MATERIAL AND METHODS: RIN-m5F cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose to mimic diabetic conditions, followed by treatment with 5 µM, 10 µM and 20 µM of isoproterenol and isoproterenol + propranolol for 6, 12 and 24 h. Western blotting and reverse transcription analysis were performed to examine the expression of RAF-1 and PDX-1. Annexin-V-FITC and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to investigate apoptosis. ELISA was used to measure insulin levels. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted to investigate the expression of genes.
RESULTS: Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol significantly induced RAF-1 and PDX-1 genes in a concentration-dependent and time-independent manner. Changes were significant both at protein and mRNA levels. Up-regulation of RAF-1 and PDX-1 was accompanied by improved insulin levels and reduced apoptosis. Concentrations of 10 µM and 20 µM for 12 and 24 h were more effective in achieving significant differences in the experimental and control groups. Propranolol reversed the effect of isoproterenol mostly at maximum concentrations and time periods.
CONCLUSIONS: A positive effect of a β-adrenergic agonist on RAF-1 and PDX-1, reduction in β-cell apoptosis and improved insulin contents can help to understand the pathogenesis of diabetes and to develop novel approaches for the β-cell dysfunction in diabetes.
Material and methods: Autophagy was assessed by acridine orange (AO) staining, transmission electron microscopy, and western blotting to detect LC3-II and Beclin 1. Akt/mTOR signaling protein expression was also analyzed by western blotting. Apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V staining.
Results: Incubation of cells with IP6 resulted in downregulation of the p-Akt at 3h. Along with that confocal microscopic analysis of p-AKT, IP6 administration resulted that a diminished expression of p-Akt. mTOR pathway regulates autophagy and incubation with IP6 to HT-29 cells showed decreased expression of p-70S6Kinase, 4-EBP-1 in a time-dependent manner. Inositol-6 phosphate (10 μg/ml, 24 and 48 h) induced autophagic vesicles, as confirmed by AO staining and transmission electron microscopy. We also found increased expression of LC3-II and Beclin 1 in a time-dependent manner after incubation with IP6. Furthermore, IP6 induced apoptosis, as revealed by annexin V staining.
Conclusions: Our results clearly indicate that IP6 induces autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR pathway.
Material and methods: The methanolic extract of PS was prepared in the dose of 500 mg/kg. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 equal sized groups: two control groups and two treated groups which were supplemented with either PS or OMZ orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight respectively. After 28 days of treatment, one control group, the PS and OMZ group were subjected to a single exposure of water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 h. After the last exposure to stress, the stomach was excised for evaluation of the parameters.
Results: Oral supplementation of PS was as effective in preventing the formation of gastric lesion when compared with OMZ (p < 0.05). The increased gastric acidity and MDA due to stress was also reduced with supplementation of PS and OMZ. Only PS had the ability to reduce prostaglandin E2 loss (p = 0.0067) and have the ability to down regulate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression (p = 0.01) with stress exposure.
Conclusions: Piper sarmentosum possesses a similar protective effect against stress-induced gastric lesions as omeprazole. The protective effect was associated with decreased lipid peroxidation, increased prostaglandin E2, reduction in gastric acidity and reduction in COX-2 mRNA expression which was altered by stress.
Material and methods: Quercetin (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg/b.w.) was given orally to streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats for 28 days. Following treatment completion, rats were sacrificed and sperm were harvested from the cauda epididymis. Sperm count, motility, viability, hyperosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled sperm and morphology were assessed. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in sperm with and without H2O2 incubation were determined by biochemical assays. Expression levels of SOD, CAT and GPx mRNAs in sperm were evaluated by qPCR. Sperm DNA integrity was estimated by flow cytometry while expression levels of the inflammatory markers NF-κβ and TNF-α in sperm were determined by Western blotting.
Results: In diabetic rats receiving quercetin, sperm count and motility, viability and HOS tail-coiled sperm increased (p < 0.05) while sperm with abnormal morphology decreased. Moreover, sperm SOD, CAT, GPx activities and their mRNA expression levels increased while sperm LPO, NF-κβ and TNF-α levels decreased. In normal and diabetic rat sperm incubated with H2O2, a further increase in MDA and further decreases in SOD, CAT and GPx were observed, and these were ameliorated by quercetin treatment.
Conclusions: In-vivo administration of quercetin to diabetic rats helps to ameliorate sperm damage and improves sperm morphology and functions in DM.