METHODS: A prospective randomized comparative trial was conducted among patients with bilateral nasal blockage secondary to inferior turbinates hypertrophy. Patients were randomly assigned to MAT or CAT. An extraturbinal medial flap turbinoplasty was performed for both techniques. Symptom assessment was based on the visual analogue score for nasal obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhea, headache and hyposmia. Turbinate size, edema and secretions were assessed by nasoendoscopic examination. The assessments were done preoperatively, at 1st postoperative week, 2nd and 3rd postoperative months. Postoperative morbidity like pain, bleeding, crusting and synechiae were documented. The clinical outcomes of both techniques were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.
RESULTS: A total of 33 participants were recruited, 17 patients randomized for MAT and 16 patients for CAT. Nasal obstruction, discharge, sneezing, headache and hyposmia significantly reduced from 1st week until 3 months for both procedures. Similar significant reductions were seen for turbinate size, edema and secretions. However, there was no significant difference in symptoms and turbinate size reduction were seen between both groups at the first postoperative week, 2nd and 3rd postoperative months. There was significant longer operating time for CAT when compared to MAT (p = 0.001). The postoperative complications of bleeding, crusting and synechiae did not occur in both groups.
CONCLUSION: Both MAT and CAT were equally effective in improving nasal symptoms and achieving turbinate size reduction in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Both MAT and CAT offer maximal relieve in patients experiencing inferior turbinates hypertrophy by removing the hypertrophied soft tissue together with the turbinate bone without any complications.
METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective cross-sectional study of computed tomography (CT) scan of paranasal sinus that had been performed on patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia and Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah done from January 2009 until December 2016. The presence of frontal recess cells variation was compared with other populations.
RESULTS: A total of 312 sides from 156 patients' CT scan images were analyzed. Left and right sinuses were considered individually. A total of 63 sides showed evidence of frontal sinusitis, 37 were male and 26 were female, whereas 249 sides were clear from frontal sinus disease. It was not much difference in mean age for frontal sinusitis patient (46.51±14.00) and patients without frontal sinusitis (48.73±16.44). The percentage was almost equal for CRS and non-CRS groups regardless of side and gender. In our study, the frontal recess cell such as agger nasi cell was found in almost all patients 98.1%, frontal ethmoidal cell type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 comprised of 28.8%, 31.1%, 14.4% and 0% respectively. Whereas, suprabullar cell can be seen in 40.3%, supraorbital ethmoid cells 16.7%, frontal bullar cell 33.0% and inter-frontal sinus septal cells 10.8%. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of frontal bullar cell and the development of frontal sinusitis (p value<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The frontal recess cells variation in Malaysian subjects were almost similar to those reported in other Asian populations such as Japanese, Taiwanese, Chinese and Korean. Our study found that frontal bullar cells had a significant association with the development of frontal sinusitis than other frontal recess cells. The understanding of the frontal recess anatomical structures was very important as this would lead to a successful treatment of CRS and at the same time it helped the surgeon to have a better plan of endoscopic sinus surgery to prevent the disease recurrence and surgical complication.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 53 participants, 23 patients with BVFI after endolaryngeal laser posterior cordectomy and 30 healthy volunteers. All of them had body plethysmography (airway resistance, Raw), spirometry (ratio of forced expiratory flow at 50% to forced inspiratory flow at 50%, FEF50/FIF50 and peak inspiratory flow, PIF), 6 min-walking-test (6MWT) and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale measurements. The tests were repeated and reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Spearman correlation.
RESULTS: The reliability of Raw was high with ICC of 0.92, comparable to the spirometry measurements: FEF50/FIF50(ICC = 0.72) and PIF (ICC = 0.97). The mean of Raw was significantly higher in patient group. A strong significant correlation between Raw and MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.79; p<0.05) and a moderate negative correlation between Raw and 6MWT (r = 0.4; p<0.05) was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: Body plethysmography (Raw) is a reliable tool in objective measurement of upper airway resistance that reflects the patient's perception of breathlessness. A larger number of participants are necessary to confirm this finding.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which 77 patients (18 males, 59 females, mean age of 48) with unilateral VFP with an opposite normal mobile vocal fold underwent LEMG with a standardized protocol. Koufman gradings and MT and MA were used for the qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare the median of the turns and amplitudes between the opposite normal mobile vocal fold and the paralyzed side. A linear-scale graphical "cloud" of the normal TA-LCA muscle complex was generated using logarithmic regression analysis. The qualitative and quantitative parameters were analyzed using multiple analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis test. Post-hoc analysis was performed to further determine the differences of the significance between both parameters. The correlation between the qualitative and quantitative parameters was analyzed using Spearman correlation.
RESULTS: The MT and MA were significantly higher for the normal TA-LCA muscle complex than the paralyzed side (582 vs. 336; 412 vs. 296, respectively) and the median of the turns and amplitudes were significantly lower in the paralyzed side with p-values <0.001. A significant difference was observed between the Koufman grading and the combination of MT and MA [F (8,144) = 73.254] and between the Koufman grading and MT and MA individually [H (4, 72) = 18.3 and H (4, 72) =33.4], in which both had p-values <0.001. A moderate negative linear relationship was seen between the Koufman grading and MT and MA. On further analysis, it was revealed that only certain pairs of Koufman grading were statistical significant.
CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to present the quantitative normative values and "cloud" of the TA-LCA muscle complex using the opposite normal mobile vocal fold in patients with unilateral VFP in which it is comparable to healthy controls. We concluded that quantitative LEMG supports the qualitative Koufman grading method however it cannot be used independently to determine the severity of neuropathy.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period of one month (April 2022).
RESULTS: 16 articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. A total of patients was included, with a median age of 10.9 years. 11 studies diagnosed VM based on diagnostic criteria. Caloric test and electro/videonystagmography are the most favoured investigation used (50%). Imaging was performed in 56.2% of included studies.
CONCLUSION: Deciphering the ideal diagnostic approach for VM is prudent to ensure children and adolescents suffering from VM are treated earlier. VM can be diagnosed using the established diagnostic criteria, which requires thorough and meticulous history taking. The available oto-neurological examination aims to exclude other disorders as its significance in diagnosing VM is still debatable.