Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

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  1. Chong WC, Basir R, Fei YM
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Feb;6(2):85-94.
    PMID: 23339908 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60001-2
    Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually. Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease. Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide. However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies. In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Plasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed. The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication. However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles. Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms.
  2. Mayakrishnan V, Veluswamy S, Sundaram KS, Kannappan P, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Jan;6(1):20-6.
    PMID: 23317881 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60195-3
    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit.

    METHODS: The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay.

    RESULTS: The IC(50) values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. The β-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers.

  3. Mia MS, Begum RA, Er AC, Abidin RD, Pereira JJ
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Jun;6(6):462-6.
    PMID: 23711707 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60075-9
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends of dengue incidences and deaths in Malaysia from 2000 to 2010 as well as the predominant dengue virus serotypes during the last decade.

    METHODS: We used the national data on annual reported cases, deaths, incidence rate, mortality rate, and case fatality rate of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as well as dengue virus serotypes prevalent in Malaysia during the last decade. Trend/ regression lines were fitted to investigate the trend of dengue incidences and deaths due to the disease for a 11-year period (2000-2010). For the distribution of national incidence rate, mortality rate, and case fatality rate of DF and DHF, descriptive statistics using mean and 95% confidence intervals (CI 39) for means, and range were applied.

    RESULTS: The number of dengue cases and number of deaths have increased, on average, by 14% and 8% per year respectively. The average annual incidence rate of DF per 100 000 populations was higher as compared to that of DHF. Conversely, the yearly mean mortality rate of DHF per 100 000 populations was greater than that of DF. The simultaneous circulation of all four dengue serotypes has been found in Malaysia. But a particular dengue virus serotype predominates for at least two years before it becomes replaced by another serotype.

    CONCLUSIONS: The dengue situation in Malaysia has worsened with an increasing number of reported cases and deaths during the last decade. The increasing trend of dengue highlights the need for a more systematic surveillance and reporting of the disease.

  4. Wesam RK, Ghanya AN, Mizaton HH, Ilham M, Aishah A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Oct;6(10):811-6.
    PMID: 23870471 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60143-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity of standardized aqueous of dry leaves of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) in human HepG2 and WRL68 cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxicity of E. cuneatum extract was evaluated by both MTS and LDH assays. Genotoxicity study on E. cuneatum extract was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The protective effect of E. cuneatum against menadione-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated.

    RESULTS: Results from this study showed that E. cuneatum extract exhibited cytotoxic activities towards the cells with IC50 value of (125±12) and (125±14) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 cells respectively, after 72 h incubation period as determined by MTS assay. LDH leakage was detected at (251±19) and (199.5±12.0) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 respectively. Genotoxicity study results showed that treatment with E. cuneatum up to 1 mg/mL did not cause obvious DNA damage in WRL68 and HepG2 cells. Addition of E. cunaetum did not show significant protection towards menadione in WRL68 and HepG2 Cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. cuneatum standardized aqueous extract might be developed in order to establish new pharmacological possibilities for its application.

  5. Mahmood A, Omar MN, Ngah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):882-6.
    PMID: 23146802 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60164-3
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups.

    METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.

    RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

  6. Azahar MA, Al-Naqeb G, Hasan M, Adam A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):875-81.
    PMID: 23146801 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60163-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Octomeles sumatrana (O. sumatrana) (OS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) and its molecular mechanisms.

    METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into six different groups; normal control rats were not induced with STZ and served as reference, STZ diabetic control rats were given normal saline. Three groups were treated with OS aqueous extract at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, orally twice daily continuously for 21 d. The fifth group was treated with glibenclamide (6 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally continuously for 21 d. After completion of the treatment period, biochemical parameters and expression levels of glucose transporter 2 (Slc2a2), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) were determined in liver by quantitative real time PCR.

    RESULTS: Administration of OS at different doses to STZ induced diabetic rats, resulted in significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner by 36%, 48%, and 64% at doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively, in comparison to the STZ control values. Treatment with OS elicited an increase in the expression level of Slc2a2 gene but reduced the expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes. Morefore, OS treated rats, showed significantly lower levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea levels compared to STZ untreated rats. The extract at different doses elicited signs of recovery in body weight gain when compared to STZ diabetic controls although food and water consumption were significantly lower in treated groups compared to STZ diabetic control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: O. sumatrana aqueous extract is beneficial for improvement of hyperglycemia by increasing gene expression of liver Slc2a2 and reducing expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Suppiah J, Saraswathy TS, Amry K, Yusof A, Saat Z
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Mar;9(3):252-5.
    PMID: 26972396 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.037
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the circulating serotypes of human echovirus in Malaysia from 2002 to 2013.

    METHODS: A total of 31 retrospective samples from non-polio acute flacid paralysis, hand-food-and-mouth disease, viral meningitis and enterovirus cases were subjected to amplification of partial VP1 gene by RT-PCR.

    RESULTS: Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequences identified presence of human echovirus and human coxsackie viruses. It was found that echovirus 11 was the commonly circulating serotype followed by echovirus 6, echovirus 7, echovirus 3, echovirus 9, echovirus 30 and echovirus 1 in decreasing order. Additionally two types of human coxsackie virus isolates were detected which were coxsackie A24 and B3.

    CONCLUSIONS: From the findings, there is a possibility that echovirus 11 is the predominant serotype among Malaysian patients with echovirus infection. However, a larger sample size will yield a more confident result to support this evidence.

  8. Saraswathy Subramaniam TS, Thayan R, Yusof MA, Suppiah J, Tg Abd Rashid TR, Zawawi ZM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Feb;9(2):201-3.
    PMID: 26919957 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.016
    An efficient public health preparedness and response plan for infectious disease management is important in recent times when emerging and exotic diseases that hitherto were not common have surfaced in countries with potential to spread outside borders. Stewardship from a reference laboratory is important to take the lead for the laboratory network, to proactively set up disease surveillance, provide referral diagnostic services, on-going training and mentorship and to ensure coordination of an effective laboratory response. In Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research has provided the stewardship for the Ministry of Health's laboratory network that comprises of hospital pathology, public health and university laboratories. In this paper we share our experiences in recent infectious disease outbreak investigations as a reference laboratory within the Ministry of Health infectious disease surveillance network.
  9. Hong GW, Hong SL, Lee GS, Yaacob H, Malek SN
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Jan;9(1):8-18.
    PMID: 26851779 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxic activity of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Curcuma mangga rhizomes against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29).

    METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Curcuma mangga rhizomes against human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29) was determined by using the SRB assay.

    RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared to the hexane extract. Morphological changes of the HT29 cells such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling and formation of apoptotic bodies while changes in nuclear morphology like chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were observed. Further evidence of apoptosis in HT29 cells was further supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine which indicate early sign of apoptosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The early sign of apoptosis is consistent with the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint which suggests that the changes on the cell cycle lead to the induction of apoptosis in HT29.

  10. Alam A, Ferdosh S, Ghafoor K, Hakim A, Juraimi AS, Khatib A, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):402-409.
    PMID: 27086161 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.011
    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work.
  11. Pang EL, Loh HS
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):395-401.
    PMID: 27086160 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.004
    Prevalence of dengue transmission has been alarmed by an estimate of 390 million infections per annum. Urban encroachment, ecological disruption and poor sanitation are all contributory factors of increased epidemiology. Complication however arises from the fact that dengue virus inherently exists as four different serotypes. Secondary infection is often manifested in the more severe form, such that antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) could aggravate ailment by allowing pre-existing antibodies to form complexes with infecting viruses as means of intrusion. Consequently, increased viraemic titter and suppression of antiviral response are observed. Deep concerns are thus expressed in regards to escalating trend of hospitalisation and mortality rates. In Malaysia, situation is exacerbated by improper clinical management and pending vector control operations. As a preparedness strategy against the potential deadly dengue pandemic, the call for development of a durable and cost-effective dengue vaccine against all infecting serotypes is intensified. Even though several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, uncertainties in regards to serotypes interference, incomplete protection and dose adequacy have been raised. Instead of sole reliance on outsourcing, production of local vaccine should be considered in coherent to government's efforts to combat against dengue.
  12. Zahari A, Ablat A, Sivasothy Y, Mohamad J, Choudhary MI, Awang K
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):328-332.
    PMID: 27086149 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.008
    OBJECTIVE: To study antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of the isolation of alkaloids from the active dichloromethane extract of Alseodaphne corneri.

    METHODS: Phytochemical studies of the crude extract led to the isolation of six alkaloids using recycle high performance liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using the histidine-rich protein II assay. The isolated alkaloids were also tested for their antioxidant activity using three different assays; DPPH, ferric reducing ability of plasma and metal chelating assays.

    RESULTS: Malaria infection caused the formation of free radicals which subsequently led to oxidative stress and apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of the alkaloids under investigation revealed that in addition to the antiplasmodial activity, the alkaloids could also prevent oxidative stress. (+)-laurotetanine and (+)-norstephasubine exhibited strong antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values of 0.189 and 0.116 μM, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interestingly, the two most potent compounds that exhibit antiplasmodial activity also exhibit good antioxidant activities. The crude dichloromethane extract and the isolated compounds exert substantial antiplasmodial and antioxidative activities which in turn suppress oxidative stress and cause less damage to the host.

  13. Kingsley PV, Arunkumar G, Tipre M, Leader M, Sathiakumar N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Jun;9(6):515-24.
    PMID: 27262061 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.04.003
    Melioidosis is a severe and fatal infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. It presents as a febrile illness with protean manifestation ranging from chronic localized infection to acute fulminant septicemia with dissemination of infection to multiple organs characterized by abscesses. Pneumonia is the most common clinical presentation. Because of the wide range of clinical presentations, physicians may often misdiagnose and mistreat the disease for tuberculosis, pneumonia or other pyogenic infections. The purpose of this paper is to present common pitfalls in diagnosis and provide optimal approaches to enable early diagnosis and prompt treatment of melioidosis. Melioidosis may occur beyond the boundaries of endemic areas. There is no pathognomonic feature specific to a diagnosis of melioidosis. In endemic areas, physicians need to expand the diagnostic work-up to include melioidosis when confronted with clinical scenarios of pyrexia of unknown origin, progressive pneumonia or sepsis. Radiological imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic workup. Knowledge of the modes of transmission and risk factors will add support in clinically suspected cases to initiate therapy. In situations of clinically highly probable or possible cases where laboratory bacteriological confirmation is not possible, applying evidence-based criteria and empirical treatment with antimicrobials is recommended. It is of prime importance that patients undergo the full course of antimicrobial therapy to avoid relapse and recurrence. Early diagnosis and appropriate management is crucial in reducing serious complications leading to high mortality, and in preventing recurrences of the disease. Thus, there is a crucial need for promoting awareness among physicians at all levels and for improved diagnostic microbiology services. Further, the need for making the disease notifiable and/or initiating melioidosis registries in endemic countries appears to be compelling.
  14. Rajoo Y, Mahmud R, Xiang NR, Omar SF, Kumar G, Lim YA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Apr;8(4):334-6.
    PMID: 25975509 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60341-2
    We report a case of a patient with Schistosoma mansoni infection who presented with liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly. She was diagnosed by a serological test and Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. The patient was a 52-year-old woman from Sudan who came to Malaysia for a week to visit her sons. The patient lives in the middle of Rabak region, Sudan, a highly endemic area for schistosomiasis where her daily routine includes rearing of cows and farming. The site of toilet and sources of drinking water are canals and wells; both infested with snails. Patient had a long history of exposure and coming into contact with water from these canals and wells.
  15. Kai NS, Nee TA, Ling EL, Ping TC, Kamariah L, Lin NK
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Jan;8(1):6-13.
    PMID: 25901917 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60179-6
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the antihypercholesterolemic effects of kenaf seed samples and compare with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug on serum lipids profiles and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the rat.

    METHODS: Kenaf seed oil (KSO), microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO), kenaf seed extract (KSE) and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) were prepared and phytochemicals screening on these samples were done prior in vivo study. Phenolic compounds in KSE were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. There were 40 (divided in eight diet groups of 5) male Sprague dawley rats adapted to normal standard diet or hypercholesterolemic diet (HD) with or without the treatment of these kenaf samples for 32 days.

    RESULTS: All the kenaf samples exhibited to contain most of the major phytochemicals. KSE possessed gallic acid, tannic acid, catechin, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, naringin acid, and protocatechuic acid. The significant higher (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and MDA levels in HD group without treatment than the normal control group suggested the hypercholesterolemia was induced by the incorporation of cholesterol into diet. KSE exhibited higher cholesterol-lowering properties due to the significant lower (P<0.05) in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and MDA levels. KSE showed the highest efficiency of cholesterol-lowering activity, followed by KSO, MKSO and DKSM.

    CONCLUSIONS: DKSM, MKSO, KSO and KSE appeared to have comparable anti-hypercholesterolemic effect with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug. Hence, kenaf seed could be used as an alternative natural source to replace the synthetic hypocholesterolemic drugs.

  16. Yu KX, Wong CL, Ahmad R, Jantan I
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Dec;8(12):1006-1012.
    PMID: 26706671 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.11.011
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the larvicidal activity, inhibition effect on development, histopathological alteration and morphological aberration induced by the extracts derived from seaweeds Bryopsis pennata (B. pennata), Sargassum binderi (S. binderi) and Padina australis in Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae and to characterize the phytochemical components of the three seaweeds.

    METHODS: Larvicidal activity of the seaweeds towards the larvae of Ae. aegypti was determined according to WHO. The inhibition effect of seaweeds was assessed by determining the mortality, adult emergence rate, larval and pupa duration of the treated larvae. Histopathological effect on midgut epithelium of larvae and morphological aberration induced by the methanol extracts were examined. Phytochemical analysis was done to determine the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and terpenoids in the seaweeds.

    RESULTS: Chloroform partition of B. pennata extract exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity (LC50 = 82.55 μg/mL), followed by methanol extract of B. pennata (LC50 = 160.07 μg/mL) and chloroform partition of S. binderi extract (LC50 = 192.43 μg/mL). The methanol extract of S. binderi exhibited the strongest effect on prolongation of larval period (1.5-fold longer as compared to control) and resulted in strongest inhibition effect in adult emergence (98.67%). The histopathological study showed that larvae treated with seaweed extracts had cytopathological alteration of the midgut epithelium. The morphological observation revealed that the anal papillae and terminal spiracles of larvae were the common sites of aberrations.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study provided information on various effects of seaweed extracts on Ae. aegypti. Further investigation on identifying the active compounds and their mechanisms of action is recommended.

  17. Ng KF, Tan KK, Ngui R, Lim YA, Amir A, Rajoo Y, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Oct;8(10):878-80.
    PMID: 26522307 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.018
    We reported a case of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in a 6-year-old Malaysian boy who presented with fever, lethargy, diarrhoea and right hypochondriac pain. On admission he was diagnosed with perforated acute appendicitis and a laparotomy was done. After surgery he developed acute respiratory distress. Ultrasonography, chest X-Ray and CT scan revealed two ALAs in the posterior segment of right lobe of liver, pleural effusion and collapsed consolidation of lungs bilaterally. Percutaneous liver abscesses drainage was done and intravenous Metronidazole was started. PCR carried out on the pus from the abscess was positive for Entamoeba histolytica. Patient however succumbed to the infection one week after admission.
  18. Coulibaly AY, Hashim R, Sulaiman SF, Sulaiman O, Ang LZ, Ooi KL
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2014 Sep;7S1:S553-9.
    PMID: 25312183 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60289-3
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antioxidant activities of seven medicinal plant species and their fractions, and to identify their phenolic compounds.

    METHODS: Two extractions were processed and further fractionated by column chromatography to evaluate the concentration that inhibit 50% of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-suslfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals, and their ferric reducing antioxidant power. The identification of the fractions of phenolic compounds was done by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    RESULTS: The aqueous-acetone extracts of Feretia apodanthera and Ozoroa insignis exhibited the highest antioxidant potentials comparable to those of the standard quercetin. Their subsequently silica gel column fractionation showed three most active fractions from which the major constituents quercetin, myricetin, kampferol, rutin and isoquercetin were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: These plant species have potent antioxidant profiles and polyphenol compounds that may help to manage with radical related disease and aging.

  19. Hashim R, Roslan NA, Zulkipli FH, Daud JM
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2014 Sep;7S1:S150-4.
    PMID: 25312111 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60222-4
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aphrodisiac property of Aplysia dactylomela (A. dactylomelan), locally known as 'dugu-dugu', which is one of the sea slug species.

    METHODS: Two types of extractions were used; aqueous and lipid. Three doses of each A. dactylomelan extract, respectively; 50, 100, 200 mg/kg were administered (i.p.) to male mice for mounting behavior test. Sildenafil citrate or Viagra® (5 mg/kg) being positive control while negative control received saline solution.

    RESULTS: The animals treated with lipid extract at the respective dose exhibited mounting behavior, but the mounting frequency decreased at higher doses (100 and 200 mg/kg). However, all doses of aqueous extract did not show any mounting behavior. Meanwhile, in all doses of lipid extracts administered displayed significant difference (P<0.05) from the positive control. Despite this, only the lipid extract of 50 mg/kg showed significant difference (P<0.05) with negative control. This signifies that lipid extracts especially in dose 50 mg/kg have a substantial effect of aphrodisiac property. In addition, the presence of steroids was detected in the phytochemical screening of lipid extract.

    CONLUSIONS: The findings from this study provides preliminary scientific evidence that A. dactylomela could be used as an alternative medication of natural product for promoting sexual activity in men.

  20. Al-Abd NM, Nor ZM, Kassim M, Mansor M, Al-Adhroey AH, Ngui R, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2015 Sep;8(9):705-9.
    PMID: 26433654 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.07.034
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the filarial parasites,ie.,Brugia malayi, Brugia, Brugia pahangi(B. pahangi), Dirofilaria immitisandDirofilaria repens (D. repens) in domestic and stray cats.

    METHODS: A total of 170 blood sample were collected from domestic and stray cats and examined for filarial worm parasites in two localities, Pulau Carey and Bukit Gasing, Selangor State, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of infection was 23.5% (40/170; 95% CI = 17.4-30.6). Of this, 35% (14/40; 95% CI = 22.1-50.5) and 50% (20/40; 95% CI = 35.2-64.8) were positive for single B. pahangi nd D. repens, respectively. The remaining of 15% (6/40; 95% CI = 7.1-29.1) were positive for mixed B. pahangi and D. repens. In addition, 75% of the infected cats were domestic, and 25% were strays. No Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. Eighty-four cats were captured at Pulau Carey, of which 35.7% (30/84) were infected. Among the cats determined to be infected, 93% (28/30; 95% CI = 78.7-98.2) were domestic, and only 6.7% (2/30; 95% CI = 19.0-21.3) were strays. Conversely, the number of infected cats was three times lower in Bukit Gasing than in Pulau Carey, and most of the cats were stray.

    CONCLUSIONS: B. pahangi and D. repens could be the major parasites underlying filariasis in the study area. Adequate prophylactic plans should be administrated in the cat population in study area.

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