Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Khoo HE, Ng HS, Yap WS, Goh HJH, Yim HS
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Apr 02;8(4).
    PMID: 30986936 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8040085
    The risk of macular degeneration can be reduced through the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods, supplements, and nutraceutical formulas. This review focuses on the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that have been reported for reducing the risk of macular degeneration and other eye-related diseases. Antioxidants including anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamins have been shown to reduce the risk of eye-related diseases. Anthocyanins extracted from berries are powerful antioxidants. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin are anthocyanin aglycones detected in berries, currants, and other colored fruits and vegetables. β-Carotene, as well as xanthophyll lutein and zeaxanthin, have been reported to reduce the risk of macular degeneration. Flavonoids from plants help in the prevention of eye-related diseases through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. A combination of these antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals possess a synergistic effect on the prevention or risk reduction of macular degeneration. Formulas have been developed as dietary supplements to cater to the high demand from consumers and patients with eye problems. Many of the formulated dietary supplements that are sold in the market have been clinically proven for their efficacy to treat eye diseases. Although the bioactivities in the supplement capsules or tablets have been scientifically established for reducing risks of several diseases, which include macular degeneration and other eye-related diseases, knowledge on the right dosage, efficacy, and bioavailability of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals is important for consumers. The information may help them make the best decision in choosing the right dietary supplements and nutraceuticals following the evidence-based recommended dosages and reference intakes for improving general health and preventing eye-related diseases. This review covers the potential causal factors involved in eye diseases, clinically proven treatments, and controversial findings on the antioxidants in the prevention of macular degeneration. Future studies should consider multiethnic and multicenter trials for eliminating potential bias in research.
  2. Fuloria S, Subramaniyan V, Karupiah S, Kumari U, Sathasivam K, Meenakshi DU, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Nov 02;9(11).
    PMID: 33147856 DOI: 10.3390/antiox9111075
    Continuous oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids generate extremely reactive carbonyl species (RCS). Human body comprises some important RCS namely hexanal, acrolein, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, methylglyoxal, malondialdehyde, isolevuglandins, and 4-oxo-2- nonenal etc. These RCS damage important cellular components including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, which manifests cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, multitude of adducts and crosslinks that are connected to ageing and various chronic diseases like inflammatory disease, atherosclerosis, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease. The constant prevalence of RCS in living cells suggests their importance in signal transduction and gene expression. Extensive knowledge of RCS properties, metabolism and relation with metabolic diseases would assist in development of effective approach to prevent numerous chronic diseases. Treatment approaches for RCS associated diseases involve endogenous RCS metabolizers, carbonyl metabolizing enzyme inducers, and RCS scavengers. Limited bioavailability and bio efficacy of RCS sequesters suggest importance of nanoparticles and nanocarriers. Identification of RCS and screening of compounds ability to sequester RCS employ several bioassays and analytical techniques. Present review describes in-depth study of RCS sources, types, properties, identification techniques, therapeutic approaches, nanocarriers, and their role in various diseases. This study will give an idea for therapeutic development to combat the RCS associated chronic diseases.
  3. Mohd Azman NA, Gallego MG, Segovia F, Abdullah S, Shaarani SM, Almajano Pablos MP
    PMID: 27043639 DOI: 10.3390/antiox5020011
    The common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Sprengel) is a ubiquitous procumbent evergreen shrub located throughout North America, Asia, and Europe. The fruits are almost tasteless but the plant contains a high concentration of active ingredients. The antioxidant activity of bearberry leaf extract in the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay was 90.42 mmol Trolox equivalents/g dry weight (DW). The scavenging ability of the methanol extract of bearberry leaves against methoxy radicals generated in the Fenton reaction was measured via electron paramagnetic resonance. Lipid oxidation was retarded in an oil-water emulsion by adding 1 g/kg lyophilised bearberry leaf extract. Also, 1 g/kg of lyophilised bearberry leaf extract incorporated into a gelatin-based film displayed high antioxidant activity to retard the degradation of lipids in muscle foods. The present results indicate the potential of bearberry leaf extract for use as a natural food antioxidant.
  4. Azman NA, Gallego MG, Juliá L, Fajari L, Almajano M
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2015 Mar 10;4(1):170-84.
    PMID: 26785344 DOI: 10.3390/antiox4010170
    In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA) ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant.
  5. Mohd Mutalip SS, Ab-Rahim S, Rajikin MH
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 Jan 26;7(2).
    PMID: 29373543 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7020022
    Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 as a substance necessary for reproduction. Following this discovery, vitamin E was extensively studied, and it has become widely known as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant. There has been increasing interest in the role of vitamin E as an antioxidant, as it has been discovered to lower body cholesterol levels and act as an anticancer agent. Numerous studies have reported that vitamin E exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-survival, pro-apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic effects in cancer, as well as anti-inflammatory activities. There are various reports on the benefits of vitamin E on health in general. However, despite it being initially discovered as a vitamin necessary for reproduction, to date, studies relating to its effects in this area are lacking. Hence, this paper was written with the intention of providing a review of the known roles of vitamin E as an antioxidant in female reproductive health.
  6. Che Zain MS, Lee SY, Sarian MN, Fakurazi S, Shaari K
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Apr 17;9(4).
    PMID: 32316665 DOI: 10.3390/antiox9040326
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaves (OPL) are widely available at zero cost in Southeast Asia countries, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia due to large scale oil palm plantations. OPLs contain a large amount of flavonoids in particular flavonoid C-glycosides, which are known to possess useful biological properties including antioxidant and wound healing properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the wound healing efficacy of OPL in various solvent extracts and flavonoid enriched fractions and to determine the contribution of flavonoid C-glycosides (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin) using in-vitro scratch assay on 3T3 fibroblast cells. Solvent crude extracts with different polarity were screened and the most active extract was subjected to acid hydrolysis. The crude and acid hydrolysed extracts were further enriched using macroporous resins, XAD7HP. UHPLC-UV/PDA and LC-MS/MS analysis were applied for identification and confirmation of flavonoid C-glycosides. The wound healing properties comprised of cell viability, cell proliferation and cell migration were studied. Allantoin was used as a positive control to compare the efficacy among the tested samples. The results revealed all OPL crude extracts, flavonoid enriched fractions and flavonoid C-glycosides were non-toxic at concentrations below 25 µg/mL and showed better cell proliferation and migration activities at low concentrations than higher concentrations.. This study also demonstrated orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin presented in OPL extracts and flavonoid enriched fractions stimulated proliferation and migration of 3T3 fibroblast cells. Hence, these findings may pose potential therapeutic bioactive agents for wound healing by enhancing fibroblast proliferation and migration.
  7. Orlando G, Recinella L, Chiavaroli A, Brunetti L, Leone S, Carradori S, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 May 17;9(5).
    PMID: 32429587 DOI: 10.3390/antiox9050437
    Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is traditionally cultivated as a valuable source of fibers and nutrients. Multiple studies also demonstrated antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, phytotoxic and insecticide effects of the essential oil from hemp female inflorescences. On the other side, only a few studies explored the potential pharmacological application of polar extracts from inflorescences. In the present study, we investigated the water extract from inflorescences of industrial hemp Futura 75 variety, from phytochemical and pharmacological point of view. The water extract was assayed for phenolic compound content, radical scavenger/reducing, chelating and anti-tyrosinase effects. Through an ex vivo model of toxicity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on isolated rat colon and liver, we explored the extract effects on serotonin, dopamine and kynurenine pathways and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2. Anti-proliferative effects were also evaluated against human colon cancer HCT116 cell line. Additionally, antimycotic effects were investigated against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum gypseum. Finally, in silico studies, including bioinformatics, network pharmacology and docking approaches were conducted in order to predict the putative targets underlying the observed pharmacological and microbiological effects. Futura 75 water extract was able to blunt LPS-induced reduction of serotonin and increase of dopamine and kynurenine turnover, in rat colon. Additionally, the reduction of PGE2 levels was observed in both colon and liver specimens, as well. The extract inhibited the HCT116 cell viability, the growth of T. rubrum and T. interdigitale and the activity of tyrosinase, in vitro, whereas in silico studies highlighting the inhibitions of cyclooxygenase-1 (induced by carvacrol), carbonic anhydrase IX (induced by chlorogenic acid and gallic acid) and lanosterol 14-α-demethylase (induced by rutin) further support the observed pharmacological and antimycotic effects. The present findings suggest female inflorescences from industrial hemp as high quality by-products, thus representing promising sources of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals against inflammatory and infectious diseases.
  8. Ab Hamid N, Abu Bakar AB, Mat Zain AA, Nik Hussain NH, Othman ZA, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Jun 07;9(6).
    PMID: 32517356 DOI: 10.3390/antiox9060499
    Royal jelly (RJ) has been shown to contribute its positive effects upon imbalance in the reproductive system. However, it remains unknown as to whether RJ has an anti-androgenic effect on reproductive parameters in a polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) animal model. Composition of RJ was assessed by phytochemical screening and the LC-MS method. Forty immature female rats (3 weeks, 40-50 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 per group), i.e., control, testosterone (T), T+100RJ (100 mg/kg/day), T+200RJ (200 mg/kg/day RJ), and T+400RJ (400 mg/kg/day RJ) groups. Hyperandrogenism was induced by daily subcutaneous injection of T propionate for 3 weeks, followed by oral RJ for 4 weeks. The T+200RJ group had a significantly higher follicle-stimulating hormone level, and significantly lower luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels in comparison to the T group. Malondialdehyde level and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower, while total antioxidant capacity level was significantly higher in the T+200RJ group compared to the T group. Histologically, the T+200RJ group showed recovery of various stages of ovarian follicular development. RJ at 200 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks significantly improved reproductive parameters in PCOS rats partly due to its anti-androgenic effect through antioxidant action and probably due to modulation on estrogenic activity, which needs further study to evaluate its exact mechanism of action.
  9. Nor Azman NHE, Goon JA, Abdul Ghani SM, Hamid Z, Wan Ngah WZ
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 May 28;7(6).
    PMID: 29843393 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7060074
    BACKGROUND: Tocotrienol and tocopherol are known to prevent numerous degenerative diseases. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) with α-tocopherol (α-TF) on the antioxidant status of healthy individuals aged between 50 and 55 years.

    METHODS: Volunteers were divided into groups receiving placebo (n = 23), α-TF (n = 24) and TRF (n = 24). Fasting venous blood samples were taken at baseline (0 month), 3 months and 6 months of supplementation for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as for reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations.

    RESULTS: CAT and GPx were unaffected by TRF and α-TF supplementations. SOD activity increased significantly after six months of TRF supplementation. Analysis by gender showed that only female subjects had significant increases in SOD and GPx activities after six months of TRF supplementation. GPx activity was also significantly higher in females compared to males after six months of TRF supplementation. The GSH/GSSG ratio increased significantly after six months of TRF and α-TF supplementation in only the female subjects.

    CONCLUSION: TRF and α-TF supplementation exhibited similar effects to the antioxidant levels of older adults with TRF having more significant effects in females.

  10. Sukalingam K, Ganesan K, Xu B
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 Jun 22;7(7).
    PMID: 29932107 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7070078
    The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150⁻200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw/p.o.)-treated control. Group 3 was TAA (100 mg/kg bw/s.c.)-treated control. Groups 4 and 5 were orally administered with the leaf extract of J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) daily for 10 days with a subsequent administration of a single dose of TAA (100 mg/kg/s.c.). Blood and livers were collected and assayed for various antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, and GR). Treatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced liver TBARS and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in TAA-induced fibrosis rats. Concurrently, pretreatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced the elevated liver markers (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, and TB) in the blood. In addition, J. tranquebariensis- and silymarin- administered rats demonstrated the restoration of normal liver histology and reduction in fibronectin and collagen deposition. Based on these findings, J. tranquebariensis has potent liver protective functions and can alleviate thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress, hepatic fibrosis and possible engross mechanisms connected to antioxidant potential.
  11. Ravichanthiran K, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Cao Y, Wang CW, Muhammad S, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 May 23;7(6).
    PMID: 29789516 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7060071
    Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.
  12. Ahmed QU, Alhassan AM, Khatib A, Shah SAA, Hasan MM, Sarian MN
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 Oct 08;7(10).
    PMID: 30297618 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7100137
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of A. bilimbi crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 (4.14 ± 0.21 μg/mL) (p < 0.05), as well as xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 (64.84 ± 3.93 μg/mL) (p < 0.05). Afzelechin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and cucumerin A were tentatively identified as possible metabolites that contribute to the antioxidant activity of the n-butanol fraction.
  13. Fikry M, Yusof YA, M Al-Awaadh A, Abdul Rahman R, Chin NL, Ghazali HM
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Jul 18;8(7).
    PMID: 31323854 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8070226
    Full-fat roasted date seeds are considered an excellent source of antioxidants which can treat many diseases. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of roasting temperature and time on the hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the roasted date seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH, browning index and sensory properties of the brew prepared from the full-fat roasted date seeds and to construct descriptive models that could describe this effect. Date seeds were roasted at three temperatures (160, 180 and 200 °C) for different period of times (10, 20 and 30 min) using a natural conventional oven; then grinded and next brewed. Hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH and browning index and sensory properties of the brew were significantly affected by the roasting conditions. The statistical results indicated that the proposed model could adequately describe the measured properties. Strong correlations have been found among the properties of the brew as well. The producers of the date seeds brew can utilize these results for controlling the roasting process.
  14. Saleem F, Mehmood R, Mehar S, Khan MTJ, Khan ZU, Ashraf M, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Jul 19;8(7).
    PMID: 31331076 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8070231
    Members of genus Pteris have their established role in the traditional herbal medicine system. In the pursuit to identify its biologically active constituents, the specie Pteris cretica L. (P. cretica) was selected for the bioassay-guided isolation. Two new maleates (F9 and CB18) were identified from the chloroform extract and the structures of the isolates were elucidated through their spectroscopic data. The putative targets, that potentially interact with both of these isolates, were identified through reverse docking by using in silico tools PharmMapper and ReverseScreen3D. On the basis of reverse docking results, both isolates were screened for their antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, α-glucosidase (GluE) inhibition and antibacterial activities. Both isolates depicted moderate potential for the selected activities. Furthermore, docking studies of both isolates were also studied to investigate the binding mode with respective targets followed by molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energies. Thereby, the current study embodies the poly-pharmacological potential of P. cretica.
  15. Ahmad S, Hussain A, Hussain A, Abdullah I, Ali MS, Froeyen M, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Jun 19;8(6).
    PMID: 31248160 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8060185
    Cisplatin is amongst the most potent chemotherapeutic drugs with applications in more than 50% of cancer treatments, but dose-dependent side effects limit its usefulness. Berberis vulgaris L. (B. vulgaris) has a proven role in several therapeutic applications in the traditional medicinal system. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify berberine, a potent alkaloid in the methanolic root extract of B. vulgaris (BvRE). Berberine chloride in BvRE was found to be 10.29% w/w. To assess the prophylactic and curative protective effects of BvRE on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia, in vivo toxicity trials were carried out on 25 healthy male albino Wistar rats (130-180 g). Both prophylactic and curative trials included a single dose of cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and nine doses of BvRE (500 mg/kg/day, orally). An array of marked toxicity effects appeared in response to cisplatin dosage evident by morphological condition, biochemical analysis of serum (urea, creatinine, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol, and triglyceride), and organ tissue homogenates (malondialdehyde and catalase). Statistically-significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed in various parameters. Moreover, histological studies of liver and kidney tissues revealed that the protective effect of BvRE effectively minimized and reversed nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and hyperlipidemic effects caused by cisplatin in both prophylactic and curative groups with relatively promising ameliorative effects in the prophylactic regimen. The in vitro cell viability effect of cisplatin, BvRE, and their combination was determined on HeLa cells using the tetrazolium (MTT) assay. MTT clearly corroborated that HeLa cells appeared to be less sensitive to cisplatin and berberine individually, while the combination of both at the same concentrations resulted in growth inhibition of HeLa cells in a remarkable synergistic way. The present study validated the use of BvRE as a protective agent in combination therapy with cisplatin.
  16. Mohd Hassan N, Yusof NA, Yahaya AF, Mohd Rozali NN, Othman R
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Oct 09;8(10).
    PMID: 31600964 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8100469
    Pepper of the Capsicum species is a common ingredient in various food preparations by different cultures worldwide. The Capsicum is recognised by its five main domesticated species, namely Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. The genetic diversity in Capsicum offers fruits in wide ranges of morphology and carotenoid profile. Carotenoids enhance the value of pepper from a nutritional standpoint, despite being commonly prized for the pharmacologically active pungent capsaicinoids. Carotenoids of pepper comprise mainly of the unique, powerful and highly stable capsanthin and capsoroubin, together with β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin. These carotenoids are present at diverse profile and varying levels, biosynthetically connected to the fruit maturity stages. This review describes the health-promoting functional attributes of the carotenoids that are mainly associated with their excellent role as lipophilic antioxidants. Capsicum as a great source of carotenoids is discussed in the aspects of main domesticated species, biosynthesis, pigment profile, antioxidant activity and safety. Findings from a number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies provided appreciable evidence on the protective effects of pepper's carotenoids against degenerative diseases. Hence, pepper with its functional carotenoids might be recommended in health-promoting and disease preventing strategies.
  17. Wazir H, Chay SY, Zarei M, Hussin FS, Mustapha NA, Wan Ibadullah WZ, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Oct 16;8(10).
    PMID: 31623062 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8100486
    Studies on the oxidative changes in meat-based, low-moisture, ready to eat foods are complicated due to complex food system and slow lipid-protein oxidative deterioration. The current study evaluates the oxidative changes over six months of storage on shredded beef and chicken products (locally known as serunding) for physicochemical analysis, lipid oxidation (conjugated dienes and malondialdehydes) and protein co-oxidation (soluble protein content, amino acid composition, protein carbonyl, tryptophan loss and Schiff base fluorescence) at 25 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C. The lipid stability of chicken serunding was significantly lower than beef serunding, illustrated by higher conjugated dienes content and higher rate of malondialdehyde formation during storage. In terms of protein co-oxidation, chicken serunding with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) experienced more severe oxidation, as seen from lower protein solubility, higher protein carbonyl and Schiff base formation compared to beef serunding. To conclude, chicken serunding demonstrates lower lipid and protein stability and exhibits higher rate of lipid oxidation and protein co-oxidation than beef serunding. These findings provide insights on the progression of lipid oxidation and protein co-oxidation in cooked, shredded meat products and could be extrapolated to minimize possible adverse effects arising from lipid oxidation and protein co-oxidation, on the quality of low-moisture, high-lipid, high-protein foods.
  18. Mei WS, Ismail A, Esa NM, Akowuah GA, Wai HC, Seng YH
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2014;3(2):371-86.
    PMID: 26784877 DOI: 10.3390/antiox3020371
    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.
  19. Mediani A, Abas F, Tan CP, Khatib A
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2014 May 07;3(2):358-70.
    PMID: 26784876 DOI: 10.3390/antiox3020358
    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
  20. Tan JB, Yap WJ, Tan SY, Lim YY, Lee SM
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2014;3(4):758-69.
    PMID: 26785239 DOI: 10.3390/antiox3040758
    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5-10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method.
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