Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

  1. Chong WC, Basir R, Fei YM
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Feb;6(2):85-94.
    PMID: 23339908 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60001-2
    Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually. Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease. Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide. However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies. In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Plasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed. The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication. However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles. Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms.
  2. Azahar MA, Al-Naqeb G, Hasan M, Adam A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):875-81.
    PMID: 23146801 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60163-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Octomeles sumatrana (O. sumatrana) (OS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) and its molecular mechanisms.

    METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into six different groups; normal control rats were not induced with STZ and served as reference, STZ diabetic control rats were given normal saline. Three groups were treated with OS aqueous extract at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, orally twice daily continuously for 21 d. The fifth group was treated with glibenclamide (6 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally continuously for 21 d. After completion of the treatment period, biochemical parameters and expression levels of glucose transporter 2 (Slc2a2), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) were determined in liver by quantitative real time PCR.

    RESULTS: Administration of OS at different doses to STZ induced diabetic rats, resulted in significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner by 36%, 48%, and 64% at doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively, in comparison to the STZ control values. Treatment with OS elicited an increase in the expression level of Slc2a2 gene but reduced the expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes. Morefore, OS treated rats, showed significantly lower levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea levels compared to STZ untreated rats. The extract at different doses elicited signs of recovery in body weight gain when compared to STZ diabetic controls although food and water consumption were significantly lower in treated groups compared to STZ diabetic control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: O. sumatrana aqueous extract is beneficial for improvement of hyperglycemia by increasing gene expression of liver Slc2a2 and reducing expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Mahmood A, Omar MN, Ngah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):882-6.
    PMID: 23146802 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60164-3
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups.

    METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.

    RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

  4. Mayakrishnan V, Veluswamy S, Sundaram KS, Kannappan P, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Jan;6(1):20-6.
    PMID: 23317881 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60195-3
    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit.

    METHODS: The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay.

    RESULTS: The IC(50) values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. The β-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers.

  5. Alam A, Ferdosh S, Ghafoor K, Hakim A, Juraimi AS, Khatib A, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):402-409.
    PMID: 27086161 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.011
    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work.
  6. Pang EL, Loh HS
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):395-401.
    PMID: 27086160 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.004
    Prevalence of dengue transmission has been alarmed by an estimate of 390 million infections per annum. Urban encroachment, ecological disruption and poor sanitation are all contributory factors of increased epidemiology. Complication however arises from the fact that dengue virus inherently exists as four different serotypes. Secondary infection is often manifested in the more severe form, such that antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) could aggravate ailment by allowing pre-existing antibodies to form complexes with infecting viruses as means of intrusion. Consequently, increased viraemic titter and suppression of antiviral response are observed. Deep concerns are thus expressed in regards to escalating trend of hospitalisation and mortality rates. In Malaysia, situation is exacerbated by improper clinical management and pending vector control operations. As a preparedness strategy against the potential deadly dengue pandemic, the call for development of a durable and cost-effective dengue vaccine against all infecting serotypes is intensified. Even though several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, uncertainties in regards to serotypes interference, incomplete protection and dose adequacy have been raised. Instead of sole reliance on outsourcing, production of local vaccine should be considered in coherent to government's efforts to combat against dengue.
  7. Zahari A, Ablat A, Sivasothy Y, Mohamad J, Choudhary MI, Awang K
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):328-332.
    PMID: 27086149 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.008
    OBJECTIVE: To study antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of the isolation of alkaloids from the active dichloromethane extract of Alseodaphne corneri.

    METHODS: Phytochemical studies of the crude extract led to the isolation of six alkaloids using recycle high performance liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using the histidine-rich protein II assay. The isolated alkaloids were also tested for their antioxidant activity using three different assays; DPPH, ferric reducing ability of plasma and metal chelating assays.

    RESULTS: Malaria infection caused the formation of free radicals which subsequently led to oxidative stress and apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of the alkaloids under investigation revealed that in addition to the antiplasmodial activity, the alkaloids could also prevent oxidative stress. (+)-laurotetanine and (+)-norstephasubine exhibited strong antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values of 0.189 and 0.116 μM, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interestingly, the two most potent compounds that exhibit antiplasmodial activity also exhibit good antioxidant activities. The crude dichloromethane extract and the isolated compounds exert substantial antiplasmodial and antioxidative activities which in turn suppress oxidative stress and cause less damage to the host.

  8. Kamazeri TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Mar;5(3):202-9.
    PMID: 22305785 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60025-X
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa), Curcuma mangga (C. mangga), and Zingiber cassumunar (Z. cassumunar), and study their antimicrobial activity.

    METHODS: Essential oils obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated against four bacteria: Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa); and two fungi: Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cyptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans), using disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: Cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro formyl (35.29%) and dihydrocostunolide (22.51%) were the major compounds in C. aeruginosa oil; whereas caryophyllene oxide (18.71%) and caryophyllene (12.69%) were the major compounds in C. mangga oil; and 2,6,9,9-tetramethyl-2,6,10-cycloundecatrien-1-one (60.77%) and α-caryophyllene (23.92%) were abundant in Z. cassumunar oil. The essential oils displayed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. C. mangga oil had the highest and most broad-spectrum activity by inhibiting all microorganisms tested, with C. neoformans being the most sensitive microorganism by having the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.1 μL/mL. C. aeruginosa oil showed mild antimicrobial activity, whereas Z. cassumunar had very low or weak activity against the tested microorganisms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results suggest promising antimicrobial properties of C. mangga and C. aeruginosa, which may be useful for food preservation, pharmaceutical treatment and natural therapies.

  9. Taher M, Susanti D, Rezali MF, Zohri FS, Ichwan SJ, Alkhamaiseh SI, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Feb;5(2):136-41.
    PMID: 22221758 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60012-1
    OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of stembark of Garcinia malaccensis (G. malaccensis) together with apoptotic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    METHODS: Purification and structure elucidation were carried out by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively. MTT and trypan blue exclusion methods were performed to study the cytotoxic activity. Antibacterial activity was conducted by disc diffusion and microdilution methods, whereas antioxidant activities were done by ferric thiocyanate method and DPPH radical scavenging.

    RESULTS: The phytochemical study led to the isolation of α,β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. α-Mangostin exhibited cytotoxic activity against HSC-3 cells with an IC(50) of 0.33 μM. β- and α-mangostin showed activity against K562 cells with IC(50) of 0.40 μM and 0.48 μM, respectively. α-Mangostin was active against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) with inhibition zone and MIC value of (19 mm; 0.025 mg/mL) and (20 mm; 0.013 mg/mL), respectively. In antioxidant assay, α-mangostin exhibited activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

    CONCLUSIONS: G. malaccensis presence α- and β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. β-Mangostin was found very active against HSC-3 cells and K562. The results suggest that mangostins derivatives have the potential to inhibit the growth of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. In addition, α-and β-mangostin was found inhibit the growth of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and also showed the activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

  10. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Mahmoud Nassar ZD
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Apr;5(4):294-8.
    PMID: 22449521 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60042-X
    OBJECTIVE: Toinvestigate the anti-angiogenic activity and antioxidant properties of Myristica fragrans (M. fragrans) (nutmeg) and Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia)(mengkudu) oils.

    METHODS: The nutmeg and megkudu essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antioxidant activities of both essential oils were determined by beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay and reducing power while the anti-angiogenic activity was investigated using rat aortic ring assay using various concentrations.

    RESULTS: The results showed that nutmeg oil has higher antioxidant activity than mengkudu oil. The nutmeg oil effectively inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid with (88.68±0.1)% while the inhibition percentage of oxidation of linoleic acid of the mengkudu oil is (69.44±0.4)%. The nutmeg oil and mengkudu oil showed reducing power with an EC(50) value of 181.4 μg/mL and 3 043.0 μg/mL, respectively. The antiangiogenic activity of nutmeg oil showed significant antiangiogenic activity with IC(50) of 77.64 μg/mL comparing to mengkudu oil which exhibits IC(50) of 109.30 μg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bioactive compound(s) will be isolated from the nutmeg essential oil to be developed as antiangiogenic drugs.

  11. Kumarapppan C, Jaswanth A, Kumarasunderi K
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Sep;4(9):743-7.
    PMID: 21967700 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60185-5
    OBJECTIVE: To validate traditional claims of usefulness of the Indian plants in management of poisonous snakebite and evaluate the antivenom properties displayed by the alcoholic extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), Crateva magna (C. magna), Gloriosa superba (G. superba) and Hydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica).

    METHODS: These plants were collected, identified and the extracts were prepared by using conventional Soxhlet ethanol extraction technique. The venom neutralization activity was accessed in mice (20-25g) and number of mortalities was observed against clinically important snake (Naja nigricollis) venom. Present study also deals with in vitro membrane stabilizing activity of these plants against hyposaline induced human red blood corpuscles (HRBC).

    RESULTS: Extracts of H. javanica and G. superba gave 80 % and 90 % protection to mice treated with minimum lethal dose of venom (LD(99)). These two plants showed significant neutralization effect against the venoms of Naja nigricollis venom. H. javanica and G. superba (25-100 mg/mL) produced significant changes of membrane stabilization of human red blood cells (HRBC) exposed to hyposaline-induced haemolysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that probably due to presence of various phytochemicals plays an important role in the anti-venom potential of these Indian medicinal plants against Naja nigricollis venom. The above observations confirmed that A. paniculata, C. magna, G. superba and H. javanica plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could potentially be used as an adjuvants for antivenin therapy in case of snakebite envenomation, especially against the local effects of cobra venoms.

  12. Hossain MA, Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, Iqbal M
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Sep;4(9):717-21.
    PMID: 21967695 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60180-6
    OBJECTIVE: To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    METHODS: The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.

    RESULTS: The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant.

  13. Hossain MA, Shah MD, Sakari M
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Aug;4(8):637-41.
    PMID: 21914542 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60162-4
    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the chemical composition of different extracts of Merremia borneensis (M. borneensis) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    METHODS: The dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol at room temperature by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of M. borneensis were extrastel with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol.

    RESULTS: Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts showed that majority of these are flavonoids, terpeniods, alkaloids and glycosides. Most of the identified compounds by GC-MS are biologically important. Further the M. borneensis leaf possesses certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation.

    CONCLUSIONS: The suitable extracts for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. All the major compounds from different extracts are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds from various extracts M. borneensis might have some ecological significance.

  14. Basma AA, Zakaria Z, Latha LY, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 May;4(5):386-90.
    PMID: 21771682 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60109-0
    OBJECTIVE: To assess antioxidant activities of different parts of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta), and to search for new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants.

    METHODS: Samples of leaves, stems, flowers and roots from E. hirta were tested for total phenolic content, and flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant activity by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reducing power was measured using cyanoferrate method.

    RESULTS: The leaves extract exhibited a maximum DPPH scavenging activity of (72.96±0.78)% followed by the flowers, roots and stems whose scavenging activities were (52.45±0.66)%, (48.59±0.97)%, and (44.42±0.94)%, respectively. The standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was (75.13±0.75)%. The IC(50) for leaves, flowers, roots, stems and BHT were 0.803, 0.972, 0.989, 1.358 and 0.794 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the leaves extract was comparable with that of ascorbic acid and found to be dose dependent. Leaves extract had the highest total phenolic content [(206.17±1.95) mg GAE/g], followed by flowers, roots and stems extracts which were (117.08±3.10) mg GAE/g, (83.15±1.19) mg GAE/g, and (65.70±1.72) mg GAE/g, respectively. On the other hand, total flavonoids content also from leave had the highest value [(37.970±0.003) mg CEQ/g], followed by flowers, roots and stems extracts which were (35.200±0.002) mg CEQ/g, (24.350±0.006) mg CEQ/g, and (24.120±0.004) mg CEQ/g, respectively. HPTLC bioautography analysis of phenolic and antioxidant substance revealed phenolic compounds. Phytochemical screening of E. hirta leaf extract revealed the presence of reducing sugars, terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, flavanoids and phenolic compounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggeste that E. hirta have strong antioxidant potential. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents, which can be used to treat various oxidative stress-related diseases.

  15. Mariana A, Vellayan S, Halimaton I, Ho TM
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Mar;4(3):227-8.
    PMID: 21771459 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60075-8
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the acari present on pet Burmese pythons in Malaysia and to determine whether there is any potential public health risk related to handling of the snakes.

    METHODS: Two sub-adult Burmese pythons kept as pets for a period of about 6 to 7 months by different owners, were brought to an exotic animal practice for treatment. On a complete medical examination, some ticks and mites (acari) were detected beneath the dorsal and ventral scales along body length of the snakes. Ticks were directly identified and mites were mounted prior to identification.

    RESULTS: A total of 12 ticks represented by 3 males, 2 females and 7 nymphal stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus) were extracted from the first python while the other one was with 25 female Ophionyssus natricis (O. natricis) mesostigmatid mites. Only adult female mites were found. These mites are common ectoparasites of Burmese pythons.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the acarine species found on the Burmese pythons are known vectors of pathogens. This is the first record that R. sanguineus has been reported from a pet Burmese python in Malaysia.

  16. Sasidharan S, Lachumy SJ, Ravichandran M, Latha LY, Gegu SR
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Jan;4(1):72-5.
    PMID: 21771421 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60037-0
    OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection according to age group.

    METHODS: H. pylori infection data among 1 965 consecutive patients referred to the Endoscopy Unit collected at Sungai Petani Hospital for oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy (OGD). The patients were divided into 9 age groups (10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-99 years). In addition these groups were further divided into three minor group namely young adults (10-39), older adults (40-69) and geriatric groups (70-99).

    RESULTS: Overall prevalence of infection of H. pylori was analyzed and found that the prevalence increase with age (P<0.05). When the patients divided by ethnic and gender group with age, prevalence rate among young adults and older adults significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to geriatric groups across all races and gender (P<0.05). Furthermore, significantly higher number of males were infected compared to female (P<0.05) but such trend was only observed among older adult groups. In addition, there is a significant differences in H. pylori infection prevalence rates among ethnic groups (highest in Indians adults, followed Chinese and low in Malays, P<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori did increase with age group across ethnicity and gender, in Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Saad S, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H, Rahim NA
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Jul;4(7):523-5.
    PMID: 21803301 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60138-7
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial activities of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of Lumnitzera littorea (L. littorea) against six human pathogenic microbes.

    METHODS: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear that n-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as 0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity of L. littorea extracts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents from L. littorea extracts.

  18. Suppiah J, Saraswathy TS, Amry K, Yusof A, Saat Z
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Mar;9(3):252-5.
    PMID: 26972396 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.037
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the circulating serotypes of human echovirus in Malaysia from 2002 to 2013.

    METHODS: A total of 31 retrospective samples from non-polio acute flacid paralysis, hand-food-and-mouth disease, viral meningitis and enterovirus cases were subjected to amplification of partial VP1 gene by RT-PCR.

    RESULTS: Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequences identified presence of human echovirus and human coxsackie viruses. It was found that echovirus 11 was the commonly circulating serotype followed by echovirus 6, echovirus 7, echovirus 3, echovirus 9, echovirus 30 and echovirus 1 in decreasing order. Additionally two types of human coxsackie virus isolates were detected which were coxsackie A24 and B3.

    CONCLUSIONS: From the findings, there is a possibility that echovirus 11 is the predominant serotype among Malaysian patients with echovirus infection. However, a larger sample size will yield a more confident result to support this evidence.

  19. Hong GW, Hong SL, Lee GS, Yaacob H, Malek SN
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Jan;9(1):8-18.
    PMID: 26851779 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxic activity of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Curcuma mangga rhizomes against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29).

    METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Curcuma mangga rhizomes against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29) was determined by using the SRB assay.

    RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared to the hexane extract. Morphological changes of the HT29 cells such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling and formation of apoptotic bodies while changes in nuclear morphology like chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were observed. Further evidence of apoptosis in HT29 cells was further supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine which indicate early sign of apoptosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The early sign of apoptosis is consistent with the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint which suggests that the changes on the cell cycle lead to the induction of apoptosis in HT29.

  20. Saraswathy Subramaniam TS, Thayan R, Yusof MA, Suppiah J, Tg Abd Rashid TR, Zawawi ZM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Feb;9(2):201-3.
    PMID: 26919957 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.016
    An efficient public health preparedness and response plan for infectious disease management is important in recent times when emerging and exotic diseases that hitherto were not common have surfaced in countries with potential to spread outside borders. Stewardship from a reference laboratory is important to take the lead for the laboratory network, to proactively set up disease surveillance, provide referral diagnostic services, on-going training and mentorship and to ensure coordination of an effective laboratory response. In Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research has provided the stewardship for the Ministry of Health's laboratory network that comprises of hospital pathology, public health and university laboratories. In this paper we share our experiences in recent infectious disease outbreak investigations as a reference laboratory within the Ministry of Health infectious disease surveillance network.
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