The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), including colistin resistance, among Enterobacteriaceae recovered from food animals poses a serious public health threat because of the potential transmission of these resistant variants to humans along the food chain. Village chickens or Ayam Kampung are free-range birds and are preferred by a growing number of consumers who consider these chickens to be organic and more wholesome. The current study investigates the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella isolates recovered from village chicken flocks in South-central Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 34 isolates belonging to eight serotypes isolated from village chickens were screened for resistance towards antimicrobials including colistin according to the WHO and OIE recommendations of critical antibiotics. S. Weltevreden accounted for 20.6% of total isolates, followed by serovars Typhimurium and Agona (17.6%). The majority of isolates (73.5%) demonstrated resistance to one or more antimicrobials. Eight isolates (23.5%) were resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Colistin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: 4-16 mg/L) was detected among five isolates (14.7%), including S. Weltevreden, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, and Salmonella spp. Univariable analysis of risk factors likely to influence the occurrence of MDR Salmonella revealed that the flock size, poultry production system, and use of antibiotics in the farm were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with MDR Salmonella. The current study highlights that MDR Salmonella occur at a lower level in village chickens compared to that found in live commercial chickens. However, MDR remains a problem even among free-range chickens with minimal exposure to antibiotics.
Seaweeds are gaining a considerable amount of attention for their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa lentillifera, also known as 'sea grapes', are green seaweeds commonly found in different parts of the world, but the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of Malaysian C. racemosa and C. lentillifera have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, crude extracts of the seaweeds were prepared using chloroform, methanol, and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured, followed by in vitro antioxidant activity determination using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Antibacterial activities of these extracts were tested against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis was then used to determine the possible compounds present in the extract with the most potent antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Results showed that C. racemosa chloroform extract had the highest TPC (13.41 ± 0.86 mg GAE/g), antioxidant effect (EC50 at 0.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL), and the strongest antibacterial effect (97.7 ± 0.30%) against MRSA. LCMS analysis proposed that the chloroform extracts of C. racemosa are mainly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, terpenes, and alkaloids. In conclusion, C. racemosa can be a great source of novel antioxidant and antibacterial agents, but isolation and purification of the bioactive compounds are needed to study their mechanism of action.
For the past few decades, there has been limited progress in the development of novel antibacterials. Previously, we postulated that the gut microbiota of animals residing in polluted environments are a forthcoming supply of antibacterials. Among various species, the water monitor lizard is an interesting species that feeds on organic waste and the carcass of wild animals. Gut microbiota of the water monitor lizard were sequestered, identified and cultivated in RPMI-1640 to produce conditioned medium (CM). Next, the antimicrobial properties of CM were evaluated versus a selection of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Serratia marcescens,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus). CM were partially characterized by heat inactivation at 95°C for 10 min and tested against P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes. CM were also tested against immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells lines. The results demonstrated that gut microbiota isolated from water monitor lizard produced molecules with remarkable bactericidal activities. To determine the identity of the active molecules, CM were subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Several molecules were identified belonging to the classes of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyhydroxy alkaloids, polyacetylenes, bisphenols, amides, oxylipin and pyrazine derivatives with known broad-spectrum antimicrobial, anti-tumour, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic attributes. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of these molecules could lead us to develop effective therapeutic antibacterials.
Antimicrobial resistance is of concern to global health security worldwide. We aimed to identify the prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) resistance from poultry farms in Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang states of east coast peninsular Malaysia. Between 8 February 2019 and 23 February 2020, a total of 371 samples (cloacal swabs = 259; faecal = 84; Sewage = 14, Tap water = 14) were collected. Characteristics of the sampled farms including management type, biosecurity, and history of disease were obtained using semi-structured questionnaire. Presumptive E. coli isolates were identified based on colony morphology with subsequent biochemical and PCR confirmation. Susceptibility of isolates was tested against a panel of 12 antimicrobials and interpreted alongside risk factor data obtained from the surveys. We isolated 717 E. coli samples from poultry and environmental samples. Our findings revealed that cloacal (17.8%, 46/259), faecal (22.6%, 19/84), sewage (14.3%, 2/14) and tap water (7.1%, 1/14) were significantly (p < 0.003) resistant to at least three classes of antimicrobials. Resistance to tetracycline class were predominantly observed in faecal samples (69%, 58/84), followed by cloacal (64.1%, 166/259), sewage (35.7%, 5/14), and tap water (7.1%, 1/84), respectively. Sewage water (OR = 7.22, 95% CI = 0.95-151.21) had significant association with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) acquisition. Multivariate regression analysis identified that the risk factors including sewage samples (OR = 7.43, 95% CI = 0.96-156.87) and farm size are leading drivers of E. coli antimicrobial resistance in the participating states of east coast peninsular Malaysia. We observed that the resistance patterns of E. coli isolates against 12 panel antimicrobials are generally similar in all selected states of east coast peninsular Malaysia. The highest prevalence of resistance was recorded in tetracycline (91.2%), oxytetracycline (89.1%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (73.1%), doxycycline (63%), and sulfamethoxazole (63%). A close association between different risk factors and the high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains reflects increased exposure to resistant bacteria and suggests a concern over rising misuse of veterinary antimicrobials that may contribute to the future threat of emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogen isolates. Public health interventions to limit antimicrobial resistance need to be tailored to local poultry farm practices that affect bacterial transmission.
Antimicrobial resistance in companion animals is a major public health concern worldwide due to the animals' zoonotic potential and ability to act as a reservoir for resistant genes. We report on the first use of meta-analysis and a systematic review to analyze the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in companion animals. Databases such as MedLib, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched. The information was extracted by two independent reviewers and the results were reviewed by a third. Two reviewers independently assessed the study protocol using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist and the study quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist for prevalence data. OpenMeta analyst and comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) were used for the meta-analysis. The random effect model was used, and publication bias was assessed using the Eggers test and funnel plot. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed, and the sources were analyzed using the leave-one-out meta-analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Twenty-two studies met the eligibility criteria, but because some studies reported the prevalence of VRE in more than one companion animal, they were considered as individual studies, and 35 studies were therefore added to the final meta-analysis. Sampling period of the included studies was from 1995-2018. Of the 4288 isolates tested in the included studies, 1241 were VRE. The pooled prevalence of VRE in companion animals was estimated at 14.6% (95% CI; 8.7-23.5%; I2 = 97.10%; p < 0.001). Between-study variability was high (t2 = 2.859; heterogeneity I2 = 97.10% with heterogeneity chi-square (Q) = 1173.346, degrees of freedom (df) = 34, and p < 0.001). The funnel plot showed bias, which was confirmed by Eggers test (t-value = 3.97165; p = 0.00036), and estimates from the leave-one-out forest plot did not affect the pooled prevalence. Pooled prevalence of VRE in dogs and cats were 18.2% (CI = 9.4-32.5%) and 12.3%, CI = 3.8-33.1%), respectively. More studies were reported in Europe than in any other continent, with most studies using feces as the sample type and disc diffusion as the detection method. With the emergence of resistant strains, new antimicrobials are required in veterinary medicine.
The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has greatly affected the clinical efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The limited treatment options have resulted in the increased use of carbapenem. However, flomoxef could be a potential carbapenem-sparing strategy for UTIs caused by ESBL-producers. Here, we compared the in vitro susceptibility of UTI-associated ESBL-producers to flomoxef and established β-lactam antibiotics. Fifty Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine samples were subjected to broth microdilution assay, and the presence of ESBL genes was detected by polymerase chain reactions. High rates of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate (76-80%), ticarcillin-clavulanate (58-76%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (48-50%) were observed, indicated by high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (32 µg/mL to 128 µg/mL) for both species. The ESBL genes blaCTX-M and blaTEM were detected in both E. coli (58% and 54%, respectively) and K. pneumoniae (88% and 74%, respectively), whereas blaSHV was found only in K. pneumoniae (94%). Carbapenems remained as the most effective antibiotics against ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae associated with UTIs, followed by flomoxef and cephamycins. In conclusion, flomoxef may be a potential alternative to carbapenem for UTIs caused by ESBL-producers in Malaysia.
Nanobiotechnology has undoubtedly influenced major breakthroughs in medical sciences. Application of nanosized materials has made it possible for researchers to investigate a broad spectrum of treatments for diseases with minimally invasive procedures. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been a subject of investigation for numerous applications in agriculture, water treatment, biosensors, textiles, and the food industry as well as in the medical field, mainly due to their antimicrobial properties and nanoparticle nature. In general, AgNPs are known for their superior physical, chemical, and biological properties. The properties of AgNPs differ based on their methods of synthesis and to date, the biological method has been preferred because it is rapid, nontoxic, and can produce well-defined size and morphology under optimized conditions. Nevertheless, the common issue concerning biological or biobased production is its sustainability. Researchers have employed various strategies in addressing this shortcoming, such as recently testing agricultural biowastes such as fruit peels for the synthesis of AgNPs. The use of biowastes is definitely cost-effective and eco-friendly; moreover, it has been reported that the reduction process is simple and rapid with reasonably high yield. This review aims to address the developments in using fruit- and vegetable-based biowastes for biologically producing AgNPs to be applied as antimicrobial coatings in biomedical applications.
The present study aimed to screen plants for bioactive compounds with potential antibacterial activities. In our efforts to evaluate plants from Borneo, we isolated and elucidated the structures of four natural products from the bioactive fraction of a chloroform extract of Goniothalamus longistipetes using various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The bioactive compounds were identified as a known styryllactone, (+)-altholactone ((2S,3R,3aS,7aS)-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydrobenzo-5(4H)-5-one) (1), a new styryllactone, (2S,3R,3aS,7aS)-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydrobenzo-5(4H)-5-one) (2) as well as a new alkaloid, 2,6-dimethoxyisonicotinaldehyde (3) and a new alkenyl-5-hydroxyl-phenyl benzoic acid (4). 1 and 4 showed broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as acid-fast model selected for this study. Compound 2 only demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria whilst 3 displayed selective inhibitory activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains. Additionally, their mechanisms of anti-bacterial action were also investigated. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a fast-growing model of tubercle bacilli, compounds 1, 2 and 4 demonstrated inhibitory activities against whole-cell drug efflux and biofilm formation; two key intrinsic mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Interestingly, the amphiphilic compound 4 exhibited inhibitory activity against the conjugation of plasmid pKM101 in Escherichia coli using a plate conjugation assay. Plasmid conjugation is a mechanism by which Gram-positive and Gram-negative-bacteria acquire drug resistance and virulence. These results indicated that bioactive compounds isolated from Goniothalamus longistipetes can be potential candidates as 'hits' for further optimisation.
Bacterial foodborne infections, including meat-derived infections, are globally associated with diseases and some deaths. Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat bacterial infections. The use of antibiotics by farmers contributes to the development of resistance by foodborne pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotics used by farmers and the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat sources. Data was obtained from livestock farmers through the administration of semistructured questionnaires (n = 376) to obtain information on their demographics, knowledge and antibiotic usage. The procedure in the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Bacteriological Analytical Manual was used for E. coli detection. Antibiotic resistance test was performed using the disk diffusion method. The findings revealed that most of the farmers were male (74.5%), were aged 30-39 years (28.5%), had tertiary education (30.3%) and had 6-10 years of experience in livestock husbandry. Sheep (65.7%) were the most reared livestock, and antibiotics were mostly used to treat sick animals (36.7%). Tetracycline (27.7%) was the most common antibiotic used by farmers, followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (18.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (11.7%). Most farmers (56.1%) said they had knowledge of antibiotic usage. The prevalence of E. coli in RTE meats was lowest in pork (6.0%) and highest in chevon (20.0%). E. coli isolates from RTE meats were highly resistant to teicoplanin (96.77%), tetracycline (93.55%), amoxicillin/clavulanic (70.97%), azithromycin (70.97%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (58.06%) but was susceptible to chloramphenicol (93.55%), ciprofloxacin (61.29%) and ceftriaxone (58.06%). The multiple antibiotic index ranged from 0.22 to 0.78. Multidrug resistance (93.55%) was high among the E. coli isolates. The resistance pattern AmcAzmTecTeSxt (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-azithromycin-telcoplanin-tetracycline-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) was the most common. The use of antibiotics by farmers must be well regulated. Sellers of RTE meats also ought to take hygiene practices seriously to keep meat safe and healthy for public consumption.
Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleriafowleri are opportunistic protozoan pathogens capable of producing infection of the central nervous system with more than 95% mortality rate. Previously, we have synthesized several compounds with antiamoebic properties; however, synthesis of compounds that are analogues of clinically used drugs is a highly desirable approach that can lead to effective drug development against these devastating infections. In this regard, compounds belonging to the azole class possess wide range of antimicrobial properties and used clinically. In this study, six novel benzimidazole, indazole, and tetrazole derivatives were synthesized and tested against brain-eating amoebae. These compounds were tested for their amoebicidal and static properties against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris. Furthermore, the compounds were conjugated with silver nanoparticles and characterized. The synthetic heterocyclic compounds showed up to 72% and 65% amoebicidal activities against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris respectively, while expressing up to 75% and 70% amoebistatic activities, respectively. Following conjugation with silver nanoparticles, amoebicidal activities of the drugs increased by up to 46 and 36% versus B. mandrillaris and N. fowleri. Minimal effects were observed when the compounds were evaluated against human cells using cytotoxicity assays. In summary, azole compounds exhibited potent activity against N. fowleri and B. mandrillaris. Moreover, conjugation of the azole compounds with silver nanoparticles further augmented the capabilities of the compounds against amoebae.
The pathogenic free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii, is responsible for a rare but deadly central nervous system infection, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and a blinding eye disease called Acanthamoeba keratitis. Currently, a combination of biguanides, amidine, azoles and antibiotics are used to manage these infections; however, the host cell cytotoxicity of these drugs remains a challenge. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba species are capable of transforming to the cyst form to resist chemotherapy. Herein, we have developed a nano drug delivery system based on iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with isoniazid, which were further loaded with amphotericin B (ISO-NPs-AMP) to cause potent antiamoebic effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The IC50 of isoniazid conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles and loaded with amphotericin B was found to be 45 μg/mL against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and 50 μg/mL against cysts. The results obtained in this study have promising implications in drug discovery as these nanomaterials exhibited high trophicidal and cysticidal effects, as well as limited cytotoxicity against rat and human cells.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA infection is virulent and presents with a broad spectrum of severity. Limited regional reports that specifically outlined the potential risk of medical students being part of the dissemination of MRSA in healthcare settings were noted. This study aims to assess the prevalence and contributory factors of colonization of MRSA on neckties, headscarves, and ID badges among medical students in a local medical university in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 256 medical students. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data, and sample swabs were collected between July and August 2013 by swabbing neckties, headscarves, or identification badges. The swabs were then streaked onto mannitol salt agar (MSA) and incubated at 37 °C overnight. Out of 433 samples taken, 40 swabs (9.24%) were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Out of the 40 swabs, five (12.5%) isolates were MRSA (one culture was isolated from the headscarf of a preclinical student, one culture was isolated from the necktie of clinical students, while the remaining three were isolated from identification badges of clinical students. There was no significant association between age, gender, ethnicity, and phase of medical students with the colonization of MRSA (p > 0.05). There was a significant association between knowledge score on hand hygiene practice and phase of medical students. MRSA colonies were present on neckties, headscarves, and identification badges of medical students of all phases. The findings from this study suggest the need for improvement of hand hygiene knowledge and discontinuity of mandatory use of physical ID badges and neckties among medical students.
Factors reported in the literature associated with inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials include physicians with less experience, uncertain diagnosis, and patient caregiver influences on physicians' decisions. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance patterns, developing, and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Improvement in prescribing antimicrobials would minimize the risk of resistance and, consequently, improve patients' clinical and health outcomes. The purpose of the study is to delineate factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, describe the factors influencing prescriber's choice during prescribing of antimicrobial, and examine factors related to consequences of inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobial. A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare providers (190) in six tertiary hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The research panel has developed, validated, and piloted survey specific with closed-ended questions. A value of p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 23.0). 72.7% of the respondents have agreed that poor skills and knowledge are key factors that contribute to the inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials. All of the respondents acknowledged effectiveness, previous experience with the antimicrobial, and reading scientific materials (such as books, articles, and the internet) as being key factors influencing physicians' choice during antimicrobial prescribing. The current study has identified comprehensive education and training needs for healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance. Using antimicrobials unnecessarily, insufficient duration of antimicrobial use, and using broad spectrum antimicrobials were reported to be common practices. Furthermore, poor skills and knowledge were a key factor that contributed to the inappropriate use and overuse of antimicrobials, and the use of antimicrobials without a physician's prescription (i.e., self-medication) represent key factors which contribute to AMR from participants' perspectives. Furthermore, internal policy and guidelines are needed to ensure that the antimicrobials are prescribed in accordance with standard protocols and clinical guidelines.
Antimicrobial resistance remains a significant public health issue, and to a greater extent, caused by the misuse of antimicrobials. Monitoring and benchmarking antimicrobial use is critical for the antimicrobial stewardship team to enhance prudent use of antimicrobial and curb antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings. Employing a comprehensive and established tool, this study investigated the trends and compliance of antimicrobial prescribing in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Malaysia to identify potential target areas for quality improvement. A point prevalence survey method following the National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey (NAPS) was used to collect detailed data on antimicrobial prescribing and assessed a set of quality indicators associated with antimicrobial use. The paper-based survey was conducted across 37 adult wards, which included all adult in-patients on the day of the survey to form the study population. Of 478 patients surveyed, 234 (49%) patients received at least one antimicrobial agent, with 357 antimicrobial prescriptions. The highest prevalence of antimicrobial use was within the ICU (80%). Agents used were mainly amoxicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor (14.8%), piperacillin/β-lactamase inhibitor (10.6%) and third-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone, 9.5%). Intravenous administration was ordered in 62.7% of prescriptions. Many antimicrobials were prescribed empirically (65.5%) and commonly prescribed for pneumonia (19.6%). The indications for antimicrobials were documented in the patients' notes for 80% of the prescriptions; however, the rate of review/stop date recorded must be improved (33.3%). One-half of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis was administered for more than 24 h. From 280 assessable prescriptions, 141 (50.4%) were compliant with guidelines. Treating specialties, administration route, class of antimicrobial, and the number of prescriptions per patient were contributing factors associated with compliance. On multivariate analysis, administering non-oral routes of antimicrobial administration, and single antimicrobial prescription prescribed per patient was independently associated with non-compliance. NAPS can produce robust baseline information and identifying targets for improvement in antimicrobial prescribing in reference to current AMS initiatives within the tertiary care teaching hospital. The findings underscore the necessity to expand the AMS efforts towards reinforcing compliance, documentation, improving surgical prophylaxis prescribing practices, and updating local antibiotic guidelines.
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii, CRAb) is an emerging global threat for healthcare systems, particularly in Southeast Asia. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was employed to map genes associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to identify multilocus sequence types (MLST). Eleven strains isolated from humans in Vietnam were sequenced, and their AMR genes and MLST were compared to published genomes of strains originating from Southeast Asia, i.e., Thailand (n = 49), Myanmar (n = 38), Malaysia (n = 11), Singapore (n = 4) and Taiwan (n = 1). Ten out of eleven Vietnamese strains were CRAb and were susceptible only to colistin. All strains harbored ant(3")-IIa, armA, aph(6)-Id and aph(3") genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, and blaOXA-51 variants and blaADC-25 conferring resistance to ß-lactams. More than half of the strains harbored genes that confer resistance to tetracyclines, sulfonamides and macrolides. The strains showed high diversity, where six were assigned to sequence type (ST)/2, and two were allocated to two new STs (ST/1411-1412). MLST analyses of 108 strains from Southeast Asia identified 19 sequence types (ST), and ST/2 was the most prevalent found in 62 strains. A broad range of AMR genes was identified mediating resistance to ß-lactams, including cephalosporins and carbapenems (e.g., blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23, blaADC-25, blaADC-73, blaTEM-1, blaNDM-1), aminoglycosides (e.g., ant(3")-IIa, aph(3")-Ib, aph(6)-Id, armA and aph(3')-Ia), phenicoles (e.g., catB8), tetracyclines (e.g., tet.B and tet.39), sulfonamides (e.g., sul.1 and sul.2), macrolides and lincosamide (e.g., mph.E, msr.E and abaF). MLST and core genome MLST (cgMLST) showed an extreme diversity among the strains. Several strains isolated from different countries clustered together by cgMLST; however, different clusters shared the same ST. Developing an action plan on AMR, increasing awareness and prohibiting the selling of antibiotics without prescription must be mandatory for this region. Such efforts are critical for enforcing targeted policies on the rational use of carbapenem compounds and controlling AMR dissemination and emergence in general.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the microorganism that causes tuberculosis. This infectious disease has been around for centuries, with the earliest record of Mtb around three million years ago. The discovery of the antituberculosis agents in the 20th century has managed to improve the recovery rate and reduce the death rate tremendously. However, the conventional antituberculosis therapy is complicated by the development of resistant strains and adverse drug reactions experienced by the patients. Research has been conducted continuously to discover new, safe, and effective antituberculosis drugs. In the last 50 years, only two molecules were approved despite laborious work and costly research. The repurposing of drugs is also being done with few drugs; antibiotics, particularly, were found to have antituberculosis activity. Besides the discovery work, enhancing the delivery of currently available antituberculosis drugs is also being researched. Targeted drug delivery may be a potentially useful approach to be developed into clinically accepted treatment modalities. Active targeting utilizes a specifically designed targeting agent to deliver a chemically conjugated drug(s) towards Mtb. Passive targeting is very widely explored, with the development of multiple types of nanoparticles from organic and inorganic materials. The nanoparticles will be engulfed by macrophages and this will eliminate the Mtb that is present in the macrophages, or the encapsulated drug may be released at the sites of infections that may be in the form of intra- and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. This article provided an overview on the history of tuberculosis and the currently available treatment options, followed by discussions on the discovery of new antituberculosis drugs and active and passive targeting approaches against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Background: To restrain antibiotic resistance, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States of America, urges all hospital settings to implement the Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs (CEHASP). However, the concept of hospital-based antibiotic stewardship programs is relatively new in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Aim: To appraise the adherence of the tertiary care hospitals to seven CEHASPs. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional study in the tertiary care hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan. Method: CEHASP assessment tool, (a checklist) was used to collect data from the eligible hospitals based on purposive sampling. The check list had 19 statements to cover seven CEHASPs: Hospital Leadership Commitment, Accountability, Pharmacy Expertise, Action (Implement Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Use), Tracking Antibiotic Use and Outcomes, Reporting Antibiotic Use and Outcomes, and Education. For each statement, a response of "YES", "NO" or "Under Process" constituted a score of 2, 0 and 1, respectively, where the higher the scores the better the adherence. Categorical variables were described through descriptive statistics, while independent t-test computed group differences. Result: A total of 68 hospitals (n = 33 public, n = 35 private) participated with a response rate of 79.1%. No hospital demonstrated "Perfect" adherence. Roughly half private (48.6%) and more than half public (54.5%) sector hospitals were "Poor" in adherence. Based on the mean score, there was no significant difference between the private and the public hospitals in terms of comparison of individual core elements. The two most neglected core elements emerged as top priority area were: Reporting Antibiotic Use and Outcomes and Tracking Antibiotic Use and Outcomes.Conclusion: The current response of Pakistan to implement hospital-based antibiotic stewardship programs is inadequate. This study points out significant gaps of practice both in public and private tertiary care hospitals. A majority of the core elements of antibiotic stewardship are either absent or "Under Process". The deficiency/priority areas mentioned require immediate attention of the concerned stakeholders in Pakistan.
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is still one of the most critical issues impeding worldwide TB control efforts. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to give an updated picture of the prevalence of DR-TB in Sudan. A comprehensive systematic search was performed on four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) to identify all published studies reporting prevalence data of DR-TB in Sudan. Sixteen eligible studies published during 2002-2020 were included. Using meta-analysis of proportions, the pooled prevalence of TB cases with resistance to any anti-TB drugs was 47.0% (95% CI: 35.5-58.6%). The overall prevalence of mono, multi, poly and extensive drug resistance were estimated to be 16.2% (95% CI: 9.0-23.4%), 22.8% (95% CI: 16.0-29.7%), 6.8% (95% CI: 0.5-13.0%) and 0.7% (95% CI: 0-2.1%), respectively. Considering any first-line anti-TB drugs, the resistance prevalence was highest for isoniazid (32.3%) and streptomycin (31.7%), followed by rifampicin (29.2%). In contrast, resistance against second-line drugs was reported for only two antibiotics, namely, ofloxacin (2.1%) and kanamycin (0.7%). Of note, the resistance profile of the previously treated patients was found to be remarkably high compared with the newly diagnosed TB patients. The relatively high prevalence estimation of anti-TB drug resistance warrants strengthening TB control and treatment strategies in Sudan.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an antimicrobial agent which is considered of potential value in inhibiting the growth of multiple bacteria. Klebsiella pneumonia and Haemophilus influenza are two of the most common respiratory infection pathogens, and are the most. Klebsiella pneumonia causes fatal meningitis, while Haemophilus influenza causes mortality even in younger patients. Both are associated with bacteremia and mortality. The purpose of this study was to test a new antibacterial material, namely nanotitania extract combined with 0.03% silver that was developed at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) and tested against K. pneumonia and H. influenza. The nanoparticles were synthesized through a modified hydrothermal process, combined with molten salt and proven to have excellent crystallinity, with the band-gap energy falling in the visible light spectrum. The nanoparticle extract was tested using a macro-dilutional method, which involved combining it with 0.03% silver solution during the process of nanoparticle synthesis and then introducing it to the bacteria. A positive control containing the bacteria minus the nanoparticles extract was also prepared. 25 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL, and 6.25 mg/mL concentrations of the samples were produced using the macro dilution method. After adding the bacteria to multiple concentrations of nanoparticle extract, the suspensions were incubated for 24 h at a temperature of 37 °C. The suspensions were then spread on Mueller-Hinton agar (K. pneumonia) and chocolate blood agar (H. influenza), where the growth of bacteria was observed after 24 h. Nanoparticle extract in combination with silver at 0.03% was proven to have potential as an antimicrobial agent as it was able to inhibit H. influenza at all concentrations. Furthermore, it was also shown to be capable of inhibiting K. pneumonia at concentrations of 25 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. In conclusion, the nanoparticle extract, when tested using a macro-dilutional method, displayed antimicrobial properties which were proven effective against the growth of both K. pneumonia and H. influenza.
The administration of probiotics via live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers, has gained significant attention. Moreover, indiscriminate use of antibiotics in conventional aquaculture practices in order to prevent or control disease outbreaks has resulted in the occurrence of residues and antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the application of eco-friendly feed additives, such as probiotics, as a safer alternative has received increasing attention in recent years. However, only minimal information on the administration of probiotics via freshwater cladoceran Moina micrura is available despite being commonly used for larval and post-larval feeding of freshwater crustaceans and fish. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the application of Bacillus pocheonensis strain S2 administered via M. micrura to red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) larvae. Bacillus pocheonensis that has been previously isolated from Spirulina sp. was subjected to preliminary in vitro evaluation of antagonistic properties. The agar well-diffusion assay revealed that this probiont could inhibit the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The size of inhibition zones ranged from 8.8 ± 0.2 to 18.2 ± 0.4 mm. Moina micrura was later used as a biological model in preliminary in vivo bacterial challenge assays to evaluate the efficacy of B. pocheonensis in protecting the host from diseases. Moina micrura was pre-enriched with B. pocheonensis at 104 and 106 CFU mL-1 before S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila were introduced into the culture. The study revealed that B. pocheonensis at 104 CFU mL-1 was able to significantly enhance the survival of M. micrura after being challenged with both pathogens (63 ± 3%) in comparison to the control group. The relative percentage survival (RPS) of M. micrura was highest (p < 0.05) when treated with B. pocheonensis at both concentrations 104 and 106 CFU mL-1 (38.33) after being challenged against S. agalactiae. To assess the efficacy of B. pocheonensis in protecting red hybrid tilapia against streptococcosis, the larvae were fed with either unenriched (control) Moina or probiont-enriched Moina daily for 10 days. A significantly (p < 0.05) higher survival rate (77 ± 3%) was observed in larvae fed with probiont-enriched M. micrura compared to other treatments, and the RPS was recorded at 62.90. In addition, the S. agalactiae load was suppressed in larvae fed probiont-enriched M. micrura (6.84±0.39 CFU mL-1) in comparison to the control group (7.78±0.09 CFU mL-1), indicating that the probiont might have contributed to the improvement of tilapia health and survival. This study illustrated that M. micrura was suitable to be used as a vector for probiotics in freshwater fish larvae as an alternative to hazardous antibiotics for disease control.