HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder incurs a significant burden on HIV patients in Asia-Pacific countries; however, the incidence is difficult to estimate due to a lack of local epidemiological data. The impact of neurocognitive impairment in HIV patients is often underestimated due to a lack of education and awareness, and there are consequently gaps in the provision of screening and diagnosis to enable earlier intervention to limit neurocognitive impairment.
Studies addressing the nature of relationship between psychological symptoms and quality of life among dialysis patients in Malaysia are scarce. Hence, this study is intended to investigate the association between psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety and stress on the quality of life in dialysis patients. A cross sectional multicentre study was conducted from May to October 2012 at 15 centres that provide haemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis. Apart from socio-demographic profile data collection, WHOQOL-BREF and DASS21 questionnaires were administered to study subjects. All three psychological symptoms had significant impact on quality of life domains of physical health, psychological health, social impact, perceived environment and overall quality of life. These findings suggest that subjects with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress had poorer quality of life than those without, highlighting the negative impact of psychological symptoms.
A recent article in this journal (Razali et al., 2015) reports the results of a 2-stage study screening for psychosis risk in Malaysia. The researchers incorporated both selective and indicated prevention strategies and included self-report items probing non-specific "early" experiences as well as attenuated psychotic symptoms associated with the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Given that increased stigma and reduced services may reduce help-seeking in many Asian countries, population screening may be more important to early detection of individuals at risk for psychosis. In fact, the availability of large population centers and greater trust of providers may make Asian research centers uniquely suited for conducting badly needed research on screening strategies and the role of cultural factors in the emergence of psychosis.
The aim of the study is to screen and evaluate the efficacy of the screening tools in detecting subjects with sub-threshold psychosis among asymptomatic individuals at genetic risk, as compared with persons in the general public.
Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will.
The study used confirmatory factor analysis to ascertain support for the bifactor model of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, based on parent and teacher ratings for a group of Malaysian children.
OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine, using fluoxetine as an active comparator, in Asian patients suffering from moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD).
METHOD: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either agomelatine (25-50mg/day, n=314) or fluoxetine (20-40mg/day, n=314) during an 8-week treatment period. The main outcome measure was the change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 items (HAM-D17) scores. Secondary efficacy criteria included scores on Clinical Global Impression Severity of illness (CGI-S) and Improvement of illness (CGI-I), patient sleeping improvement using the self-rating Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) and anxiety using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores. Tolerability and safety evaluations were based on emergent adverse events.
RESULTS: Agomelatine and fluoxetine exert a comparable antidepressant efficacy in the Asian population. Mean changes over 8 weeks were clinically relevant and similar in both groups (-14.8±7.3 and -15.0±8.1 on HAM-D17 scale in agomelatine and fluoxetine groups, respectively). The between-group difference reached statistical significance on non-inferiority test (p=0.015). Clinically relevant decreases in CGI-S and CGI-I scores were observed over the treatment period in both groups. The two treatments were equally effective on the symptoms of both anxiety and sleep. The good tolerability profile and safety of both doses of agomelatine was confirmed in the Asian population.
CONCLUSIONS: Agomelatine and fluoxetine are equally effective in the treatment of MDD-associated symptoms in Asian depressed patients.
KEYWORDS: Agomelatine; Antidepressant; Asian population; Fluoxetine
Study site in Malaysia: Psychiatric clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical diagnosis relying on persistence of symptoms across different settings. Information are gathered from different informants including adolescents, parents and teachers. In this cross-sectional study involving 410 twelve-year old adolescents, 37 teachers and 367 parents from seven schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, reliability of ADHD symptoms among the various informants were reported. ADHD symptoms (i.e. predominantly hyperactive, predominantly inattentive and combined symptoms) were assessed by adolescents, teachers and parents, using Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-report Scale (CASS), Conner's Teachers Rating Scale (CTRS) and Conner's Parents Rating Scale (CPRS) respectively. For predominantly hyperactive symptoms, there were statistically significant, weak positive correlations between parents and teachers reporting (r=0.241, p<0.01). Statistically significant, weak positive correlations were found between adolescents and parents for predominantly inattentive symptoms (r=0.283, p<0.01). Correlations between adolescents and parents reporting were statistically significant but weak (r=0.294, p<0.01). Weak correlations exist between the different informants reporting ADHD symptoms among Malaysian adolescents. While multiple informant ratings are required to facilitate the diagnosis of ADHD, effort should be taken to minimize the disagreement in reporting and better utilize the information.
The aim of this study was to ascertain the rates of emotional and behavioural problems (emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and low prosocial behaviour) of Malaysian children.
This article deals with the presence of hysterical astasia abasia in the father, and cyclothymic disturbance in the elder brother of the great Chola emperor and builder of the Big Temple at Thanjavur, Raja Raja.
BACKGROUND: This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children.
METHODS: In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms.
RESULTS: Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%.
DISCUSSION: The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed
Many studies have reported that the prevalence of psychological distress among medical students during medical training was high. However, there are very few studies exploring on the psychological health of prospective medical students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for stress, anxiety and depression symptoms among the prospective medical students. A cross-sectional study was done on two cohorts of applicants to a public medical school. A total of 839 applicants were invited to participate in the study. The 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered to the applicants after they completed interviews. A total of 743 (92.2%) applicants took part in the study. The prevalence of moderate to extremely severe level of stress, anxiety and depression were 3.6%, 54.5% and 1.9%, respectively. Stress was significantly associated with extra-curricular activity (p<0.001) and race (p<0.001). Anxiety was associated with extra-curricular activity (p<0.001), race (p<0.001), mother education level (p=0.002) and CGPA group (p=0.034). Depression was associated with academic performance in class (p<0.001) and race (p=0.004). Prevalence of stress and depression among entering medical students was low; however prevalence of anxiety was high which could be due to worry about the interviews to enter medical course. The associated factors of psychological distress among prospective medical students were related to academic, non-academic, parent education and cultural backgrounds.
There is a strong association between depression and pain, which is influenced by various biological and psychological mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and severity of pain symptoms among patients with major depression; and to determine the correlation between pain with clinical variables, neurotic pathology and severity of depression.