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  1. Aketarawong N, Isasawin S, Thanaphum S
    BMC Genet, 2014;15:70.
    PMID: 24929425 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-15-70
    Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia.
  2. Mohamad Shah NS, Salahshourifar I, Sulong S, Wan Sulaiman WA, Halim AS
    BMC Genet, 2016 Feb 11;17:39.
    PMID: 26868259 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-016-0345-x
    BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide. It occurs as a result of genetic or environmental factors. This study investigates the genetic contribution to nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate through the analysis of family pedigrees. Candidate genes associated with the condition were identified from large extended families from the Malay population.

    RESULTS: A significant nonparametric linkage (NPL) score was detected in family 100. Other suggestive NPL and logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores were attained from families 50, 58, 99 and 100 under autosomal recessive mode. Heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score ≥ 1 was determined for all families, confirming genetic heterogeneity of the population and indicating that a proportion of families might be linked to each other. Several candidate genes in linkage intervals were determined; LPHN2 at 1p31, SATB2 at 2q33.1-q35, PVRL3 at 3q13.3, COL21A1 at 6p12.1, FOXP2 at 7q22.3-q33, FOXG1 and HECTD1 at 14q12 and TOX3 at 16q12.1.

    CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several novel and known candidate genes for nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate through genome-wide linkage analysis. Further analysis of the involvement of these genes in the condition will shed light on the disease mechanism. Comprehensive genetic testing of the candidate genes is warranted.

  3. Shamsudin NA, Swamy BP, Ratnam W, Sta Cruz MT, Raman A, Kumar A
    BMC Genet, 2016;17:30.
    PMID: 26818269 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-016-0334-0
    Three drought yield QTLs, qDTY 2.2, qDTY 3.1, and qDTY 12.1 with consistent effect on grain yield under reproductive stage drought stress were pyramided through marker assisted breeding with the objective of improving the grain yield of the elite Malaysian rice cultivar MR219 under reproductive stage drought stress. Foreground selection using QTL specific markers, recombinant selection using flanking markers, and background selection were performed. BC1F3-derived lines with different combinations of qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1, and qDTY 12.1 were evaluated under both reproductive stage drought stress and non-stress during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014 at IRRI.
  4. Zheng L, Wang S, Romans P, Zhao H, Luna C, Benedict MQ
    BMC Genet, 2003 Oct 24;4:16.
    PMID: 14577840
    Anopheles gambiae females are the world's most successful vectors of human malaria. However, a fraction of these mosquitoes is refractory to Plasmodium development. L3-5, a laboratory selected refractory strain, encapsulates transforming ookinetes/early oocysts of a wide variety of Plasmodium species. Previous studies on these mosquitoes showed that one major (Pen1) and two minor (Pen2, Pen3) autosomal dominant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) control the melanotic encapsulation response against P. cynomolgi B, a simian malaria originating in Malaysia.
  5. Ithnin M, Teh CK, Ratnam W
    BMC Genet, 2017 04 19;18(1):37.
    PMID: 28420332 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0505-7
    BACKGROUND: The Elaeis oleifera genetic materials were assembled from its center of diversity in South and Central America. These materials are currently being preserved in Malaysia as ex situ living collections. Maintaining such collections is expensive and requires sizable land. Information on the genetic diversity of these collections can help achieve efficient conservation via maintenance of core collection. For this purpose, we have applied fourteen unlinked microsatellite markers to evaluate 532 E. oleifera palms representing 19 populations distributed across Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia.

    RESULTS: In general, the genetic diversity decreased from Costa Rica towards the north (Honduras) and south-east (Colombia). Principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed a single cluster indicating low divergence among palms. The phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis revealed clusters based on country of origin, indicating considerable gene flow among populations within countries. Based on the values of the genetic diversity parameters, some genetically diverse populations could be identified. Further, a total of 34 individual palms that collectively captured maximum allelic diversity with reduced redundancy were also identified. High pairwise genetic differentiation (Fst > 0.250) among populations was evident, particularly between the Colombian populations and those from Honduras, Panama and Costa Rica. Crossing selected palms from highly differentiated populations could generate off-springs that retain more genetic diversity.

    CONCLUSION: The results attained are useful for selecting palms and populations for core collection. The selected materials can also be included into crossing scheme to generate offsprings that capture greater genetic diversity for selection gain in the future.

  6. de Verdal H, Vandeputte M, Mekkawy W, Chatain B, Benzie JAH
    BMC Genet, 2018 11 16;19(1):105.
    PMID: 30445908 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-018-0691-y
    BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency in fish is crucial at the economic, social and environmental levels with respect to developing a more sustainable aquaculture. The important contribution of genetic improvement to achieve this goal has been hampered by the lack of accurate basic information on the genetic parameters of feed efficiency in fish. We used video assessment of feed intake on individual fish reared in groups to estimate the genetic parameters of six growth traits, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake in 40 pedigreed families of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Feed intake and growth were measured on juvenile fish (22.4 g mean body weight) during 13 consecutive meals, representing 7 days of measurements. We used these data to estimate the FCR response to different selection criteria to assess the potential of genetics as a means of increasing FCR in tilapia.

    RESULTS: Our results demonstrate genetic control for FCR in tilapia, with a heritability estimate of 0.32 ± 0.11. Response to selection estimates showed FCR could be efficiently improved by selective breeding. Due to low genetic correlations, selection for growth traits would not improve FCR. However, weight loss at fasting has a high genetic correlation with FCR (0.80 ± 0.25) and a moderate heritability (0.23), and could be an easy to measure and efficient criterion to improve FCR by selective breeding in tilapia.

    CONCLUSION: At this age, FCR is genetically determined in Nile tilapia. A selective breeding program could be possible and could help enabling the development of a more sustainable aquaculture production.

  7. Pipatchartlearnwong K, Swatdipong A, Vuttipongchaikij S, Apisitwanich S
    BMC Genet, 2017 10 12;18(1):88.
    PMID: 29025415 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0554-y
    BACKGROUND: Borassus flabellifer or Asian Palmyra palm is an important crop for local economies in the South and Southeast Asia for its fruit and palm sugar production. Archeological and historical evidence indicated the presence of this species in Southeast Asia dating back at least 1500 years. B. flabellifer is believed to be originated in Africa, spread to South Asia and introduced into Southeast Asia through commercial routes and dissemination of cultures, however, the nature of its invasion and settlement in Thailand is unclear.

    RESULTS: Here, we analyzed genetic data of 230 B. flabellifer accessions across Thailand using 17 EST-SSR and 12 gSSR polymorphic markers. Clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of two genetic clusters (STRUCTURE K = 2). Cluster I is found mainly in southern Thailand, while Cluster II is found mainly in the northeastern. Those found in the central are of an extensive mix between the two. These two clusters are in moderate differentiation (F ST = 0.066 and N M = 3.532) and have low genetic diversity (HO = 0.371 and 0.416; AR = 2.99 and 3.19, for the cluster I and II respectively). The minimum numbers of founders for each genetic group varies from 3 to 4 individuals, based on simulation using different allele frequency assumptions. These numbers coincide with that B. flabellifer is dioecious, and a number of seeds had to be simultaneously introduced for obtaining both male and female founders.

    CONCLUSIONS: From these data and geographical and historical evidence, we hypothesize that there were at least two different invasive events of B. flabellifer in Thailand. B. flabellifer was likely brought through the Straits of Malacca to be propagated in the southern Thailand as one of the invasive events before spreading to the central Thailand. The second event likely occurred in Khmer Empire, currently Cambodia, before spreading to the northeastern Thailand.

  8. Kwong QB, Teh CK, Ong AL, Chew FT, Mayes S, Kulaveerasingam H, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2017 Dec 11;18(1):107.
    PMID: 29228905 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0576-5
    BACKGROUND: Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits.

    RESULTS: The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods.

    CONCLUSION: Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly outperformed other methods, but required parameters optimization for GS implementation.

  9. Taslima K, Wehner S, Taggart JB, de Verdal H, Benzie JAH, Bekaert M, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2020 04 29;21(1):49.
    PMID: 32349678 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-020-00853-3
    BACKGROUND: Tilapias (Family Cichlidae) are the second most important group of aquaculture species in the world. They have been the subject of much research on sex determination due to problems caused by early maturation in culture and their complex sex-determining systems. Different sex-determining loci (linkage group 1, 20 and 23) have been detected in various tilapia stocks. The 'genetically improved farmed tilapia' (GIFT) stock, founded from multiple Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations, with some likely to have been introgressed with O. mossambicus, is a key resource for tilapia aquaculture. The sex-determining mechanism in the GIFT stock was unknown, but potentially complicated due to its multiple origins.

    RESULTS: A bulk segregant analysis (BSA) version of double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (BSA-ddRADseq) was developed and used to detect and position sex-linked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 19 families from the GIFT strain breeding nucleus and two Stirling families as controls (a single XY locus had been previously mapped to LG1 in the latter). About 1500 SNPs per family were detected across the genome. Phenotypic sex in Stirling families showed strong association with LG1, whereas only SNPs located in LG23 showed clear association with sex in the majority of the GIFT families. No other genomic regions linked to sex determination were apparent. This region was validated using a series of LG23-specific DNA markers (five SNPs with highest association to sex from this study, the LG23 sex-associated microsatellite UNH898 and ARO172, and the recently isolated amhy marker for individual fish (n = 284).

    CONCLUSIONS: Perhaps surprisingly given its multiple origins, sex determination in the GIFT strain breeding nucleus was associated only with a locus in LG23. BSA-ddRADseq allowed cost-effective analysis of multiple families, strengthening this conclusion. This technique has potential to be applied to other complex traits. The sex-linked SNP markers identified will be useful for potential marker-assisted selection (MAS) to control sex-ratio in GIFT tilapia to suppress unwanted reproduction during growout.

  10. Menchaca A, Rossi NA, Froidevaux J, Dias-Freedman I, Caragiulo A, Wultsch C, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2019 12 27;20(1):100.
    PMID: 31881935 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-019-0801-5
    BACKGROUND: Connectivity among jaguar (Panthera onca) populations will ensure natural gene flow and the long-term survival of the species throughout its range. Jaguar conservation efforts have focused primarily on connecting suitable habitat in a broad-scale. Accelerated habitat reduction, human-wildlife conflict, limited funding, and the complexity of jaguar behaviour have proven challenging to maintain connectivity between populations effectively. Here, we used non-invasive genetic sampling and individual-based conservation genetic analyses to assess genetic diversity and levels of genetic connectivity between individuals in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary and the Maya Forest Corridor. We used expert knowledge and scientific literature to develop models of landscape permeability based on circuit theory with fine-scale landscape features as ecosystem types, distance to human settlements and roads to predict the most probable jaguar movement across central Belize.

    RESULTS: We used 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to identify 50 individual jaguars. We detected high levels of genetic diversity across loci (HE = 0.61, HO = 0.55, and NA = 9.33). Using Bayesian clustering and multivariate models to assess gene flow and genetic structure, we identified one single group of jaguars (K = 1). We identified critical areas for jaguar movement that fall outside the boundaries of current protected areas in central Belize. We detected two main areas of high landscape permeability in a stretch of approximately 18 km between Sittee River Forest Reserve and Manatee Forest Reserve that may increase functional connectivity and facilitate jaguar dispersal from and to Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary. Our analysis provides important insights on fine-scale genetic and landscape connectivity of jaguars in central Belize, an area of conservation concern.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study demonstrate high levels of relatively recent gene flow for jaguars between two study sites in central Belize. Our landscape analysis detected corridors of expected jaguar movement between the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary and the Maya Forest Corridor. We highlight the importance of maintaining already established corridors and consolidating new areas that further promote jaguar movement across suitable habitat beyond the boundaries of currently protected areas. Continued conservation efforts within identified corridors will further maintain and increase genetic connectivity in central Belize.

  11. Jamaluddin J, Mohd Khair NK, Vinodamaney SD, Othman Z, Abubakar S
    BMC Genet, 2020 01 03;21(1):1.
    PMID: 31900126 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-019-0803-3
    BACKGROUND: C-C motif Chemokine Ligand 3 Like 1 (CCL3L1) is a multiallelic copy number variable, which plays a crucial role in immunoregulatory and hosts defense through the production of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α. Variable range of the CCL3L1 copies from 0 to 14 copies have been documented in several different populations. However, there is still lack of report on the range of CCL3L1 copy number exclusively among Malaysians who are a multi-ethnic population. Thus, this study aims to extensively examine the distribution of CCL3L1 copy number in the three major populations from Malaysia namely Malay, Chinese and Indian. A diploid copy number of CCL3L1 for 393 Malaysians (Malay = 178, Indian = 90, and Chinese = 125) was quantified using Paralogue Ratio Tests (PRTs) and then validated with microsatellites analysis.

    RESULTS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the CCL3L1 copy number that has been attempted among Malaysians and the Chinese ethnic group exhibits a diverse pattern of CCL3L1 distribution copy number from the Malay and Indian (p 

  12. Shaari N'AL, Jaoi-Edward M, Loo SS, Salisi MS, Yusoff R, Ab Ghani NI, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2019 03 25;20(1):37.
    PMID: 30909863 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-019-0741-0
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, the domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are classified into the swamp and the murrah buffaloes. Identification of these buffaloes is usually made via their phenotypic appearances. This study characterizes the subspecies of water buffaloes using karyotype, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Blood of 105 buffaloes, phenotypically identified as swamp, murrah and crossbred buffaloes were cultured, terminated and harvested using conventional karyotype protocol to determine the number of chromosomes. Then, the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA of 10 swamp, 6 crossbred and 4 murrah buffaloes which were identified earlier by karyotyping were used to construct a phylogenetic tree was constructed.

    RESULTS: Karyotypic analysis confirmed that all 93 animals phenotypically identified as swamp buffaloes with 48 chromosomes, all 7 as crossbreds with 49 chromosomes, and all 5 as murrah buffaloes with 50 chromosomes. The D-loop of mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that 10 haplotypes were observed with haplotype diversity of 0.8000 ± 0.089. Sequence characterization revealed 72 variables sites in which 67 were parsimony informative sites with sequence diversity of 0.01906. The swamp and murrah buffaloes clearly formed 2 different clades in the phylogenetic tree, indicating clear maternal divergence from each other. The crossbreds were grouped within the swamp buffalo clade, indicating the dominant maternal swamp buffalo gene in the crossbreds.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, the karyotyping could be used to differentiate the water buffaloes while genotypic analysis could be used to characterize the water buffaloes and their crossbreds.

  13. Tai KY, Wong K, Aghakhanian F, Parhar IS, Dhaliwal J, Ayub Q
    BMC Genet, 2020 03 14;21(1):31.
    PMID: 32171244 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-020-0835-8
    BACKGROUND: Publicly available genome data provides valuable information on the genetic variation patterns across different modern human populations. Neuropeptide genes are crucial to the nervous, immune, endocrine system, and physiological homeostasis as they play an essential role in communicating information in neuronal functions. It remains unclear how evolutionary forces, such as natural selection and random genetic drift, have affected neuropeptide genes among human populations. To date, there are over 100 known human neuropeptides from the over 1000 predicted peptides encoded in the genome. The purpose of this study is to analyze and explore the genetic variation in continental human populations across all known neuropeptide genes by examining highly differentiated SNPs between African and non-African populations.

    RESULTS: We identified a total of 644,225 SNPs in 131 neuropeptide genes in 6 worldwide population groups from a public database. Of these, 5163 SNPs that had ΔDAF |(African - non-African)| ≥ 0.20 were identified and fully annotated. A total of 20 outlier SNPs that included 19 missense SNPs with a moderate impact and one stop lost SNP with high impact, were identified in 16 neuropeptide genes. Our results indicate that an overall strong population differentiation was observed in the non-African populations that had a higher derived allele frequency for 15/20 of those SNPs. Highly differentiated SNPs in four genes were particularly striking: NPPA (rs5065) with high impact stop lost variant; CHGB (rs6085324, rs236150, rs236152, rs742710 and rs742711) with multiple moderate impact missense variants; IGF2 (rs10770125) and INS (rs3842753) with moderate impact missense variants that are in linkage disequilibrium. Phenotype and disease associations of these differentiated SNPs indicated their association with hypertension and diabetes and highlighted the pleiotropic effects of these neuropeptides and their role in maintaining physiological homeostasis in humans.

    CONCLUSIONS: We compiled a list of 131 human neuropeptide genes from multiple databases and literature survey. We detect significant population differentiation in the derived allele frequencies of variants in several neuropeptide genes in African and non-African populations. The results highlights SNPs in these genes that may also contribute to population disparities in prevalence of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.

  14. Brunke J, Russo IM, Orozco-terWengel P, Zimmermann E, Bruford MW, Goossens B, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2020 04 17;21(1):43.
    PMID: 32303177 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-020-00849-z
    BACKGROUND: Constraints in migratory capabilities, such as the disruption of gene flow and genetic connectivity caused by habitat fragmentation, are known to affect genetic diversity and the long-term persistence of populations. Although negative population trends due to ongoing forest loss are widespread, the consequence of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic structure has rarely been investigated in Bornean small mammals. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers to assess genetic diversity, gene flow and the genetic structure in the Bornean tree shrew, Tupaia longipes, that inhabits forest fragments of the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. Furthermore, we used these markers to assess dispersal regimes in male and female T. longipes.

    RESULTS: In addition to the Kinabatangan River, a known barrier for dispersal in tree shrews, the heterogeneous landscape along the riverbanks affected the genetic structure in this species. Specifically, while in larger connected forest fragments along the northern riverbank genetic connectivity was relatively undisturbed, patterns of genetic differentiation and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes in a local scale indicated reduced migration on the strongly fragmented southern riverside. Especially, oil palm plantations seem to negatively affect dispersal in T. longipes. Clear sex-biased dispersal was not detected based on relatedness, assignment tests, and haplotype diversity.

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed the importance of landscape connectivity to maintain migration and gene flow between fragmented populations, and to ensure the long-term persistence of species in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes.

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