Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Hussein J, Tan TS, Chong AW, Narayanan P, Omar R
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2013 Jun;40(3):323-6.
    PMID: 22652485 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2012.05.004
    Choanal stenosis is a well recognized late complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However velopharyngeal stenosis post radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. We present here a case of bilateral choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis in a patient treated with radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 58-year-old woman presented to our otolaryngology clinic with a one year history of nasal obstruction. She was diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal carcinoma 12 years ago for which she received radiotherapy. Clinical examination revealed bilateral choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis. Treatment of choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging due to high incidence of recurrence and patients frequently require multiple procedures. The patient underwent a transnasal endoscopic excision of velopharyngeal scar tissue and widening of posterior choana using Surgitron®, mitomycin-C applied topically to the surgical wound and bilateral stenting under general anesthesia. The stents were kept for two weeks, and 3 years post operation velopharyngeal aperture and posterior choana remained patent. As illustrated in this case velopharyngeal stenosis can occur after radiotheraphy and should not be overlooked. Combine modality of transnasal endoscopic excision of velopharyngeal scar tissue, widening of choanal stenosis with Surgitron® followed by the application of mitomycin-C and stenting has been shown to be an effective option.
    Study site: ENT clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Alazzawi S, Omar R, Rahmat K, Alli K
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2012 Aug;39(4):393-6.
    PMID: 22055509 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2011.10.002
    To ascertain the prevalence of the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate height according to Keros classification in the Malaysian population, and to find if there is any difference between the major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian).
  3. Asha'ari ZA, Ahmad R, Rahman J, Yusof RA, Kamarudin N
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2012 Apr;39(2):151-5.
    PMID: 21592698 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2011.02.010
    To study the relationship pattern of intracranial hemorrhage in cases of traumatic petrous temporal bone fracture.
  4. Govindaraju R, Omar R, Rajagopalan R, Norlisah R, Kwan-Hoong N
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2011 Aug;38(4):519-22.
    PMID: 21236610 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2010.12.006
    The higher field strength magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) such as 3 Tesla (T) and above generates noise that has potential detrimental effects on the hearing. Temporary threshold shifts following MRI examination have been reported for MRI with lower field strength. Such effect, however, have not been reported so far for a 3T MRI. We report a case that exemplifies the possible detrimental effects of a 3 T MRI generated noise on the auditory system. Our patient underwent investigation of his chronic backache in a 3 T MRI unit and developed hearing loss and tinnitus post-MRI examination. Hearing assessment was done using pure tone audiogram, distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and brainstem electrical response audiometry (BERA) which revealed a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss which recovered within 3 days. However the tinnitus persisted. This is possibly a case of temporary threshold shift following noise exposure. However a sudden sensorineural hearing loss remains the other possibility.
  5. Ahmad R, Abdullah K, Amin Z, Rahman JA
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2010 Apr;37(2):185-9.
    PMID: 19720483 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2009.06.010
    To assess the safety of tonsillectomy procedure in local setting.
  6. Lee SC, Tang IP, Singh A, Kumar SS, Singh S
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2009 Dec;36(6):709-11.
    PMID: 19304419 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2009.02.002
    Choanal stenosis has recently been recognized as a late complication of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The management of velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging with high risk of restenosis. We report a case of velopharyngeal stenosis post-radiotherapy and illustrated the use of mitomycin-C to prevent restenosis. Mitomycin-C application has being shown useful adjunct to surgical technique in managing nasopharyngeal stenosis for surgeons.
  7. Tang IP, Singh S, Shoba N, Rahmat O, Shivalingam S, Gopala KG, et al.
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2009 Jun;36(3):380-2.
    PMID: 19019597 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2008.08.003
    Ingested foreign bodies are a fairly common otorhinolaryngological emergencies encountered in Malaysia. The vast majority of these foreign bodies are fish bones which most commonly are impacted at the level of the cricopharynx. Rarely, however, a foreign body may migrate extraluminally and may even extrude subcutaneously. We report a rare occurrence where a fish bone not only migrated extraluminally, it was found to have migrated into the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein and required surgical removal.
  8. Tan TY, Shashinder S, Subrayan V, Krishnan G
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2008 Jun;35(2):285-7.
    PMID: 18024042
    Silent sinus syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which patients present with spontaneous enophthalmos and hypoglobus secondary to collapse of orbital floor due to chronic subclinical maxillary sinusitis. It is postulated that obstruction of the osteomeatal complex lead to negative antrum pressure which causes the maxillary sinus atelectasis.
  9. Mazita A, Sani A
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2005 Dec;32(4):421-5.
    PMID: 16051456 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2005.05.002
    Laryngotracheal separation is a rare variant of laryngeal trauma. However it is life threatening and potentially fatal. Patients with this injury usually succumb at the site of the accident itself. Here we present two cases of laryngotracheal separation of different etiology and of different outcomes. The treatment advocated for laryngotracheal separation is initially airway stabilization followed by formal repair of the transected trachea. However both our cases illustrates that the outcomes can be different and that a long term treatment plan should be individualized to each patient.
  10. Sharma HS, Madhavan M, Othman NH, Muhamad M, Abdullah JM
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 1999 Oct;26(4):487-93.
    PMID: 10530746
    Nonchromaffin paragangliomas are unusual tumours arising from widely distributed paraganglionic tissues probably of neural crest origin. In the head and neck region they are usually seen as carotid body or jugulotympanic tumours. Other rarely reported sites in the head and neck region are the orbit, nose and larynx. This report deals with a case of sinonasal paraganglioma which was initially treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Twenty two years later the tumour recurred and showed a rapid growth due to malignant transformation which we believe is late effect of radiotherapy. The clinical features, histopathology and role of radiotherapy in sinonasal paragangliomas together with a review of the medical literature have been discussed.
  11. Sharma HS, Kurl DN, Hamzah M
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 1998 Dec;25(4):403-6.
    PMID: 9853664
    Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is relatively rare today. A study of 17 cases of RPA treated at our hospital in the past 10 years showed a shift in the disease from children below 6 years of age (41%) to older children and adults (58%). Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was found to be the commonest (52%) aetiological predisposing factor in all age groups. Other aetiological factors were septicaemia (11%) in children below the age of 6 years and trauma due to foreign body (35%) in the older children and adult age groups. Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the commonest species of microorganisms grown from pus. The changing clinical trends, microbiology, choice of antibiotics, usefulness of radiology, and complications of this potentially fatal illness are discussed.
  12. Sharma HS, Kurl DN, Kamal MZ
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 1998 May;25(2):187-91.
    PMID: 9673733
    Pharyngeal involvement in tuberculosis is rare and is usually secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We report a very rare case of chronic granulomatous pharyngitis, which later turned out to be due to primary tuberculosis of the pharynx. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and complications of this rare clinical entity are presented.
  13. Hong CX, Razuan NA, Alias A, Hassan FH, Nasseri Z
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2021 Aug;48(4):788-792.
    PMID: 32513602 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2020.05.007
    Zygomatic root abscess is a rare extracranial extratemporal complication of otitis media. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few scattered cases of zygomatic root abscesses reported in the literature. We present an unusual case of a zygomatic root abscess in a 24 years old adult. He presented with one month duration of right zygomatic swelling. Otoscopic examination revealed superior and posterior external auditory canal wall sagging with an intact tympanic membrane. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) temporal bone revealed a rim enhancing lesion lateral to the zygomatic process with fluid filled mastoid air cells. He was managed with antibiotics and staged surgical interventions. He recovered well. Our case serves to shed light on the pathways of infection, clinical manifestations and timely staged surgical intervention in this rare pathology.
  14. Singh S, Ramli RR, Wan Mohammad Z, Abdullah B
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2020 Aug;47(4):593-601.
    PMID: 32085929 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2020.02.003
    OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from persistent inferior turbinates hypertrophy refractory to medical treatments require surgical intervention where the main aim is symptomatic relief without any complications. Extraturbinoplasty is one of the preferred procedures for turbinate reduction due to its efficacy in freeing up nasal space by removing the obstructing soft tissue and bone while preserving the turbinate mucosa. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of microdebrider assisted turbinoplasty (MAT) and coblation assisted turbinoplasty (CAT) performed as an extraturbinoplasty procedure.

    METHODS: A prospective randomized comparative trial was conducted among patients with bilateral nasal blockage secondary to inferior turbinates hypertrophy. Patients were randomly assigned to MAT or CAT. An extraturbinal medial flap turbinoplasty was performed for both techniques. Symptom assessment was based on the visual analogue score for nasal obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhea, headache and hyposmia. Turbinate size, edema and secretions were assessed by nasoendoscopic examination. The assessments were done preoperatively, at 1st postoperative week, 2nd and 3rd postoperative months. Postoperative morbidity like pain, bleeding, crusting and synechiae were documented. The clinical outcomes of both techniques were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.

    RESULTS: A total of 33 participants were recruited, 17 patients randomized for MAT and 16 patients for CAT. Nasal obstruction, discharge, sneezing, headache and hyposmia significantly reduced from 1st week until 3 months for both procedures. Similar significant reductions were seen for turbinate size, edema and secretions. However, there was no significant difference in symptoms and turbinate size reduction were seen between both groups at the first postoperative week, 2nd and 3rd postoperative months. There was significant longer operating time for CAT when compared to MAT (p = 0.001). The postoperative complications of bleeding, crusting and synechiae did not occur in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Both MAT and CAT were equally effective in improving nasal symptoms and achieving turbinate size reduction in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Both MAT and CAT offer maximal relieve in patients experiencing inferior turbinates hypertrophy by removing the hypertrophied soft tissue together with the turbinate bone without any complications.

  15. Liew YT, Soo SS, Nathan AM, Manuel AM
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2017 Oct;44(5):635-638.
    PMID: 27793496 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2016.10.001
    Congenital bony nasal stenosis (CBNS) is a very rare but life-threatening cause of airway obstruction in neonates and infants. This review aims to assess the presentation and early airway management of 4 new cases of craniosynostosis with bilateral nasal cavity stenosis. Patients were treated with endoscopic endonasal widening of the nasal cavity and stenting. All patients were extubated well post-operatively with resolution of symptoms. They remained asymptomatic with stents in situ for at least 6 months with no complications reported. Minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal widening of the nasal cavity with stenting is an effective and safe way of addressing nasal cavity stenosis.
  16. Johari HH, Mohamad I, Sachlin IS, Aziz ME, Mey TY, Ramli RR
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2018 Dec;45(6):1183-1190.
    PMID: 29880289 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2018.04.010
    OBJECTIVE: This study was done to determine frontal recess anatomy cell variations and its association with frontal sinusitis. The incidence of frontal recess cells in the population, the presence of frontal recess cell variations in chronic rhinosinusitis and non-chronic rhinosinusitis and the association of frontal recess cell variation in the development of frontal sinusitis were also assessed.

    METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective cross-sectional study of computed tomography (CT) scan of paranasal sinus that had been performed on patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia and Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah done from January 2009 until December 2016. The presence of frontal recess cells variation was compared with other populations.

    RESULTS: A total of 312 sides from 156 patients' CT scan images were analyzed. Left and right sinuses were considered individually. A total of 63 sides showed evidence of frontal sinusitis, 37 were male and 26 were female, whereas 249 sides were clear from frontal sinus disease. It was not much difference in mean age for frontal sinusitis patient (46.51±14.00) and patients without frontal sinusitis (48.73±16.44). The percentage was almost equal for CRS and non-CRS groups regardless of side and gender. In our study, the frontal recess cell such as agger nasi cell was found in almost all patients 98.1%, frontal ethmoidal cell type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 comprised of 28.8%, 31.1%, 14.4% and 0% respectively. Whereas, suprabullar cell can be seen in 40.3%, supraorbital ethmoid cells 16.7%, frontal bullar cell 33.0% and inter-frontal sinus septal cells 10.8%. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of frontal bullar cell and the development of frontal sinusitis (p value<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The frontal recess cells variation in Malaysian subjects were almost similar to those reported in other Asian populations such as Japanese, Taiwanese, Chinese and Korean. Our study found that frontal bullar cells had a significant association with the development of frontal sinusitis than other frontal recess cells. The understanding of the frontal recess anatomical structures was very important as this would lead to a successful treatment of CRS and at the same time it helped the surgeon to have a better plan of endoscopic sinus surgery to prevent the disease recurrence and surgical complication.

  17. Lorna Ting KN, Liew YT, Abu Bakar Z, Narayanan P
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2019 Jun;46(3):469-473.
    PMID: 30049634 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2018.07.002
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a neoplasm commonly found in population of South East Asia. The mainstay of treatment is high dose irradiation. Complications from radiotherapy are not uncommon especially to those nearby structures such as vertebrae and spinal cord. A 57 year-old gentleman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who was treated with chemo-radiation (total of 35 fractions,70Gy) presented to us 6 months post therapy with bilateral nasal discharge and progressive neck stiffness. Nasoendoscopy showed inflamed nasophayngeal mucosa and Computed Tomography (CT) brain and cervical spine showed retropharyngeal and anterior epidural collection with extension into atlantoaxial bone and spinal cord compression. Histopathological specimen revealed features of chronic inflammations with multiple actinomycetes colonies. Our patient suffered severe neck stiffness and loss of sensations on both upper limbs. He was treated conservatively with Halo vest and intravenous antibiotics for 8 weeks and recovered fully. Irradiation in NPC is known to cause devastating complications to cervical spine such as osteoradionecrosis, osteomyelitis. It also renders tissues hypoxic and risk of getting rare infection like actinomycosis. This report can represent a great diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with differentials of tumor recurrence, osteoradionecrosis or osteomyelitis. Patients must be regularly followed up to look for possible cervical complications as a result from irradiation, to prevent devastating outcome or prognosis.
  18. Sairin ME, Mat Baki M, Manap RA, Puteh SEW, Azman M, Mohamed AS
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2020 Oct;47(5):842-848.
    PMID: 32273190 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2020.03.004
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the reliability of body plethysmography in comparison to spirometry in objectively measuring upper airway functions.

    METHODS: The study population consisted of 53 participants, 23 patients with BVFI after endolaryngeal laser posterior cordectomy and 30 healthy volunteers. All of them had body plethysmography (airway resistance, Raw), spirometry (ratio of forced expiratory flow at 50% to forced inspiratory flow at 50%, FEF50/FIF50 and peak inspiratory flow, PIF), 6 min-walking-test (6MWT) and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale measurements. The tests were repeated and reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Spearman correlation.

    RESULTS: The reliability of Raw was high with ICC of 0.92, comparable to the spirometry measurements: FEF50/FIF50(ICC = 0.72) and PIF (ICC = 0.97). The mean of Raw was significantly higher in patient group. A strong significant correlation between Raw and MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.79; p<0.05) and a moderate negative correlation between Raw and 6MWT (r = 0.4; p<0.05) was demonstrated.

    CONCLUSION: Body plethysmography (Raw) is a reliable tool in objective measurement of upper airway resistance that reflects the patient's perception of breathlessness. A larger number of participants are necessary to confirm this finding.

  19. Chen IHK, Remli R, Azman M, Ubaidah MA, Mohamed AS, Baki MM
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2021 Dec;48(6):1140-1149.
    PMID: 33896673 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2021.03.028
    OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is used to confirm neuropathy; traditionally, it is evaluated qualitatively. This study aimed to develop normative values for the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid (TA-LCA) muscle complex by determining the mean turns (MT) and mean amplitudes (MA) using the opposite normal mobile vocal fold in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP). This study also compared the MT and MA of the paralyzed vocal fold with that of the normal side and analyzed their correlations.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which 77 patients (18 males, 59 females, mean age of 48) with unilateral VFP with an opposite normal mobile vocal fold underwent LEMG with a standardized protocol. Koufman gradings and MT and MA were used for the qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare the median of the turns and amplitudes between the opposite normal mobile vocal fold and the paralyzed side. A linear-scale graphical "cloud" of the normal TA-LCA muscle complex was generated using logarithmic regression analysis. The qualitative and quantitative parameters were analyzed using multiple analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis test. Post-hoc analysis was performed to further determine the differences of the significance between both parameters. The correlation between the qualitative and quantitative parameters was analyzed using Spearman correlation.

    RESULTS: The MT and MA were significantly higher for the normal TA-LCA muscle complex than the paralyzed side (582 vs. 336; 412 vs. 296, respectively) and the median of the turns and amplitudes were significantly lower in the paralyzed side with p-values <0.001. A significant difference was observed between the Koufman grading and the combination of MT and MA [F (8,144) = 73.254] and between the Koufman grading and MT and MA individually [H (4, 72) = 18.3 and H (4, 72) =33.4], in which both had p-values <0.001. A moderate negative linear relationship was seen between the Koufman grading and MT and MA. On further analysis, it was revealed that only certain pairs of Koufman grading were statistical significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to present the quantitative normative values and "cloud" of the TA-LCA muscle complex using the opposite normal mobile vocal fold in patients with unilateral VFP in which it is comparable to healthy controls. We concluded that quantitative LEMG supports the qualitative Koufman grading method however it cannot be used independently to determine the severity of neuropathy.

  20. Saniasiaya J, Salim R
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2023 Apr;50(2):218-227.
    PMID: 35843849 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2022.06.007
    OBJECTIVE: Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo afflicts 1% of the general population. The complexity of VM is owing to the migrainous, and vestibular components and much knowledge have been gained in recent years on VM in the adult population. Akin to that, numerous studies focusing on VM in children and adolescent has emerged. We reviewed the literature to understand the characteristics and diagnostic approach of VM in children and adolescents.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period of one month (April 2022).

    RESULTS: 16 articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. A total of patients was included, with a median age of 10.9 years. 11 studies diagnosed VM based on diagnostic criteria. Caloric test and electro/videonystagmography are the most favoured investigation used (50%). Imaging was performed in 56.2% of included studies.

    CONCLUSION: Deciphering the ideal diagnostic approach for VM is prudent to ensure children and adolescents suffering from VM are treated earlier. VM can be diagnosed using the established diagnostic criteria, which requires thorough and meticulous history taking. The available oto-neurological examination aims to exclude other disorders as its significance in diagnosing VM is still debatable.

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