Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical syndrome encompassing a group of chronic, progressive, and debilitating respiratory conditions, that are characterized by incompletely reversible airflow limitation. Within the Asia-Pacific region, prevalence estimates have been derived using various protocols and study methods, and there is little data on the impact of COPD exacerbations. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the current prevalence and burden of COPD in this region.
In Indonesia, Family Medicine as a discipline is being developed through short courses since 12 years ago. A conversion program to become Family Physicians has been introduced recently. Among the 70,000 primary care physicians there are variety of practitioners, from new interns who start general practice to senior general practitioners. This study aims to describe the current Indonesian Primary Care Physicians (PCPs) profile which includes services provided and facilities as well as comparing the profile according to participation in the conversion program and practice hours.
Primary care research is at a crossroad in South Pacific. A steering committee comprising a member of WONCA Asia Pacific Regional (APR) council and the President of Fiji College of General Practitioners garnered sponsorship from Fiji Ministry of Health, WONCA APR and pharmaceutical agencies to organize the event in October 2013. This paper describes the processes needed to set up a national primary research agenda through the collaborative efforts of local stakeholders and external facilitators using a test case in South Pacific.
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a common public health problem and the prevalence and impact of insomnia in primary care attendees is not well documented in the Asian population.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of self-reported insomnia symptoms amongst adult primary care attendees and the association with socio-demographic factors; to ascertain the impact of insomnia on daily functioning and to describe the psychological profile of patients with insomnia.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, 2049 adult patients (≥18 year old) attending seven primary care clinics in Peninsular Malaysia, completed the questionnaire asking about symptoms of insomnia (defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders and DSM IV criteria) daytime impairment and psychological symptoms (assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).
RESULTS: The response rate was 86.2%. A total of 60% reported insomnia symptoms, 38.9% had frequent insomnia symptoms (>3 times per week), 30.7% had chronic insomnia without daytime consequences and 28.6% had chronic insomnia with daytime dysfunction. Indian ethnicity (OR 1.79; 95%CI, 1.28-2.49), age ≥ 50 or older (OR 1.82; 95%CI, 1.10-3.01), anxiety symptoms (OR 1.65; 95%CI, 1.21-2.22) and depression symptoms (OR 1.65; 95%CI, 1.21-2.26) were risk factors for chronic insomnia with daytime dysfunction. Amongst those with chronic insomnia with daytime dysfunction, 47.8% had anxiety symptoms (OR, 2.01; 95%CI, 1.57-2.59) and 36.5% had depression symptoms (OR, 2.74; 95%CI, 2.04-3.68) based on HADs score. They also had tendency to doze off while driving and to be involved in road traffic accidents.
CONCLUSIONS: A third of primary care attendees have insomnia symptoms and chronic insomnia, associated with significant daytime dysfunction and psychological morbidity. By identifying those at risk of having chronic insomnia, appropriate interventions can be commenced.
Population ageing is poised to become a major challenge to the health system as Malaysia progresses to becoming a developed nation by 2020. This article aims to review the various ageing policy frameworks available globally; compare aged care policies and health services in Malaysia with Australia; and discuss various issues and challenges in translating these policies into practice in the Malaysian primary care system. Fundamental solutions identified to bridge the gap include restructuring of the health care system, development of comprehensive benefit packages for older people under the national health financing scheme, training of the primary care workforce, effective use of electronic medical records and clinical guidelines; and empowering older people and their caregivers with knowledge, skills and positive attitudes to ageing and self care. Ultimately, family medicine specialists must become the agents for change to lead multidisciplinary teams and work with various agencies to ensure that better coordination, continuity and quality of care are eventually delivered to older patients across time and settings.
BACKGROUND: Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS).
METHODS: By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain) commonly associated with menopause.
RESULTS: The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years). The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%); physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%); and sleeping problems (52.2%). Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%); irritability (37.9%); dryness of vagina (37.9%); anxiety (36.5%); depressive mood (32.6%). Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%); bladder problem (13.8%) and heart discomfort (18.3%). Perimenopausal women (n = 141) experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82) and postmenopausal (n = 133) women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.
BACKGROUND: Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life.
METHODS: A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview.
RESULTS: A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 +/- 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8%) of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 +/- 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%), had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p < 0.0005) which indicated the deterioration of this domain as patients became older. Male respondents had better scores in most of the QOL dimensions especially in the physical functioning domain (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between QOL with different education levels, employment status and marital status. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and existence co-morbidities scored lower in most of the QOL domains.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.
BACKGROUND: Optimum management of dyspepsia in primary care is a debatable subject. Testing for Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been recommended in primary care as this strategy will cure most underlying peptic ulcer disease and prevent future gastro duodenal disease.
METHODS: A total of 98 patients completed Modified Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score Questionnaire (MGDSSQ) at initial presentation before undergoing the 13Carbon Urea Breath Test (UBT) for HP. Those with positive UBT received Eradication Therapy with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, Clarithromycin 500 mg daily and Amoxycillin 500 mg twice daily for one week followed by Omeprazole to be completed for another 4 to 6 weeks. Those with negative UBT received empirical treatment with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for 4 to 6 weeks. Patients were assessed again using the MGDSSQ at the completion of treatment and one month after stopping treatment.
RESULTS: The prevalence of dyspepsia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia-Primary Care Centre was 1.12% (124/11037), out of which 23.5% (23/98) was due to HP. Post treatment assessment in both HP (95.7%, 22/23) and non HP-related dyspepsia (86.7%, 65/75) groups showed complete or almost complete resolution of dyspepsia. Only about 4.3% (1/23) in the HP related dyspepsia and 13.3% (10/75) in the non HP group required endoscopy.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dyspepsia due to HP in this primary care centre was 23.5%. Detection of HP related dyspepsia yielded good treatment outcomes (95.7%).
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women.
METHODS: This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20-59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).
RESULTS: Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 +/- 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 +/- 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.
AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary health care providers regarding the identification and management of domestic violence in a hospital based primary health care setting.
METHOD: A survey of all clinicians and nursing staff of the outpatient, casualty and antenatal clinics in University Malaya Medical Centre using a self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS: Hundred and eight out of 188 available staff participated. Sixty-two percent of the clinicians and 66.9% of the nursing staff perceived the prevalence of domestic violence within their patients to be very rare or rare. Majority of the clinicians (68.9%) reported asking their patients regarding domestic violence 'at times' but 26.2% had never asked at all. Time factor, concern about offending the patient and unsure of how to ask were reported as barriers in asking for domestic violence by 66%, 52.5% and 32.8% of the clinicians respectively. Clinicians have different practices and levels of confidence within the management of domestic violence. Victim-blaming attitude exists in 28% of the clinicians and 51.1% of the nursing staff. Less than a third of the participants reported knowing of any written protocol for domestic violence management. Only 20% of the clinicians and 6.8% of the nursing staff had ever attended any educational program related to domestic violence.
CONCLUSION: Lack of positive attitude and positive practices among the staff towards domestic violence identification and management might be related to inadequate knowledge and inappropriate personal values regarding domestic violence.
Study site: Outpatient, casualty, antenatal clinics, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
BACKGROUND: Malaysia is an upper middle income country that provides subsidized healthcare to ensure universal coverage to its citizens. The challenge of escalating health care cost occurs in most countries, including Malaysia due to increase in disease prevalence, which induced an escalation in drug expenditure. In 2009, the Ministry of Health has allocated up to Malaysian Ringgit (MYR) 1.402 billion (approximately USD 390 million) on subsidised drugs. This study was conducted to measure patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment of chronic condition or acute illnesses, in an urbanized population.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study, through face-to-face interview was conducted in an urban state in 2012-2013. Systematic random sampling of 324 patients was selected from a list of patients attending ten public primary cares with Family Medicine Specialist service. Patients were asked using a bidding technique of maximum amount (in MYR) if they are WTP for chronic or acute illnesses.
RESULTS: Patients are mostly young, female, of lower education and lower income. A total of 234 respondents (72.2%) were not willing to pay for drug charges. WTP for drugs either for chronic or acute illness were at low at median of MYR10 per visit (USD 3.8). Bivariate analysis showed that lower numbers of dependent children (≤3), higher personal and household income are associated with WTP. Multivariate analysis showed only number of dependent children (≤3) as significant (p = 0.009; 95% CI 1.27-5.44) predictor to drugs' WTP.
CONCLUSION: The result indicates that primary care patients have low WTP for drugs, either for chronic condition or acute illness. Citizens are comfortable in the comfort zone whereby health services are highly subsidized through universal coverage. Hence, there is a resistance to pay for drugs.
Republished in: Teng CL, Khoo EM, Ng CJ (editors). Family Medicine, Healthcare and Society: Essays by Dr M K Rajakumar. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 2008: 85-88
Omitted in Second Edition (2019)
Quality programs are difficult to implement where social support for healthcare costs are inadequate and there is no institutional support for quality programs to guide and assist the doctor in pratice. ‘Quality’ is not the good intention to do better, but the process of measurement of behavioral change against set targets. For the majority of the doctors of this region who practice under great constraints, this article outlines some quality activities that are entirely within their personal initiative and responsibility, but should make a real difference to the quality of care provided.nd responsibility, but should make a real difference to the quality of care you provide.
Republished in: Republished in: Teng CL, Khoo EM, Ng CJ (editors). Family Medicine, Healthcare and Society: Essays by Dr M K Rajakumar, Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 2019: 68-74
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the world's most common health conditions and is a leading risk factor for mortality. Although blood pressure can be modified, there is a large proportion of patients whose blood pressure remains uncontrolled. The aim of this study, termed Edvantage 360°, was to gain a deeper understanding of hypertension management in Asia from the perspective of patients and doctors, and to propose strategies to improve blood pressure control.
METHODS: Conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, Edvantage 360° was a mixed-methods observational study that used both qualitative and quantitative elements: qualitative interviews and focus groups with patients (N = 110), quantitative interviews with patients (N = 709), and qualitative interviews with doctors (N = 85).
RESULTS: This study found that, although there is good understanding of the causes and consequences of hypertension among Asian patients, there is a lack of urgency to control blood pressure. Doctors and patients have different expectations of each other and a divergent view on what constitutes successful hypertension management. We also identified a fundamental gap between the beliefs of doctors and patients as to who should be most responsible for the patients' hypertension management. In addition, because patients find it difficult to comply with lifestyle modifications (often because of a decreased understanding of the changes required), adherence to medication regimens may be less of a limiting factor than doctors believe.
CONCLUSIONS: Doctors may provide better care by aligning with their patients on a common understanding of successful hypertension management. Doctors may also find it helpful to provide a more personalized explanation of any needed lifestyle modifications. The willingness of the doctor to adjust their patient interaction style to form a 'doctor-patient team' is important. In addition, we recommend that doctors should not attribute ineffectiveness of the treatment plan to patient non-adherence to medications, but rather adjust the medication regimen as needed.
KEYWORDS: Attitude to health; Hong Kong; Hypertension; Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; Qualitative research; South Korea; Taiwan; Thailand