RESULTS: A significant nonparametric linkage (NPL) score was detected in family 100. Other suggestive NPL and logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores were attained from families 50, 58, 99 and 100 under autosomal recessive mode. Heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score ≥ 1 was determined for all families, confirming genetic heterogeneity of the population and indicating that a proportion of families might be linked to each other. Several candidate genes in linkage intervals were determined; LPHN2 at 1p31, SATB2 at 2q33.1-q35, PVRL3 at 3q13.3, COL21A1 at 6p12.1, FOXP2 at 7q22.3-q33, FOXG1 and HECTD1 at 14q12 and TOX3 at 16q12.1.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several novel and known candidate genes for nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate through genome-wide linkage analysis. Further analysis of the involvement of these genes in the condition will shed light on the disease mechanism. Comprehensive genetic testing of the candidate genes is warranted.
RESULTS: A bulk segregant analysis (BSA) version of double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (BSA-ddRADseq) was developed and used to detect and position sex-linked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 19 families from the GIFT strain breeding nucleus and two Stirling families as controls (a single XY locus had been previously mapped to LG1 in the latter). About 1500 SNPs per family were detected across the genome. Phenotypic sex in Stirling families showed strong association with LG1, whereas only SNPs located in LG23 showed clear association with sex in the majority of the GIFT families. No other genomic regions linked to sex determination were apparent. This region was validated using a series of LG23-specific DNA markers (five SNPs with highest association to sex from this study, the LG23 sex-associated microsatellite UNH898 and ARO172, and the recently isolated amhy marker for individual fish (n = 284).
CONCLUSIONS: Perhaps surprisingly given its multiple origins, sex determination in the GIFT strain breeding nucleus was associated only with a locus in LG23. BSA-ddRADseq allowed cost-effective analysis of multiple families, strengthening this conclusion. This technique has potential to be applied to other complex traits. The sex-linked SNP markers identified will be useful for potential marker-assisted selection (MAS) to control sex-ratio in GIFT tilapia to suppress unwanted reproduction during growout.
RESULTS: In general, the genetic diversity decreased from Costa Rica towards the north (Honduras) and south-east (Colombia). Principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed a single cluster indicating low divergence among palms. The phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis revealed clusters based on country of origin, indicating considerable gene flow among populations within countries. Based on the values of the genetic diversity parameters, some genetically diverse populations could be identified. Further, a total of 34 individual palms that collectively captured maximum allelic diversity with reduced redundancy were also identified. High pairwise genetic differentiation (Fst > 0.250) among populations was evident, particularly between the Colombian populations and those from Honduras, Panama and Costa Rica. Crossing selected palms from highly differentiated populations could generate off-springs that retain more genetic diversity.
CONCLUSION: The results attained are useful for selecting palms and populations for core collection. The selected materials can also be included into crossing scheme to generate offsprings that capture greater genetic diversity for selection gain in the future.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrate genetic control for FCR in tilapia, with a heritability estimate of 0.32 ± 0.11. Response to selection estimates showed FCR could be efficiently improved by selective breeding. Due to low genetic correlations, selection for growth traits would not improve FCR. However, weight loss at fasting has a high genetic correlation with FCR (0.80 ± 0.25) and a moderate heritability (0.23), and could be an easy to measure and efficient criterion to improve FCR by selective breeding in tilapia.
CONCLUSION: At this age, FCR is genetically determined in Nile tilapia. A selective breeding program could be possible and could help enabling the development of a more sustainable aquaculture production.
RESULTS: We used 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to identify 50 individual jaguars. We detected high levels of genetic diversity across loci (HE = 0.61, HO = 0.55, and NA = 9.33). Using Bayesian clustering and multivariate models to assess gene flow and genetic structure, we identified one single group of jaguars (K = 1). We identified critical areas for jaguar movement that fall outside the boundaries of current protected areas in central Belize. We detected two main areas of high landscape permeability in a stretch of approximately 18 km between Sittee River Forest Reserve and Manatee Forest Reserve that may increase functional connectivity and facilitate jaguar dispersal from and to Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary. Our analysis provides important insights on fine-scale genetic and landscape connectivity of jaguars in central Belize, an area of conservation concern.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study demonstrate high levels of relatively recent gene flow for jaguars between two study sites in central Belize. Our landscape analysis detected corridors of expected jaguar movement between the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary and the Maya Forest Corridor. We highlight the importance of maintaining already established corridors and consolidating new areas that further promote jaguar movement across suitable habitat beyond the boundaries of currently protected areas. Continued conservation efforts within identified corridors will further maintain and increase genetic connectivity in central Belize.
RESULTS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the CCL3L1 copy number that has been attempted among Malaysians and the Chinese ethnic group exhibits a diverse pattern of CCL3L1 distribution copy number from the Malay and Indian (p
RESULTS: Karyotypic analysis confirmed that all 93 animals phenotypically identified as swamp buffaloes with 48 chromosomes, all 7 as crossbreds with 49 chromosomes, and all 5 as murrah buffaloes with 50 chromosomes. The D-loop of mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that 10 haplotypes were observed with haplotype diversity of 0.8000 ± 0.089. Sequence characterization revealed 72 variables sites in which 67 were parsimony informative sites with sequence diversity of 0.01906. The swamp and murrah buffaloes clearly formed 2 different clades in the phylogenetic tree, indicating clear maternal divergence from each other. The crossbreds were grouped within the swamp buffalo clade, indicating the dominant maternal swamp buffalo gene in the crossbreds.
CONCLUSION: Thus, the karyotyping could be used to differentiate the water buffaloes while genotypic analysis could be used to characterize the water buffaloes and their crossbreds.
RESULTS: We identified a total of 644,225 SNPs in 131 neuropeptide genes in 6 worldwide population groups from a public database. Of these, 5163 SNPs that had ΔDAF |(African - non-African)| ≥ 0.20 were identified and fully annotated. A total of 20 outlier SNPs that included 19 missense SNPs with a moderate impact and one stop lost SNP with high impact, were identified in 16 neuropeptide genes. Our results indicate that an overall strong population differentiation was observed in the non-African populations that had a higher derived allele frequency for 15/20 of those SNPs. Highly differentiated SNPs in four genes were particularly striking: NPPA (rs5065) with high impact stop lost variant; CHGB (rs6085324, rs236150, rs236152, rs742710 and rs742711) with multiple moderate impact missense variants; IGF2 (rs10770125) and INS (rs3842753) with moderate impact missense variants that are in linkage disequilibrium. Phenotype and disease associations of these differentiated SNPs indicated their association with hypertension and diabetes and highlighted the pleiotropic effects of these neuropeptides and their role in maintaining physiological homeostasis in humans.
CONCLUSIONS: We compiled a list of 131 human neuropeptide genes from multiple databases and literature survey. We detect significant population differentiation in the derived allele frequencies of variants in several neuropeptide genes in African and non-African populations. The results highlights SNPs in these genes that may also contribute to population disparities in prevalence of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.
RESULTS: In addition to the Kinabatangan River, a known barrier for dispersal in tree shrews, the heterogeneous landscape along the riverbanks affected the genetic structure in this species. Specifically, while in larger connected forest fragments along the northern riverbank genetic connectivity was relatively undisturbed, patterns of genetic differentiation and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes in a local scale indicated reduced migration on the strongly fragmented southern riverside. Especially, oil palm plantations seem to negatively affect dispersal in T. longipes. Clear sex-biased dispersal was not detected based on relatedness, assignment tests, and haplotype diversity.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed the importance of landscape connectivity to maintain migration and gene flow between fragmented populations, and to ensure the long-term persistence of species in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes.
RESULTS: Here, we analyzed genetic data of 230 B. flabellifer accessions across Thailand using 17 EST-SSR and 12 gSSR polymorphic markers. Clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of two genetic clusters (STRUCTURE K = 2). Cluster I is found mainly in southern Thailand, while Cluster II is found mainly in the northeastern. Those found in the central are of an extensive mix between the two. These two clusters are in moderate differentiation (F ST = 0.066 and N M = 3.532) and have low genetic diversity (HO = 0.371 and 0.416; AR = 2.99 and 3.19, for the cluster I and II respectively). The minimum numbers of founders for each genetic group varies from 3 to 4 individuals, based on simulation using different allele frequency assumptions. These numbers coincide with that B. flabellifer is dioecious, and a number of seeds had to be simultaneously introduced for obtaining both male and female founders.
CONCLUSIONS: From these data and geographical and historical evidence, we hypothesize that there were at least two different invasive events of B. flabellifer in Thailand. B. flabellifer was likely brought through the Straits of Malacca to be propagated in the southern Thailand as one of the invasive events before spreading to the central Thailand. The second event likely occurred in Khmer Empire, currently Cambodia, before spreading to the northeastern Thailand.
RESULTS: The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods.
CONCLUSION: Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly outperformed other methods, but required parameters optimization for GS implementation.