in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) to select the most cytotoxic compound and demonstrate a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Then, we unravel the mechanism of apoptosis of P7a in MCF-7 as well as its ability to cause cell cycle arrest.
METHODS: Synthesis was performed as previously described by Kareem and co-workers. Cytotoxicity of analogues containing (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy)phenyl moiety against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was evaluated using the MTS assay. Flow cytometric analyses was done using Annexin V/PI staining, JC-1 staining and ROS assay. The activity of caspases using a chemoluminescence assay and western blot analysis was conducted to study the apoptotic pathway induced by the compound in MCF-7 cells. Lastly, cell cycle analysis was conducted using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Upon 48 hours of treatment, compound P7a inhibited the proliferation of human breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 178.92 ± 12.51μM and 33.75 ± 1.20μM for MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, respectively. Additionally, compound P7a showed selectivity towards the cancer cell line, MCF-7 compared to the normal breast cell line, hTERT-HME1, an advantage against current anticancer drugs (tamoxifen and vinblastine). Flow cytometric analyses using different assays indicated that compound P7a significantly increased the proportion of apoptotic cells, increased mitochondria membrane permeabilisation and caused generation of ROS in MCF-7. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that cell proliferation was arrested at the G1 phase in the MCF-7 cell line. Furthermore, upon treatment, the MCF-7 cell line showed increased activity of caspase-3/7, and caspase-9. Lastly, the western blot analysis showed the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins along with up-regulation of caspase-7 and caspase-9, indicating that an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was induced.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that compound P7a could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.
METHODS: Here, we tested effects from sera of Asian water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator), python (Malayopython reticulatus) and tortoise (Cuora kamaroma amboinensis) against cancer cells. Sera were collected and cytotoxicity assays were performed using prostate cancer cells (PC3), Henrietta Lacks cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7), as well as human keratinized skin cells (Hacat), by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator for cell death. Growth inhibition assays were performed to determine the effects on cancer cell proliferation. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was performed for molecular identification.
RESULTS: The findings revealed that reptilian sera, but not bovine serum, abolished viability of Hela, PC3 and MCF7 cells. Samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which detected 57 molecules from V. salvator, 81 molecules from Malayopython reticulatus and 33 molecules from C. kamaroma amboinensis and putatively identified 9 molecules from V. salvator, 20 molecules from Malayopython reticulatus and 9 molecules from C. kamaroma amboinensis when matched against METLIN database. Based on peptide amino acid composition, binary profile, dipeptide composition and pseudo-amino acid composition, 123 potential Anticancer Peptides (ACPs) were identified from 883 peptides from V. salvator, 306 potential ACPs from 1074 peptides from Malayopython reticulatus and 235 potential ACPs from 885 peptides from C. kamaroma amboinensis.
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, for the first time, we reported comprehensive analyses of selected reptiles' sera using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of potentially novel anticancer agents. We hope that the discovery of molecules from these animals will pave the way for the rational development of new anticancer agents.
OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed to evaluate their cytotoxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (pulmonary adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and WRL 68 (embryonic liver) cell lines.
METHODS: MTT assay was employed to investigate the cytotoxicity, and a tyrosinase inhibitor screening kit was used to evaluate the Tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitory activity of the targets.
RESULTS: The tested compounds exhibited no considerable cytotoxicity, and nine of them were selected for a tyrosinase inhibitory test. Compounds 2b, 2m, and 5a showed good inhibitory percentages against TYR compared to that of kojic acid (reference substance). Molecular docking was performed to rationalize the Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) of the target pyridotriazolopyrimidines and analyze the binding between the docked-selected compounds and the amino acid residues in the active site of tyrosinase.
CONCLUSION: The target pyridotriazolopyrimidines were identified as a new class of tyrosinase inhibitors.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the anti-cancer effects of epigenetic drugs scriptaid and zebularine in human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.
METHODS: First, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of scriptaid, zebularine and the combination of both drugs on human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells was determined. Next, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were treated with scriptaid, zebularine and the combination of both. After treatments, the anti-cancer effects were evaluated via cell migration assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptotic studies, which included histochemical staining and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the apoptotic genes.
RESULTS: Both epigenetic drugs inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with 2 nM scriptaid, 8 µM zebularine and combination of 2 nM scriptaid and 2 µM zebularine. Both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells exhibited a reduction in cell migration after the treatments. In particular, MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a significant reduction in cell migration (p < 0.05) after the treatments of zebularine and the combination of scriptaid and zebularine. Besides, cell cycle analysis demonstrated that scriptaid and the combination of both drugs could induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, histochemical staining allowed the observation of apoptotic features, such as nuclear chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear chromatin fragmentation and cytoplasmic extension, in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after the treatments. Further apoptotic studies revealed that the upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were found in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with zebularine and MCF-7 cells treated with all drug regimens.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings suggest that scriptaid and zebularine are potential anti-cancer drugs, either single or in combination, for the therapy of breast cancer. Further investigations of the gene regulatory pathways directed by scriptaid and zebularine are definitely warranted in the future.
OBJECTIVE: Current study was carried out to investigate the mode of cell death and role of autophagy induced by [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Growth inhibition of [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 towards MDA-MB-231 and human non-cancerous MCF10A breast cells was determined by MTT assay. Annexin-V-FITC/PI and cell cycle analysis were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-3 and LC3 were determined using western blot analysis. The cells were then co-treated with hydroxychloroquine to ascertain the role of autophagy induced by [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20.
RESULTS: [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 inhibited the growth of cancer cells dose-dependently with less toxicity towards MCF10A cells. Additionally, [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest towards MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells possibly via regulation of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3 and capase-7. The expression of LC3II was upregulated in both cancer cell lines upon treatment with [Cu(phen)(L-tyr) Cl].3H20, indicating the induction of autophagy. Co-treatment with autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine significantly enhanced growth inhibition of both cell lines, suggesting that the autophagy induced by [Cu(phen)(L-tyr) Cl].3H20 in both breast cancer cells was promoting cell survival.
CONCLUSION: [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)Cl].3H20 holds great potential to be developed for breast cancer treatment.
OBJECTIVE: Ternary copper (II) complex incorporated with 1-10-phenanthroline and L-tyrosine was investigated for its anti-cancer effects in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.
METHODS: Cytotoxic effects of ternary copper (II) complex in HT-29 cells were evaluated using MTT assay, Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis induction was studied by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining and mitochondrial membrane potential analysis (JC-10 staining) using flow cytometry. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by DCFH-DA assay. The expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic signalling pathway (p53, caspases, and PARP-1) was evaluated by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Ternary copper (II) complex reduced the cell viability of HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.8 ± 0.04 µM at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Morphological evaluation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis confirmed induction of apoptosis that was further supported by cleavage and activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP-1. Mutant p53 was also downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. No LDH release, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, and ROS production were observed.
CONCLUSION: Ternary copper (II) complex holds great potential to be developed for colorectal cancer treatment.
OBJECTIVE: The current research aimed to synthesize several Schiff base ligands from (3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) methyltriphenylphosphonium (T). Additionally, the current research aimed to study the growth inhibitory effect of triphenylphosphonium containing thiosemicarbazone derivatives on PC-3 cells by deciphering the mechanisms involved in cell death.
METHOD: The compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods (infrared spectra, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray crystallography) and the results were in conformity with the structure of the targeted compounds. Growth inhibitory effect of the compounds were performed against six human cell lines.
RESULTS: DM(tsc)T displayed most potent activity against PC-3 cells with IC50 value of 2.64 ± 0.33 μM, surpassing that of the positive control cisplatin (5.47 ± 0.06 μM). There were marked morphological changes observed in DM(tsc)T treated cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Treatment with DM(tsc)T showed that the cell cycle is arrested in the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss was observed in cells treated with DM(tsc)T, indicating the apoptosis could be due to mitochondria mediated pathway.
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that DM(tsc)T would serve as a lead scaffold for rational anticancer agent development.
METHODS: In the present study, a prenylated flavone (isoglabratephrin) was isolated from aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea using a bioassay-guided technique. Chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and LC-MC), elemental analysis and confirmed by using single crystal X-ray analysis. The antiproliferative effect of isoglabratephrin was tested using three human cancer cell lines (prostate (PC3), pancreatic (PANC-1), and colon (HCT-116) and one normal cell line (human fibroblast).
RESULTS: Isoglabratephrin displayed selective inhibitory activity against proliferation of PC3 and PANC-1 cells with median inhibitory concentration values of 20.4 and 26.6 μg/ml, respectively. Isoglabratephrin demonstrated proapoptotic features, as it induced chromatin dissolution, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation. It also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Isoglabratephrin could be a new lead to treat human prostate (PC3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) malignancies.
METHODS: In this study, various species of vertebrates and invertebrates were procured including Columba livia, Gallus gallus domesticus, Varanus salvator, Cuora kamamora amboinensis, Reticulatus malayanus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Rattus rattus, American bullfrog, Donax sp., Polymesoda coaxans, Tenebrio molitor, Lumbricus terrestris, Blatta lateralis, Grammostola rosea, and Penaeus monodon. Species were dissected and their organ lysates/sera/haemolymph were prepared. Cytotoxicity assays were performed using Prostate Cancer cells (PC3), Henrietta Lacks cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) as well as human keratinized skin cells (Hacat), by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release as an indicator for cell death. Growth inhibition assays were performed to determine the effects on cancer cell proliferation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed for molecular identification.
RESULTS: The results revealed that body lysates of Polymesoda coaxans demonstrated more than 99% growth inhibition of all cancer cell lines tested but not on normal Hacat cells. More importantly, the serum of M. reticulatus abolished growth and produced cytotoxicity. Hence these samples were subjected to Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which detected 81 small molecules and putatively identified 20 molecules when matched against the METLIN database. Out of 1094 peptides, 21 peptides were identified, while 1074 peptides were categorized as novel peptides. Based on properties such as peptide amino acid composition, binary profile, dipeptide composition and pseudo-amino acid composition, 306 potential peptides were identified.
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, here for the first time, we report a comprehensive analysis of sera exhibiting cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines tested and identified several molecules using LC-MS/MS.
OBJECTIVE: In order to investigate the influence between electron density in conjugated π-systems and biological activities, different withdrawing substituents, namely Nitro (NO2), Cyano (C≡N) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) were introduced in the chalcone-based molecular system.
METHODS: All the derivatives were then tested on MCF-7 cell line using the fluorescence microscopy-based cytotoxicity analyses.
RESULTS: The preliminary findings showed that both -NO2 and -CF3 substituents revealed their potential to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 with IC;50 values of 14.75 and 13.75 μg/ml, respectively. In addition, the morphological changes of MCF-7 cells were observed in response to alkoxy substituted chalcone treatment through an induction of apoptosis pathway with cell blebbing, phosphatidylserine exposure and autophagic activity with acidification of lysosomal structure. Intermolecular interaction based on in silico investigation on nitro, trifluoromethyl and cyano based chalcones exhibited several types of interactions with tumor necrosis factor receptor (PDB: 1EXT) protein and high hydrogen bond in the molecule-receptor interaction have given significant impact towards their toxicity on MCF-7 cells.
CONCLUSION: Significantly, these types of chalcones exhibited ideal and high potential to be further developed as anti-cancer agents.