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  1. Gomathysankar S, Halim AS, Yaacob NS
    Arch Plast Surg, 2014 Sep;41(5):452-7.
    PMID: 25276634 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2014.41.5.452
    In the field of tissue engineering and reconstruction, the development of efficient biomaterial is in high demand to achieve uncomplicated wound healing. Chronic wounds and excessive scarring are the major complications of tissue repair and, as this inadequate healing continues to increase, novel therapies and treatments for dysfunctional skin repair and reconstruction are important. This paper reviews the various aspects of the complications related to wound healing and focuses on chitosan because of its unique function in accelerating wound healing. The proliferation of keratinocytes is essential for wound closure, and adipose-derived stem cells play a significant role in wound healing. Thus, chitosan in combination with keratinocytes and adipose-derived stem cells may act as a vehicle for delivering cells, which would increase the proliferation of keratinocytes and help complete recovery from injuries.
  2. Halim AS, Wan Ahmad Kamal WS, Noor NM, Abdullah S
    Arch Plast Surg, 2013 Nov;40(6):687-96.
    PMID: 24286040 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2013.40.6.687
    Ischemic preconditioning has been shown to improve the outcomes of hypoxic tolerance of the heart, brain, lung, liver, jejunum, skin, and muscle tissues. However, to date, no report of ischemic preconditioning on vascularized bone grafts has been published.
  3. Halim AS, Emami A, Salahshourifar I, Kannan TP
    Arch Plast Surg, 2012 May;39(3):184-9.
    PMID: 22783524 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2012.39.3.184
    Keloid disease is a fibroproliferative dermal tumor with an unknown etiology that occurs after a skin injury in genetically susceptible individuals. Increased familial aggregation, a higher prevalence in certain races, parallelism in identical twins, and alteration in gene expression all favor a remarkable genetic contribution to keloid pathology. It seems that the environment triggers the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Several genes have been implicated in the etiology of keloid disease, but no single gene mutation has thus far been found to be responsible. Therefore, a combination of methods such as association, gene-gene interaction, epigenetics, linkage, gene expression, and protein analysis should be applied to determine keloid etiology.
  4. Lam UN, Siddik NSFMM, Yussof SJM, Ilenghoven D, Ibrahim S
    Arch Plast Surg, 2020 Sep;47(5):490-492.
    PMID: 32971604 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2020.01347
  5. Wen APY, Jusoh MH, Saad AZM, Halim AS, Faisham NWIW, Azman WSW
    Arch Plast Surg, 2020 Mar;47(2):182-186.
    PMID: 31462030 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2018.00514
    We report our experience of treating two patients with ankle amputation with different presentations. The first case was a clean-cut sharp amputation. The second case was an avulsion injury following a motor vehicle accident in a patient who arrived 8 hours after the injury. Replantation was successful in both cases. In avulsion injuries, a secondary operation for wound coverage is required at a later stage. With good strategy and a support team, encouraging limb survival outcomes are possible post-replantation.
  6. Chai KS, Omar FH, Mat Saad AZ, Wan Sulaiman WA, Halim AS
    Arch Plast Surg, 2019 Sep;46(5):426-432.
    PMID: 31550747 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2018.01487
    BACKGROUND: The mandible is an important structure that is located in the lower third of the face. Large mandibular defects after tumor resection cause loss of its function. This study assessed the outcomes and tumor recurrence after immediate mandibular reconstruction using a free fibula osteocutaneous flap following radical resection of ameloblastoma.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective non-randomized study of outcomes and tumor recurrence of all patients diagnosed with mandibular ameloblastoma from August 1997 until August 2017 (20 years) requiring free fibula osteocutaneous flap reconstruction at a single institution. The patients were identified through an electronic operative database; subsequently, their medical records and photo documentation were retrieved.

    RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were included in this study. Eighteen patients were male, while nine were female. The majority of the patients (48.1%) were in their third decade of life when they were diagnosed with ameloblastoma. All of them underwent radical resection of the tumor with a surgical margin of 2 cm (hemimandibulectomy in cases with a large tumor) and immediate mandibular reconstruction with a free fibula osteocutaneous flap. Two patients required revision of a vascular anastomosis due to venous thrombosis postoperatively, while one patient developed a flap recipient site infection. The flap success rate was 100%. There was no tumor recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 5.6 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Mandibular ameloblastoma should be treated with segmental mandibulectomy (with a surgical margin of 2 cm) to reduce the risk of recurrence. Subsequent mandibular and adjacent soft tissue defects should be reconstructed immediately with a free fibula osteocutaneous flap.

  7. Mat Saad AZ, Chai KS, Wan Sulaiman WA, Mat Johar SFN, Halim AS
    Arch Plast Surg, 2019 Nov;46(6):518-524.
    PMID: 31775204 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2019.00227
    BACKGROUND: Anterior palatal repair performed during cleft lip repair using a vomerine flap may assist in recruiting additional soft tissue for subsequent completion of palatoplasty, especially in patients with a wide cleft. We present our early.

    RESULTS: in the hope of triggering a re-evaluation of this technique regarding its advantages for maxillary growth through further studies of patients with a wide cleft.

    METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with complete unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate was performed, including cleft and palatal measurements taken during initial surgery (lip repair together with anterior palate repair) and upon completion of palatoplasty.

    RESULTS: In total, 14 patients were included in this study, of whom nine (63.3%) had unilateral cleft lip and palate and five (37.5%) had bilateral cleft. All patients had a wide cleft palate. Lip and anterior palate repair was done at a median age of 3 months, while completion of palatoplasty was done at a median age of 10.5 months. Measurements taken upon completion of palatoplasty showed significant cleft width reduction in the mid-palate and intertubercle regions; however, the palatal arch distances at nearby landmarks showed non-significant marginal changes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anterior palate repair using a vomerine flap significantly reduced the remaining cleft width, while the palatal width remained. Further research is warranted to explore the long-term effects of this technique in wide cleft patients in terms of facial growth.

  8. Saad AZM, Nordin NR, Sulaiman WAW, Jamayet N, Johar SFNM, Hussein A
    Arch Plast Surg, 2021 Jan;48(1):80-83.
    PMID: 33503749 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2020.00206
    Eye socket contracture is a well-known late complication of enucleation surgery, and the additional insult of radiotherapy at an early age causes even further fibrosis and scarring of the socket. Management of the contracted socket is challenging, and several methods have been proposed. We report a case of eye socket contracture after enucleation and radiotherapy in which multiple reconstructive procedures failed. The recurrent contracture caused difficulty in housing and retaining the eye prosthesis. We reconstructed the lower eyelid with a facial artery myomucosal flap and nasolabial flap, and the upper eyelid with a Fricke flap following reconstruction of the orbital rims (supraorbital and infraorbital rims with a calvarial bone graft, and further augmentation of the infraorbital rim with a rib bone graft). Cosmesis post-reconstruction was acceptable and the prosthesis was retained very well.
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