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  1. Rajik M, Yusoff K
    Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 2011;21(4):151-4.
    PMID: 21602612 DOI: 10.3851/IMP1728
    Influenza A virus is a particularly problematic virus because of its ability to cause high levels of morbidity on a global scale within a remarkably short period of time. It also has the potential to kill very large numbers of people as occurred in the Spanish influenza pandemic in 1918. Options for antiviral therapy are limited because of the paucity of available drugs and the rapid mutation rate of the virus leading to the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The current H1N1 pandemic and potential threats posed by other strains highlight the need to develop novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. Here, we summarize the current state and recent developments of peptide-based inhibitors of influenza A virus.
  2. Yazawa K, Kurokawa M, Obuchi M, Li Y, Yamada R, Sadanari H, et al.
    Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 2011;22(1):1-11.
    PMID: 21860068 DOI: 10.3851/IMP1782
    We examined the anti-influenza virus activity of tricin, 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone, against five viruses: A/Solomon islands/3/2006 (H1N1), A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2), A/California/07/2009 (H1N1pdm), A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1pdm) and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 strains in vitro and against A/PR/8/34 virus in vivo.
  3. Xu ZQ, Kern ER, Westbrook L, Allen LB, Buckheit RW, Tseng CK, et al.
    Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 2000 Jan;11(1):23-9.
    PMID: 10693651
    Plant-derived and semi-synthetic calanolide compounds with anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity were tested for anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) activity in both cytopathic effect inhibition and plaque reduction assays. The results indicated that the anti-HCMV activity of calanolide compounds does not correlate with their activity against HIV-1. The semi-synthetic 12-keto derivatives tended to be more active against HCMV than the corresponding 12-OH congeners, which were more active against HIV-1. It appeared that the 7,8-unsaturated double bond in the chromene ring played a certain role in maintaining activities against both HCMV and HIV-1. Saturation of the double bond increased the EC50 values against both viruses, with concomitant increase in toxicity. The calanolide compounds reported here are the first non-nucleoside analogues capable of inhibiting both HIV-1 and HCMV and, therefore, may be useful chemoprophylactic agents for HCMV in HIV-infected people or vice versa.
  4. A Abdullah A, Abdullah R, A Nazariah Z, N Balakrishnan K, Firdaus J Abdullah F, A Bala J, et al.
    Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 2018 11 20;26:2040206618811413.
    PMID: 30449131 DOI: 10.1177/2040206618811413
    BACKGROUND: Viruses are obligate parasites that depend on the cellular machinery of the host to regenerate and manufacture their proteins. Most antiviral drugs on the market today target viral proteins. However, the more recent strategies involve targeting the host cell proteins or pathways that mediate viral replication. This new approach would be effective for most viruses while minimizing drug resistance and toxicity.

    METHODS: Cytomegalovirus replication, latency, and immune response are mediated by the intermediate early protein 2, the main protein that determines the effectiveness of drugs in cytomegalovirus inhibition. This review explains how intermediate early protein 2 can modify the action of cyclosporin A, an immunosuppressive, and antiviral drug. It also links all the pathways mediated by cyclosporin A, cytomegalovirus replication, and its encoded proteins.

    RESULTS: Intermediate early protein 2 can influence the cellular cyclophilin A pathway, affecting cyclosporin A as a mediator of viral replication or anti-cytomegalovirus drug.

    CONCLUSION: Cyclosporin A has a dual function in cytomegalovirus pathogenesis. It has the immunosuppressive effect that establishes virus replication through the inhibition of T-cell function. It also has an anti-cytomegalovirus effect mediated by intermediate early protein 2. Both of these functions involve cyclophilin A pathway.

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