Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

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  1. Yu KX, Wong CL, Ahmad R, Jantan I
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Dec;8(12):1006-1012.
    PMID: 26706671 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.11.011
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the larvicidal activity, inhibition effect on development, histopathological alteration and morphological aberration induced by the extracts derived from seaweeds Bryopsis pennata (B. pennata), Sargassum binderi (S. binderi) and Padina australis in Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae and to characterize the phytochemical components of the three seaweeds.

    METHODS: Larvicidal activity of the seaweeds towards the larvae of Ae. aegypti was determined according to WHO. The inhibition effect of seaweeds was assessed by determining the mortality, adult emergence rate, larval and pupa duration of the treated larvae. Histopathological effect on midgut epithelium of larvae and morphological aberration induced by the methanol extracts were examined. Phytochemical analysis was done to determine the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and terpenoids in the seaweeds.

    RESULTS: Chloroform partition of B. pennata extract exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity (LC50 = 82.55 μg/mL), followed by methanol extract of B. pennata (LC50 = 160.07 μg/mL) and chloroform partition of S. binderi extract (LC50 = 192.43 μg/mL). The methanol extract of S. binderi exhibited the strongest effect on prolongation of larval period (1.5-fold longer as compared to control) and resulted in strongest inhibition effect in adult emergence (98.67%). The histopathological study showed that larvae treated with seaweed extracts had cytopathological alteration of the midgut epithelium. The morphological observation revealed that the anal papillae and terminal spiracles of larvae were the common sites of aberrations.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study provided information on various effects of seaweed extracts on Ae. aegypti. Further investigation on identifying the active compounds and their mechanisms of action is recommended.

  2. Ng KF, Tan KK, Ngui R, Lim YA, Amir A, Rajoo Y, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Oct;8(10):878-80.
    PMID: 26522307 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.018
    We reported a case of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in a 6-year-old Malaysian boy who presented with fever, lethargy, diarrhoea and right hypochondriac pain. On admission he was diagnosed with perforated acute appendicitis and a laparotomy was done. After surgery he developed acute respiratory distress. Ultrasonography, chest X-Ray and CT scan revealed two ALAs in the posterior segment of right lobe of liver, pleural effusion and collapsed consolidation of lungs bilaterally. Percutaneous liver abscesses drainage was done and intravenous Metronidazole was started. PCR carried out on the pus from the abscess was positive for Entamoeba histolytica. Patient however succumbed to the infection one week after admission.
  3. Hong GW, Hong SL, Lee GS, Yaacob H, Malek SN
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Jan;9(1):8-18.
    PMID: 26851779 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxic activity of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Curcuma mangga rhizomes against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29).

    METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Curcuma mangga rhizomes against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29) was determined by using the SRB assay.

    RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared to the hexane extract. Morphological changes of the HT29 cells such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling and formation of apoptotic bodies while changes in nuclear morphology like chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were observed. Further evidence of apoptosis in HT29 cells was further supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine which indicate early sign of apoptosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The early sign of apoptosis is consistent with the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint which suggests that the changes on the cell cycle lead to the induction of apoptosis in HT29.

  4. Zaid OI, Abd Majid R, Sabariah MN, Hasidah MS, Al-Zihiry K, Yam MF, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Jul;8(7):507-12.
    PMID: 26276279 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.06.007
    OBJECTIVE: To explore whether its antiplasmodium effect of andrographolide is attributed to its plausible effect on the plasma membrane of both Plasmodium falciparum infected and non-infected RBCs.

    METHODS: Anti-plasmodium effect of andrographolide against Plasmodium falciparum strains was screened using the conventional malaria drug sensitivity assay. The drug was incubated with uninfected RBCs to monitor its effect on their morphology, integrity and osmotic fragility. It was incubated with the plasmodium infected RBCs to monitor its effect on the parasite induced permeation pathways. Its effect on the potential of merozoites to invade new RBCs was tested using merozoite invasion assay.

    RESULTS: It showed that at andrographolide was innocuous to RBCs at concentrations approach its therapeutic level against plasmodia. Nevertheless, this inertness was dwindled at higher concentrations.

    CONCLUSIONS: In spite of its success to inhibit plasmodium induced permeation pathway and the potential of merozoites to invade new RBCs, its anti-plasmodium effect can't be attributed to these functions as they were attained at concentrations higher than what is required to eradicate the parasite. Consequently, other mechanisms may be associated with its claimed actions.

  5. Al-Abd NM, Nor ZM, Kassim M, Mansor M, Al-Adhroey AH, Ngui R, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Sep;8(9):705-9.
    PMID: 26433654 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.07.034
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the filarial parasites,ie.,Brugia malayi, Brugia, Brugia pahangi(B. pahangi), Dirofilaria immitisandDirofilaria repens (D. repens) in domestic and stray cats.

    METHODS: A total of 170 blood sample were collected from domestic and stray cats and examined for filarial worm parasites in two localities, Pulau Carey and Bukit Gasing, Selangor State, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of infection was 23.5% (40/170; 95% CI = 17.4-30.6). Of this, 35% (14/40; 95% CI = 22.1-50.5) and 50% (20/40; 95% CI = 35.2-64.8) were positive for single B. pahangi nd D. repens, respectively. The remaining of 15% (6/40; 95% CI = 7.1-29.1) were positive for mixed B. pahangi and D. repens. In addition, 75% of the infected cats were domestic, and 25% were strays. No Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. Eighty-four cats were captured at Pulau Carey, of which 35.7% (30/84) were infected. Among the cats determined to be infected, 93% (28/30; 95% CI = 78.7-98.2) were domestic, and only 6.7% (2/30; 95% CI = 19.0-21.3) were strays. Conversely, the number of infected cats was three times lower in Bukit Gasing than in Pulau Carey, and most of the cats were stray.

    CONCLUSIONS: B. pahangi and D. repens could be the major parasites underlying filariasis in the study area. Adequate prophylactic plans should be administrated in the cat population in study area.

  6. Yusoff NA, Yam MF, Beh HK, Abdul Razak KN, Widyawati T, Mahmud R, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Aug;8(8):595-605.
    PMID: 26321511 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.07.015
    OBJECTIVES: To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar (NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes.

    METHODS: NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated via in vitro antioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay.

    RESULTS: Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect (56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels (79.8%, P 

  7. Shahfiza N, Osman H, Hock TT, Shaari K, Abdel-Hamid AH
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Jun;8(6):451-6.
    PMID: 26194829 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.05.012
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the metabolic response associate with dengue infection based on human gender metabolic differences by means of (1)H NMR-spectrometry.

    METHODS: The mid-stream urine collected from both male and female patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital and fourty-three healthy individuals were analyzed with (1)H NMR spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals which highlighted in the OPLS-DA S-plot were further selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database, Chenomx Profiler.

    RESULTS: The results pointed out that NMR urine profiling was able to capture human gender metabolic differences that are important for the distinction of classes of individuals of similar physiological conditions; infected with dengue. Distinct differences between dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals and subtle differences in male versus female infected with dengue were found to be related to the metabolism of amino acid and tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle.

    CONCLUSIONS: The (1)H NMR metabolomic investigation combined with appropriate algorithms and pattern recognition procedures, gave an evidence for the existence of distinct metabolic differentiation of individuals, according to their gender, modulates with the infection risk.

  8. Rajoo Y, Mahmud R, Xiang NR, Omar SF, Kumar G, Lim YA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Apr;8(4):334-6.
    PMID: 25975509 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60341-2
    We report a case of a patient with Schistosoma mansoni infection who presented with liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly. She was diagnosed by a serological test and Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. The patient was a 52-year-old woman from Sudan who came to Malaysia for a week to visit her sons. The patient lives in the middle of Rabak region, Sudan, a highly endemic area for schistosomiasis where her daily routine includes rearing of cows and farming. The site of toilet and sources of drinking water are canals and wells; both infested with snails. Patient had a long history of exposure and coming into contact with water from these canals and wells.
  9. Kai NS, Nee TA, Ling EL, Ping TC, Kamariah L, Lin NK
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Jan;8(1):6-13.
    PMID: 25901917 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60179-6
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the antihypercholesterolemic effects of kenaf seed samples and compare with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug on serum lipids profiles and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the rat.

    METHODS: Kenaf seed oil (KSO), microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO), kenaf seed extract (KSE) and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) were prepared and phytochemicals screening on these samples were done prior in vivo study. Phenolic compounds in KSE were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. There were 40 (divided in eight diet groups of 5) male Sprague dawley rats adapted to normal standard diet or hypercholesterolemic diet (HD) with or without the treatment of these kenaf samples for 32 days.

    RESULTS: All the kenaf samples exhibited to contain most of the major phytochemicals. KSE possessed gallic acid, tannic acid, catechin, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, naringin acid, and protocatechuic acid. The significant higher (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and MDA levels in HD group without treatment than the normal control group suggested the hypercholesterolemia was induced by the incorporation of cholesterol into diet. KSE exhibited higher cholesterol-lowering properties due to the significant lower (P<0.05) in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and MDA levels. KSE showed the highest efficiency of cholesterol-lowering activity, followed by KSO, MKSO and DKSM.

    CONCLUSIONS: DKSM, MKSO, KSO and KSE appeared to have comparable anti-hypercholesterolemic effect with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug. Hence, kenaf seed could be used as an alternative natural source to replace the synthetic hypocholesterolemic drugs.

  10. Coulibaly AY, Hashim R, Sulaiman SF, Sulaiman O, Ang LZ, Ooi KL
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2014 Sep;7S1:S553-9.
    PMID: 25312183 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60289-3
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antioxidant activities of seven medicinal plant species and their fractions, and to identify their phenolic compounds.

    METHODS: Two extractions were processed and further fractionated by column chromatography to evaluate the concentration that inhibit 50% of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-suslfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals, and their ferric reducing antioxidant power. The identification of the fractions of phenolic compounds was done by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    RESULTS: The aqueous-acetone extracts of Feretia apodanthera and Ozoroa insignis exhibited the highest antioxidant potentials comparable to those of the standard quercetin. Their subsequently silica gel column fractionation showed three most active fractions from which the major constituents quercetin, myricetin, kampferol, rutin and isoquercetin were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: These plant species have potent antioxidant profiles and polyphenol compounds that may help to manage with radical related disease and aging.

  11. Hashim R, Roslan NA, Zulkipli FH, Daud JM
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2014 Sep;7S1:S150-4.
    PMID: 25312111 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60222-4
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aphrodisiac property of Aplysia dactylomela (A. dactylomelan), locally known as 'dugu-dugu', which is one of the sea slug species.

    METHODS: Two types of extractions were used; aqueous and lipid. Three doses of each A. dactylomelan extract, respectively; 50, 100, 200 mg/kg were administered (i.p.) to male mice for mounting behavior test. Sildenafil citrate or Viagra® (5 mg/kg) being positive control while negative control received saline solution.

    RESULTS: The animals treated with lipid extract at the respective dose exhibited mounting behavior, but the mounting frequency decreased at higher doses (100 and 200 mg/kg). However, all doses of aqueous extract did not show any mounting behavior. Meanwhile, in all doses of lipid extracts administered displayed significant difference (P<0.05) from the positive control. Despite this, only the lipid extract of 50 mg/kg showed significant difference (P<0.05) with negative control. This signifies that lipid extracts especially in dose 50 mg/kg have a substantial effect of aphrodisiac property. In addition, the presence of steroids was detected in the phytochemical screening of lipid extract.

    CONLUSIONS: The findings from this study provides preliminary scientific evidence that A. dactylomela could be used as an alternative medication of natural product for promoting sexual activity in men.

  12. Wesam RK, Ghanya AN, Mizaton HH, Ilham M, Aishah A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Oct;6(10):811-6.
    PMID: 23870471 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60143-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity of standardized aqueous of dry leaves of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) in human HepG2 and WRL68 cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxicity of E. cuneatum extract was evaluated by both MTS and LDH assays. Genotoxicity study on E. cuneatum extract was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The protective effect of E. cuneatum against menadione-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated.

    RESULTS: Results from this study showed that E. cuneatum extract exhibited cytotoxic activities towards the cells with IC50 value of (125±12) and (125±14) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 cells respectively, after 72 h incubation period as determined by MTS assay. LDH leakage was detected at (251±19) and (199.5±12.0) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 respectively. Genotoxicity study results showed that treatment with E. cuneatum up to 1 mg/mL did not cause obvious DNA damage in WRL68 and HepG2 cells. Addition of E. cunaetum did not show significant protection towards menadione in WRL68 and HepG2 Cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. cuneatum standardized aqueous extract might be developed in order to establish new pharmacological possibilities for its application.

  13. Mia MS, Begum RA, Er AC, Abidin RD, Pereira JJ
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Jun;6(6):462-6.
    PMID: 23711707 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60075-9
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends of dengue incidences and deaths in Malaysia from 2000 to 2010 as well as the predominant dengue virus serotypes during the last decade.

    METHODS: We used the national data on annual reported cases, deaths, incidence rate, mortality rate, and case fatality rate of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as well as dengue virus serotypes prevalent in Malaysia during the last decade. Trend/ regression lines were fitted to investigate the trend of dengue incidences and deaths due to the disease for a 11-year period (2000-2010). For the distribution of national incidence rate, mortality rate, and case fatality rate of DF and DHF, descriptive statistics using mean and 95% confidence intervals (CI 39) for means, and range were applied.

    RESULTS: The number of dengue cases and number of deaths have increased, on average, by 14% and 8% per year respectively. The average annual incidence rate of DF per 100 000 populations was higher as compared to that of DHF. Conversely, the yearly mean mortality rate of DHF per 100 000 populations was greater than that of DF. The simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes has been found in Malaysia. But a particular dengue virus serotype predominates for at least two years before it becomes replaced by another serotype.

    CONCLUSIONS: The dengue situation in Malaysia has worsened with an increasing number of reported cases and deaths during the last decade. The increasing trend of dengue highlights the need for a more systematic surveillance and reporting of the disease.

  14. Chong WC, Basir R, Fei YM
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Feb;6(2):85-94.
    PMID: 23339908 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60001-2
    Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually. Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease. Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide. However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies. In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Plasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed. The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication. However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles. Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms.
  15. Mahmood A, Omar MN, Ngah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):882-6.
    PMID: 23146802 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60164-3
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups.

    METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.

    RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

  16. Azahar MA, Al-Naqeb G, Hasan M, Adam A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):875-81.
    PMID: 23146801 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60163-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Octomeles sumatrana (O. sumatrana) (OS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) and its molecular mechanisms.

    METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into six different groups; normal control rats were not induced with STZ and served as reference, STZ diabetic control rats were given normal saline. Three groups were treated with OS aqueous extract at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, orally twice daily continuously for 21 d. The fifth group was treated with glibenclamide (6 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally continuously for 21 d. After completion of the treatment period, biochemical parameters and expression levels of glucose transporter 2 (Slc2a2), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) were determined in liver by quantitative real time PCR.

    RESULTS: Administration of OS at different doses to STZ induced diabetic rats, resulted in significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner by 36%, 48%, and 64% at doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively, in comparison to the STZ control values. Treatment with OS elicited an increase in the expression level of Slc2a2 gene but reduced the expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes. Morefore, OS treated rats, showed significantly lower levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea levels compared to STZ untreated rats. The extract at different doses elicited signs of recovery in body weight gain when compared to STZ diabetic controls although food and water consumption were significantly lower in treated groups compared to STZ diabetic control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: O. sumatrana aqueous extract is beneficial for improvement of hyperglycemia by increasing gene expression of liver Slc2a2 and reducing expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  17. Mayakrishnan V, Veluswamy S, Sundaram KS, Kannappan P, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Jan;6(1):20-6.
    PMID: 23317881 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60195-3
    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit.

    METHODS: The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay.

    RESULTS: The IC(50) values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. The β-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers.

  18. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Mahmoud Nassar ZD
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Apr;5(4):294-8.
    PMID: 22449521 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60042-X
    OBJECTIVE: Toinvestigate the anti-angiogenic activity and antioxidant properties of Myristica fragrans (M. fragrans) (nutmeg) and Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia)(mengkudu) oils.

    METHODS: The nutmeg and megkudu essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antioxidant activities of both essential oils were determined by beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay and reducing power while the anti-angiogenic activity was investigated using rat aortic ring assay using various concentrations.

    RESULTS: The results showed that nutmeg oil has higher antioxidant activity than mengkudu oil. The nutmeg oil effectively inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid with (88.68±0.1)% while the inhibition percentage of oxidation of linoleic acid of the mengkudu oil is (69.44±0.4)%. The nutmeg oil and mengkudu oil showed reducing power with an EC(50) value of 181.4 μg/mL and 3 043.0 μg/mL, respectively. The antiangiogenic activity of nutmeg oil showed significant antiangiogenic activity with IC(50) of 77.64 μg/mL comparing to mengkudu oil which exhibits IC(50) of 109.30 μg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bioactive compound(s) will be isolated from the nutmeg essential oil to be developed as antiangiogenic drugs.

  19. Kamazeri TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Mar;5(3):202-9.
    PMID: 22305785 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60025-X
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa), Curcuma mangga (C. mangga), and Zingiber cassumunar (Z. cassumunar), and study their antimicrobial activity.

    METHODS: Essential oils obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated against four bacteria: Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa); and two fungi: Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cyptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans), using disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: Cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro formyl (35.29%) and dihydrocostunolide (22.51%) were the major compounds in C. aeruginosa oil; whereas caryophyllene oxide (18.71%) and caryophyllene (12.69%) were the major compounds in C. mangga oil; and 2,6,9,9-tetramethyl-2,6,10-cycloundecatrien-1-one (60.77%) and α-caryophyllene (23.92%) were abundant in Z. cassumunar oil. The essential oils displayed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. C. mangga oil had the highest and most broad-spectrum activity by inhibiting all microorganisms tested, with C. neoformans being the most sensitive microorganism by having the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.1 μL/mL. C. aeruginosa oil showed mild antimicrobial activity, whereas Z. cassumunar had very low or weak activity against the tested microorganisms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results suggest promising antimicrobial properties of C. mangga and C. aeruginosa, which may be useful for food preservation, pharmaceutical treatment and natural therapies.

  20. Taher M, Susanti D, Rezali MF, Zohri FS, Ichwan SJ, Alkhamaiseh SI, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Feb;5(2):136-41.
    PMID: 22221758 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60012-1
    OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of stembark of Garcinia malaccensis (G. malaccensis) together with apoptotic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    METHODS: Purification and structure elucidation were carried out by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively. MTT and trypan blue exclusion methods were performed to study the cytotoxic activity. Antibacterial activity was conducted by disc diffusion and microdilution methods, whereas antioxidant activities were done by ferric thiocyanate method and DPPH radical scavenging.

    RESULTS: The phytochemical study led to the isolation of α,β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. α-Mangostin exhibited cytotoxic activity against HSC-3 cells with an IC(50) of 0.33 μM. β- and α-mangostin showed activity against K562 cells with IC(50) of 0.40 μM and 0.48 μM, respectively. α-Mangostin was active against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) with inhibition zone and MIC value of (19 mm; 0.025 mg/mL) and (20 mm; 0.013 mg/mL), respectively. In antioxidant assay, α-mangostin exhibited activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

    CONCLUSIONS: G. malaccensis presence α- and β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. β-Mangostin was found very active against HSC-3 cells and K562. The results suggest that mangostins derivatives have the potential to inhibit the growth of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. In addition, α-and β-mangostin was found inhibit the growth of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and also showed the activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

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