Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Manan MM, Ibrahim NA, Aziz NA, Zulkifly HH, Al-Worafi YM, Long CM
    Arch Med Sci, 2016 Jun 1;12(3):603-13.
    PMID: 27279855 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2015.51208
    To identify and assess the characteristics, risk and outcome of neonates treated with empiric antibiotics for suspected early onset sepsis (EOS).
  2. Khan TM, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA
    Arch Med Sci, 2012 Sep 8;8(4):697-703.
    PMID: 23056083 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.28601
    This study aims to highlight the factors associated with suicidal behavior among patients with depressive disorders.
  3. Makpol S, Azura Jam F, Anum Mohd Yusof Y, Zurinah Wan Ngah W
    Arch Med Sci, 2011 Oct;7(5):889-95.
    PMID: 22291837 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2011.25567
    Skin aging may occur as a result of increased free radicals in the body. Vitamin E, the major chain-breaking antioxidant, prevents propagation of oxidative stress, especially in biological membranes. In this study, the molecular mechanism of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in preventing oxidative stress-induced skin aging was evaluated by determining the rate of total collagen synthesis and its gene expression in human skin fibroblasts.
  4. Alshagga MA, Mohamed N, Nazrun Suhid A, Abdel Aziz Ibrahim I, Zulkifli Syed Zakaria S
    Arch Med Sci, 2011 Aug;7(4):572-8.
    PMID: 22291790 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2011.24123
    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a xenobiotic metabolising enzyme (XME), which may modify susceptibility in certain ethnic groups, showing ethnic dependent polymorphism. The aim of this study was to determine GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in a Malaysian population in Kuala Lumpur.
  5. Aziz Ibrahim IA, Kamisah Y, Nafeeza MI, Nur Azlina MF
    Arch Med Sci, 2012 Feb 29;8(1):22-9.
    PMID: 22457670 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.27276
    This study examines the effects of palm vitamin E (PVE) or α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementation on adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS).
  6. Abd Hamid H, Umar NA, Othman H, Das S
    Arch Med Sci, 2010 Dec;6(6):987-90.
    PMID: 22427779 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2010.19315
    Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) is a medical emergency which needs immediate medical intervention. A 37-year-old Chinese woman with a history of hypertension attended the Emergency Department. She had a two-day history of involuntary movement, i.e. chorea of the upper limbs, preceded by a one-week history of upper respiratory tract infection. She also had polyuria and polydipsia, although she was never diagnosed as diabetic. The main aim of reporting the present case was to highlight the importance of biochemical investigations involved in the diagnosis of involuntary movements.
    Study site: emergency department, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
  7. Norazlina M, Hermizi H, Faizah O, Nazrun AS, Norliza M, Ima-Nirwana S
    Arch Med Sci, 2010 Aug 30;6(4):505-12.
    PMID: 22371792 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2010.14460
    Vitamin E is beneficial in restoring bone histomorphometric parameters in nicotine-treated rats. This study determined the effectiveness of 3 forms of vitamin E in restoring bone metabolism in nicotine-treated rats.
  8. Chow HK, Yousafzai SM, Ugurlucan M, Canver CC
    Arch Med Sci, 2010 Apr 30;6(2):176-280.
    PMID: 22371743 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2010.13908
    Stroke in cardiac patients undergoing surgery is usually attributed to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this report, we present an unusual cause of cerebral dysfunction: a meningioma leading to stroke, following coronary artery bypass grafting in a 62-year-old patient. Diagnosis and treatment options of the pathology are discussed with the guidance of the literature.
  9. Osman M, Taha B, Al Duboni G
    Arch Med Sci, 2014 May 12;10(2):294-9.
    PMID: 24904663 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.31297
    Coeliac disease (CD) is a common diagnosis among children and adults in Iraq; however, removal of gluten from the diet is essential for patients with CD. The aim of this study, the first such study in Iraq, was to assess the serological and histological recovery profiles of coeliac patients, in both children and adults groups after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 1 year ± 1 month.
  10. Safwani WK, Makpol S, Sathapan S, Chua K
    Arch Med Sci, 2014 Jun 29;10(3):597-606.
    PMID: 25097593 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2014.43753
    Adipose tissue is a source of multipotent adult stem cells. Most studies on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have been on the early passages. Studies in extensive expansion have not been well established yet. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of extensive expansion on the adipogenic differentiation capability of ASC.
  11. Ismail NM, Ibrahim IA, Hashim NB, Jaarin K
    Arch Med Sci, 2013 Dec 30;9(6):1132-7.
    PMID: 24482662 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.31252
    INTRODUCTION: Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, which is used as an antihypertensive agent and has shown antioxidant properties. This study aims at determining the effects of captopril on factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity in aspirin-induced gastric lesions.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g) rats that were given aspirin (40 mg/100 g body weight) were divided into three groups: the control, captopril (1 mg/100 g body weight daily) and ranitidine (2.5 mg/100 g body weight twice daily) groups. Ranitidine and captopril were given orally for 28 days. Rats in all groups were sacrificed and the parameters measured.
    RESULTS: Captopril reduced gastric acidity, and increased gastric glutathione (GSH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly in comparison to the control group. Captopril also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and gastric lesions insignificantly compared to the control group. Ranitidine healed the lesions significantly compared to the control group. There was no difference between ranitidine and captopril on the severity of lesions, gastric acidity, MDA and GSH. Captopril increased PGE2 compared to ranitidine (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Captopril has desirable effects on the factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity (acidity, PGE2 and GSH) and is comparable to ranitidine in ulcer healing.
    KEYWORDS: aspirin; captopril; gastric lesions; ranitidine
  12. Khan TM, Baig MR
    Arch Med Sci, 2013 Dec 30;9(6):1117-24.
    PMID: 24482660 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.30953
    The current study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and perception of hospital pharmacists towards HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the state of Kedah, Malaysia.
  13. Bakar SM, Shamim M, Alam GM, Sarwar M
    Arch Med Sci, 2013 Feb 21;9(1):55-67.
    PMID: 23515519 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2013.33349
    The anatomy of the vermiform appendix shows variations in its macroscopic dimensions some of which have potential to influence the clinical aspects of the appendix. Anatomical studies on the appendix using people in Bangladesh as a sample are limited and fall short of producing any standardized anthropometric data. This study is predominantly a cross-sectional observational study which also uses some statistical analysis to understand the relationships amongst variables.
  14. Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Mohammad AJ, Lye MS
    Arch Med Sci, 2016 Oct 1;12(5):1043-1051.
    PMID: 27695496
    INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
    KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
  15. Safi SZ, Qvist R, Ong G, Karimian H, Imran M, Shah I
    Arch Med Sci, 2017 Mar 01;13(2):470-480.
    PMID: 28261303 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2016.64131
    INTRODUCTION: It is a widely held view that a progressive reduction of beta-cell mass occurs in the progression of diabetes. RAF-1 kinase and pancreas duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) are major factors that promote survival of cells and maintain normal insulin functions. In this study we investigated the effect of a β-adrenergic receptor agonist and antagonist on RAF-1 and PDX-1, and their respective effects on apoptosis and insulin release in RIN-m5F cells.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: RIN-m5F cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose to mimic diabetic conditions, followed by treatment with 5 µM, 10 µM and 20 µM of isoproterenol and isoproterenol + propranolol for 6, 12 and 24 h. Western blotting and reverse transcription analysis were performed to examine the expression of RAF-1 and PDX-1. Annexin-V-FITC and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to investigate apoptosis. ELISA was used to measure insulin levels. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted to investigate the expression of genes.

    RESULTS: Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol significantly induced RAF-1 and PDX-1 genes in a concentration-dependent and time-independent manner. Changes were significant both at protein and mRNA levels. Up-regulation of RAF-1 and PDX-1 was accompanied by improved insulin levels and reduced apoptosis. Concentrations of 10 µM and 20 µM for 12 and 24 h were more effective in achieving significant differences in the experimental and control groups. Propranolol reversed the effect of isoproterenol mostly at maximum concentrations and time periods.

    CONCLUSIONS: A positive effect of a β-adrenergic agonist on RAF-1 and PDX-1, reduction in β-cell apoptosis and improved insulin contents can help to understand the pathogenesis of diabetes and to develop novel approaches for the β-cell dysfunction in diabetes.

  16. Pandurangan AK, Ismail S, Esa NM, Munusamy MA
    Arch Med Sci, 2018 Oct;14(6):1281-1288.
    PMID: 30393482 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2018.76935
    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common, with a worldwide incidence estimated at more than 1 million cases annually. Therefore, the search for agents for CRC treatment is highly warranted. Inositol-6 phosphate (IP6) is enriched in rice bran and possesses many beneficial effects. In the present study the effect of IP6 on autophagy-mediated death by modulating the mTOR pathway in HT-29 colon cancer cells was studied.

    Material and methods: Autophagy was assessed by acridine orange (AO) staining, transmission electron microscopy, and western blotting to detect LC3-II and Beclin 1. Akt/mTOR signaling protein expression was also analyzed by western blotting. Apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V staining.

    Results: Incubation of cells with IP6 resulted in downregulation of the p-Akt at 3h. Along with that confocal microscopic analysis of p-AKT, IP6 administration resulted that a diminished expression of p-Akt. mTOR pathway regulates autophagy and incubation with IP6 to HT-29 cells showed decreased expression of p-70S6Kinase, 4-EBP-1 in a time-dependent manner. Inositol-6 phosphate (10 μg/ml, 24 and 48 h) induced autophagic vesicles, as confirmed by AO staining and transmission electron microscopy. We also found increased expression of LC3-II and Beclin 1 in a time-dependent manner after incubation with IP6. Furthermore, IP6 induced apoptosis, as revealed by annexin V staining.

    Conclusions: Our results clearly indicate that IP6 induces autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  17. Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y
    Arch Med Sci, 2017 Jun;13(4):851-863.
    PMID: 28721154 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2016.58928
    Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress. The increased level of interleukin 6 stimulates the liver to synthesize and secrete C-reactive protein. As a risk factor, inflammation is an imbedded mechanism of developed cardiovascular diseases including coagulation, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. It is also associated with development of non-cardiovascular diseases such as psoriasis, depression, cancer, and renal diseases. On the other hand, a reduced level of adiponectin, a significant predictor of cardiovascular mortality, is associated with impaired fasting glucose, leading to type-2 diabetes development, metabolic abnormalities, coronary artery calcification, and stroke. Finally, managing obesity can help reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases and poor outcome via inhibiting inflammatory mechanisms.
  18. Azlina MFN, Qodriyah HMS, Akmal MN, Ibrahim IAA, Kamisah Y
    Arch Med Sci, 2019 Jan;15(1):223-231.
    PMID: 30697274 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2016.63156
    Introduction: Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) is traditionally used by Asians to treat numerous common ailments including asthma, fever and gastritis. The aim of the research was to determine and compare the effects of Piper sarmentosum (PS) with omeprazole (OMZ) on gastric parameters in rats exposed to restraint stress.

    Material and methods: The methanolic extract of PS was prepared in the dose of 500 mg/kg. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 equal sized groups: two control groups and two treated groups which were supplemented with either PS or OMZ orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight respectively. After 28 days of treatment, one control group, the PS and OMZ group were subjected to a single exposure of water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 h. After the last exposure to stress, the stomach was excised for evaluation of the parameters.

    Results: Oral supplementation of PS was as effective in preventing the formation of gastric lesion when compared with OMZ (p < 0.05). The increased gastric acidity and MDA due to stress was also reduced with supplementation of PS and OMZ. Only PS had the ability to reduce prostaglandin E2 loss (p = 0.0067) and have the ability to down regulate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression (p = 0.01) with stress exposure.

    Conclusions: Piper sarmentosum possesses a similar protective effect against stress-induced gastric lesions as omeprazole. The protective effect was associated with decreased lipid peroxidation, increased prostaglandin E2, reduction in gastric acidity and reduction in COX-2 mRNA expression which was altered by stress.

  19. Yelumalai S, Giribabu N, Karim K, Omar SZ, Salleh NB
    Arch Med Sci, 2019 Jan;15(1):240-249.
    PMID: 30697276 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2018.81038
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with sperm damage. In view of the fact that quercetin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this compound may help to protect sperm against damage in DM. In this study, in-vivo effects of quercetin on sperm parameters in DM were investigated.

    Material and methods: Quercetin (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg/b.w.) was given orally to streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats for 28 days. Following treatment completion, rats were sacrificed and sperm were harvested from the cauda epididymis. Sperm count, motility, viability, hyperosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled sperm and morphology were assessed. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in sperm with and without H2O2 incubation were determined by biochemical assays. Expression levels of SOD, CAT and GPx mRNAs in sperm were evaluated by qPCR. Sperm DNA integrity was estimated by flow cytometry while expression levels of the inflammatory markers NF-κβ and TNF-α in sperm were determined by Western blotting.

    Results: In diabetic rats receiving quercetin, sperm count and motility, viability and HOS tail-coiled sperm increased (p < 0.05) while sperm with abnormal morphology decreased. Moreover, sperm SOD, CAT, GPx activities and their mRNA expression levels increased while sperm LPO, NF-κβ and TNF-α levels decreased. In normal and diabetic rat sperm incubated with H2O2, a further increase in MDA and further decreases in SOD, CAT and GPx were observed, and these were ameliorated by quercetin treatment.

    Conclusions: In-vivo administration of quercetin to diabetic rats helps to ameliorate sperm damage and improves sperm morphology and functions in DM.

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